Sunday, June 08, 2003

Chinese History Timeline and Personalities

1279 – 1368 Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty XIV30

1557 Portuguese establish Macao MC 78

1644 – 1912 Qing (Manchu) Dynasty. XIV30

The Manchus conquer the Mings and the Qing Dynasty begins. J97 The last Ming Emperor hanged himself from a tree on the eastern slope of Coal Hill. photo caption after J334.
War of the Spanish Succession begins—the last of Louis XIV's wars for domination of the continent. The Peace of Utrecht (1714) will end the conflict and mark the rise of the British Empire. Called Queen Anne's War in America, it ends with the British taking New Foundland, Arcadia, and Hudson's Bay Territory from France, and Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain.
Frederick II “the Great” crowned king of Prussia.

British defeat Scots. Stuart Pretender Bonnie Prince Charles defeated at Culloden Moor. The last battle fought on British soil.

Publication of the Encyclopédie begins in France.


Seven Years' War (French and Indian Wars in America) to 1763, in which Britain and Prussia defeat France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. France loses North American colonies; Spain cedes Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba.

In India, over 100 British prisoners die in “Black Hole of Calcutta.”

Beginning of British Empire in India as Robert Clive, British commander, defeats Nawab of Bengal at Plassey.

British capture Quebec from French.


Catherine II (“the Great”) becomes Czarina of Russia. Jean Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. Mozart tours Europe as six-year-old prodigy.

James Watt invents the steam engine. Britain imposes the Stamp Act on the American colonists.

Sir William Arkwright patents a spinning machine—an early step in the Industrial Revolution.

The Boston Massacre.
Joseph Priestley and Daniel Rutherford independently discover nitrogen. Partition of Poland—in 1772, 1793, and 1795, Austria, Prussia, and Russia divide Poland, end its independence.

The Boston Tea Party.

First Continental Congress drafts “Declaration of Rights and Grievances.”

The American Revolution begins with battle of Lexington and Concord. Second Continental Congress. Priestley discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

American Declaration of Independence. Gen. George Washington crosses the Delaware Christmas night. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations. Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Thomas Paine's Common Sense.

Capt. James Cook discovers Hawaii.

The first opium shipment arrives in China courtesy of the British East India Company. OW 12 Opium imports were not outlawed until 1917. OW 19
American Revolutionary War ends with Treaty of Paris.

The Constitution of the United States ratified.
In U.S., Washington elected president with all 69 votes of the Electoral College, takes oath of office in New York City. Vice President: John Adams. Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson. Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton.
July 14: French Revolution. Paris masses storm the Bastille, symbol of royal power. French Revolution begins when Third Estate (Commons) delegates swear not to disband until France has a constitution.

H.M.S. Bounty mutineers settle on Pitcairn Island. Aloisio Galvani experiments on electrical stimulation of the muscles.

Philadelphia temporary capital of U.S. as Congress votes to establish new capital on Potomac. U.S. population about 3,929,000, including 698,000 slaves.

U.S. Bill of Rights ratified.
War of the First Coalition—Austria, Prussia, Britain, Netherlands, and Spain fight to restore French nobility. Start of series of wars between France and European powers that will last, almost without interruption, for 23 years.
Legislative Assembly elected, Revolutionary Commune formed, and French Republic proclaimed.

Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed. “Reign of Terror” begins in France.

Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, spurring the growth of the cotton industry and helping to institutionalize slavery in the U.S. South.

Reign of Terror ends with execution of Robespierre.


Third French Constitution sets up Directory government.

White Lotus Rebellion begins and lasts till 1804

Napoléon Bonaparte, defeats Austrians.

John Adams elected U.S. president; Thomas Jefferson, vice president.

Napoleon extends French conquests to Rome and Egypt.
Napoleon abolishes the Directory, establishes the Consulate, becomes the First Consul of France. Rosetta Stone discovered in Egypt.


The Qing Emperor bans opium. OW 12


Britain outlaws the African slave trade. WEB296


War of 1812. An untrained American army of 4,500 flees Washington DC before a British force of 1,500. The British burn Washington before the American Army can be reassembled. ST44


Frederick Douglas born in slavery. WEB180


August: Nat Turner’s Slave Insurrection in Virginia. WEB 11


British Government terminates the East India Company’s trade monopoly in China. G 7, OW 22 Jardine’s is the major opium firm. OW 17


June 3: First OPIUM WAR begins. On June 3, Lin Tse-hsu publicly burns 20,000 chests of British opium in Guangdong, provoking the Opium War, which lasts until 1841. OW 13


The approach of the British fleet to Tianjin causes the Emperor to flee Beijing. OW 14


Treaty of Nanjing ends the First Opium War. Hong Kong is surrendered to Britain and five ports are opened. Duties on foreign goods are limited to 5%. OW 16


Hong Xiuquan’s first journey; preaching the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom from Guangzhou, west to eastern Guangxi, smashing temples and winning recruits among the poor. G 70


Communist Manifeto published. WEB297
January: First issue of Frederick Douglass’s North Star newspaper. WEB 181


February: Hong Xiuquan assembles the Heavenly Army in Guangxi Province. G 116


January 1: Superior Qing forces attack the Heavenly Army at Jintian, Guangxi, driving Hong to the Northeast. G 132
March: Hong announces the formation of the Heavenly Kingdom in Guangxi. G 134
March: Hong proclaims 1851 the First year of the new Heavenly Kingdom Calendar. G 134.
September 24: The Heavenly Army enters Yongan. G 139


May: Taiping siege of Guilin is abandoned and they head down the Yangzi River by means of the Ling Canal. G 156


Anti-Qing Nien Uprising in Hopei, Shandon, and Hunan, lasts for fifteen years. OW 46
March 19: Taiping’s breach the walls of Nanjing and capture the city in a few days, establishing The Heavenly Kingdom on Earth. G. 171
May: Hong sends an army of 70,000 to march on Beijing. G 210
September: Secret Societies seize all the Chinese areas of Shanghai. Qings flee or move into foreign concession. G 199
October: The Qing forces stop the Taiping advance on Beijing at Tianjin. G 211.


May: Qing commanders annihilate the Taipings at Tianjin by diverting the Grand Canal into their positions and drowning or incapacitating the Taipings. The survivors are all executed. G 211.


Hong allows married couples to cohabitate but employs new human torch executions, soaking victims in oil, for violations of the laws of heaven. G236


Hong Kong bakery plot to poison the Europeans. G 273


Second Opium War (1858–1860) begins


Darwin’s Origin of Species published. WEB295
October 17: John Brown seizes Harper’s Ferry. WEB13


August: Taiping army of 300,000 advances on Shanghai. The Colonial armies now back the Qings and fire on the Taipings with modern cannon, stopping the advance. G 279

September: Lord Elgin’s British Army captures Beijing; the Emperor flees. G 280


January 26: Freak thirty-inch snowfall and severe temperatures contribute to Taiping failure to capture Shanghai. Taipings abandon the attempt in early Spring. G 302

June: Retreating toward Nanjing, Taiping General Li Xiucheng is defeated by Zeng Guofan, outside Nanjing. The siege of Nanjing cannot now be broken by any Taiping field army, so the Taipings must lose the war. G 312
December: Suzhou falls to the Qings, who murder every resident and soldier. G 317


June 1: Hong Xiuquan dies in Nanjing. His son, Tiangui FU, age 14, replaces him. G 325
July 19: Qing General Zeng Guoquan breaches the Nanjing walls and storms into the city. Tiangui Fu flees. Captured and executed 11/18/64 G 331.


March 28: Paris Commune proclaimed. T 626


Anti-Qing Miao revolt in Kweichow lasts 18 years. OW 47


By 1875, there are 105,000 Chinese laborers in the Western USA. In California, they account for nearly one-quarter of of the able bodied male work force. F107


August 30: Felix Dzerzhinsky born in Poland. FD 10.


U.S. passes “Chinese Exclusion Act” barring Chinese immigration. Chinese in the U.S before passage of the Act were also barred from citizenship. But California had been barring citizenship since 1849. OW 35


The Qing’s lose Vietnam to France and north Burma to England, plus 10 more treaty ports to England. ST30


Britain establishes the “Nepal Protectorate” 55


February 3: Agnes Smedley born in Missouri. SM 4


December 26: Mao Zedong born in Hunan. MO 341


China loses the Sino-Japanese War, fought in Korea, and surrenders Taiwan to Japanese Occupation. OW 57
Sun Yatsen starts his first nationalist group, the Society for the Revival of China, in Honolulu, HI. H4


Japanese take Korea and Taiwan from China. ST30, XV 815 Taiwan is Japan’s first colony. F44 Russia takes Port Arthur from Japan in collusion with other powers who want to limit Japan’s gains. ST31


December 12: Birth of ZHU De. The last five infants born to his mother were drowned at birth because they could not feed them. GR9


November: Germany seizes Qingdao and takes 99-year lease on Shandong Peninsula. OW 6, H50n17


Reform Movement: The Qing Emperor issued numerous popular reforms at the behest of progressive scholars, but the Emperor was arrested in a palace coup. The reformers were cut in half at the waist. OW 70
March: Russia obtains a 25 year lease on the Liaotung peninsula (Port Arthur & Darien) XII 142
May: France wins a 99 year lease on a naval station in Guangdong. XII 142
June: Britain wins a 99 year lease on the “New Territories” above Hong Kong. XII 142
July: Britain wins a lease on Weihaiwei, Shandong, “for as long a period as Port Arthur shall remain in the occupation of Russia.” XII 142


Boxer Rebellion (Yi He Tuan Movement) begins among Shandong secret marshal arts society over outrage at missionaries. OW 75 Defeated in 1900 by a united army of the imperial powers with the assistance of the Qings. The Boxer slogan was “Support the Qing and exterminate the foreigners!” H39 The Boxers killed 200 missionaries and their families and 20,000 Chinese converts. The boxers entered Beijing and attacked the foreign legations. The Qing court backed the uprising to preserve its power. Imperialists armies landed at Tianjin, burned and destroyed everything on the way to Beijing and then looted Beijing when they arrived. ST33
The U.S. (John Hay, Secretary of State) announces the “Open Door” policy in China. OW 66
Marx and Marxism discussed for the first time in China in the Globe Magazine, by a British missionary. The article provokes the interest of several Chinese reformers. H13

The Empress Dowager orders the execution of all foreigners in retaliation against the missionaries. MC 142
Boxer Rebellion Defeated MO 341


Qings sign the “Boxer Protocols”, after the defeat of the uprising, and cede large territories to foreign troops. OW 85


The U.S. Congress estends the Chinese Exclusion Act indefinitely. F109
The entire American Army, at this time, consisted of only 50,000 soldiers and 3,000 officers. There were 31 infantry and 15 calvary regiments. A regiment was three battalions of 800, divided in four companies of 200. Privates were paid $13.00/month. ST17
Britain (Frances Younghusband) invades Tibet, massacring hundreds of Tibetan soldiers. OW 49, 94 This led to a “Convention” between the Indian (British) Government and Tibet, which has, since 1959, been cited by Tibetan Nationalists as proof of Tibet’s treaty making authority and, by implication, independence from China. OW 96 n.
Chinese bourgeoisie launched an effective boycott of American goods to protest the racist treatment of Chinese in the U.S. under the Chinese Exclusion Act, The boycott spread to 25 cities., ST34, OW 103
August 22: DENG Xiaoping born.


Russo-Japanese War (1904 – 1905) OW 94 fought in Manchuria. Russia lost. MO 341. Russia gave up South Manchurian Railway and its lease of the Liaotung peninsula (Port Arthur) to Japan. XII 143
Sun Yatsen establishes the Chinese Revolutionary League, with a comprehensive program to establish a bourgeois democratic state, with the main objective of overthrowing the Qing Dynasty. H5 This was done with Japanese encouragement, financed by Chinese capitalists overseas, and the group protected in the foreign concessions in Shanghai & HK . XII 3.
Boycott of American goods in China to protest the Chinese Exclusion Act. GR64, TR17
Qing’s abolish the Imperial Examination system. ST33


Britain imposes the 1904 Younghusband treaty on Tibet and demands the right to lay telegraph cables on Tibetan territory. OW 97
November 16-20: Second RSDLP Conference in Tammerfors. FD 247


Sun Yatsen launches the first of six failed uprisings to seize power from the Qings. ST36


Korean Nationalist assassinated M.D.W. Stevens, the American advisor on Korean affairs, in San Francisco. OW 99

Mao’s first (arranged) marriage S 639

Empress Dowager dies, the three-year old Puyi ascends the throne. TR19


Mao enters Tung Shan Primary School MO 341


Mao Enters Hsiang-Hsiang Middle School in Changsha. MO 341

October 10: Bourgeois Revolution. Military uprising in Wuhan defeats Qing’s infant Emperor Puyi. Imperial Garrison at Wuchang mutinied and seized the arsenal at Hanyang. When ordered into combat, the Qing Navy refused to fire on the rebels. Revolution won in 15 of China’s 18 provinces. T. 649
Smedley says the revolution was sparked by the railway concessions to foreigners that deprived Chinese capitalists of a stake in the new railroads. GR65

The warlords spheres of influence that followed the 1911 revolution corresponded to the foreign imperialist spheres of influence, so that the warlords represented various contending imperialist powers. TR 20
November: Yuan Shikai, fighting for the Qings, switches to the rebel side on the condition that Yuan is appointed premier of the new republic. The Qing’s accept this fait accompli. ST37
December: Republican National Assembly, meeting in Nanjing, elects Sun Yatsen President of China. The foreign powers agreed to recognize the Republic, and grant loans, provided that General Yuan Shikai replace Sun as president. Sun then resigned in favor of Yuan. GR99 Republican Natiopnal Elections are held for the frst time and continue through January 1912. XII223


January: 6th RSDLP Conference, Prague
Jannuary 1: Sun Yat-sen proclaims the Republic, in Nanjing. XII738
Smedley’s address in SF: 624 Octavia Street
February 1: Returning from abroad, Sun Yatsen is proclaimed the Provisional President of the Republic of China. OW 110.
February 12: Qing Emperor abdicates. XII 209
February 14: Sun Yatsen resigns in favor of the warlord Yuan Shikai OW 111
Mao leaves the Army, enrolls then drops out of school and studies at the Hunan Provincial Library for a year. MO 341
March 10: Republican Constitution proclaimed in Nanjing OW 112
March 12: Sun retires as president in favor of Yuan Shikai. ST41
August: Guomindang Party formed as parliamentary opposition to Yuan Shihkai OW 115, T 660, XII219
August 17: Tibet Independence announced to China by British Minister in Beijing. The British note concedes Chinese “suzerainty” but not “sovereignty” over Tibet. OW 118.


Simla Conference on TIBET (1913 – 1914) between Britain and Yuan Shi-kai’s new government. British establish Inner Tibet (for Britain) and Outer Tibet, still Chinese. Beijing refuses to sign treaty. OW 119.
July: Military uprising against Yuan, led by Sun Yatsen, (The “2nd Revolution”) is defeated. The Japanese Navy helped Sun and other leaders escape to Japan. XII236 KMT outlawed in China OW 120, XII234
March 20: Yuan Shikai assassinated Sung Chiao-jen in Shanghai. The KMT leader who was his main opponent. XII224 This event persuaded Sun Yat-sen that Yuan had to go. XII229
October 6: Arrests, executions and bribes induce the national Assembly to elect Yuan Shikai President of China. XII242
November 4: Yuan Shikai bans the KMT for its role in the Second Revolution. XII242

By 1914, 92 Chinese cities had been opened to forign trade. XII 33
March: Tibetan representative Lonchen Shatra, signed a British Map in Delhi, establishing the “McMahon Line” and an “independent” Tibet under British control. OW 119 Lasha and Beijing refuse to accept the agreement and Lasha continues to collect taxes in the purported British areas. OW 118
August 4: German SPD parliamentary faction votes for war credits, shattering the 2nd Internationale. P
August 14: World War I begins. OW 121
August: Japan, allied with allies, seizes German held Shandong OW 121. Japan also seizes the Marshall, Mariana and Caroline Islands in the Pacific, blocking US expansion. ST46


August: Yuan Shikai launches camplaign to be elected Emperor of a contitutional monarchy! XII248
September: Chen Duxiu founds the journal “Youth”, then “New Youth”, in Shanghai. MO 341, H9, XII396
Yuan Shi-kai agrees to Japan’s “21 Demands”, establishing Japanese colonial presence and penetration of Japanese advisors into all levels of Chinese Regime. OW 123
December 25: Zhu De joins the Yunnan Army Revolt, led by Tsai O, against Yuan Shikai. Many key units of the army defect to Yunan in opposition ot Yuan’s pretension to the throne. As his power fails, he loses Japanese and other vital foreign support. XII252


March 22: Yuan Shikai abandons his plan to be Emperor and agrees to rule as president . XII253
Spring: Mao and Cao Yu (Siao-yu) travel through Hunan as beggars. MO 341
June: Yuan Shi-kai dies in Beijing. XII 253, This begins the period of WARLORDISM in China. ST47


January: Cao Yuanpei becomes President of Beida and appoints Chen Duxiu Dean of the Liberal Arts College. Chen moves the editorial board of New Youth to Beijing. H10
April: USA enters WWI. ST43
April 3: Lenin arrives at the Finland Station in Petrograd. FD 71
June 13: Beijing’s first Parliament is dissolved in a ploy by a conservative general to restore the Qing Emperor. XII274
July 1: Warlord Chang Hsun, “the pigtailed general”, takes advantage of factional fighting in Beijing to march into the capital and declaree the restoration of the Qing Dynasty. This only lated two weeks, and Chang fled into the forign legation to escape. XII309
July 7: Provisional Government orders Lenin’s arrest. Lenin in hiding in Finland FD 75
August 17: China declares war on Germany and Japan. This cancelled the extraterritorial rights of these countries in China AND terminated their Boxere indemnity payments! The allies than gave China a five-year suspension of their Boxeer payments. XII267, 310
August 25: Kornilov Rebellion quelled in Petrograd FD 76
October 7: Lenin secretly returns to Petrograd. FD 77
October 10: Bolshevik CC votes 10-2 for insurrection. FD 77
October 25: Lenin announces victory of insurrection at 2nd Congress of Soviets Winter Palace stormed. FD 81


Li Dazhao appointed professor and chief Librarian at Beida. H14
First Labor Unions appear in China. TR33
January 18: German Army returns to the offensive against Soviets when peace talks bog down. FD 90.
Spring: Li Dazhao starts first ML study group in Beijing. MO 342
March 3: Bolsheviks sign new, harsher, peace terms with Germany, at Brest-Litvosk. FD 90
July 4: Foreign Affairs Commissar Chicherin declares that the USSR renounces all Czarist unequal treaties with China. TR60
September: Mao goes to Beijing to work in Beijing National University Library for Li Dachao. MO 342
September 5: Red Terror begins FD 99
November 6: Extraordinary Fifth All-Russia Congress of Soviets. FD 252
November: Naval Mutiny begins German Revolution. T 635
November 8: Bavarian Socialist Republic proclaimed. Y 635


March 2-6: 1st Comintern Congress. FD 252, MO 342 Delegates anticipated that the German Revolution was imminent and that the next Congress would be in Berlin. MO 17
March 18-23 8th Congress RCP(B) FD 252
April 30: The Versailles Conference formally grants Japan all the German concessions in Shandong. ST58
May 4th Student Movement in Beijing: Against territorial concessions to Japan at Versailles Conference—Shandong NE 55, TM13n16 At the Paris Peace Conference, the victors decided to honor the secret wartime agreements made between Japan, Great Britain, France and Italy, by which Japan would retain the entitlements of Germany in Shandong Province. This denial of Wilsonian principles, open diplomacy, and self-determination, touched of the Movement. On the afternoon of May 4, over 3,000 students rallied at Tiananmen Gate to denouce the treaty and the complicity of the Anfu Clique (controlling Beijing) that had agreed in a 1918 note to let Japan keep the Shandong territory. Hundreds of students were imprisoned. There were demonstrations in 200 other locales. Merchants in Shanghai closed their shops for a week and there were strikes in 40 factories. The Bijing government had to give in, and 1,150 students marched out of jail in triumph. XII407
May: Li Dazhao releases a special issue of New Youth devoted to Marxism. H19
June 5: In Shanghai, 70,000 workers begin a strike in sympathy with the May 4th students. Strikes follow in Beijing and other cities. H17
June 10: Beijing warlords forced to release arrested May 4th demonstrators. OW 133, H17
June 23: Beijing refuses to sign Versailles Treaty. OW 134
June 27: Thousand of Chinese in Paris demonstrate at the hospital where Lu Zhengxiang, the Chinese Versailles negotiator is staying, to demand that he not sign the treaty. The Chinese delegation did not attend the signing ceremony the next day. H17


March: The East journal announces that Soviet Russia has renounced all Czarist claims against Chinese territory, winning much support for USSR.. H20
April: With ICCI approval, the Vladivostok Dept of the RCP Far Eastern Bureau, sends Visinsky to China to make contact with the Chinese Marxists. He met with Li Dazhao in Beijing and then Chen Duxiu’s group in Shanghai. H24
April 25: Poland invades USSR FD 116, capture of Kiev on May 6 FD 138
May: Chen Duxiu establishes the “Society for the Study of Marxism” in Shanghai. H 25
July: Socialists in Shanghai meet to discuss establishing a Communist Party. H25
July 19-Aug 7: 2nd ICCI Congress in Petrograd and Moscow. Held as Red Army was approaching Warsaw. MO 17. Two stage revolution line purportedly established by Lenin’s Draft Theses on the National Colonial Question. OW 152, T 35, MO 342 for date. Two line issue discussed briefly at XII515.
August: Socialist Youth League founded in Shanghai T 657 Yu Xiusong as the Secretary. H33
August: Newly founded “Communist Group” publishes first journal—“The Laborer”. T 33 Members were Chen Duxiu (Secretary), Li Hanhun, Li Da, Chen Wangdao and Yu Xiusong. H25
September: “New Youth” becomes the organ of the Shanghai Communist Group. H26
October 12: Peace Treaty signed with Poland FD 148
November: Shanghai Communist Group publishes the “Manifesto of the Communist Party of China.” H25 CG begins publication of The Communist. T 33, “a semi-clandestine monthly” H27
November: First Red Trade Unison established: the Shanghai Machine-building Trade Union, with 370 initial members. H32

March 8-16: 10th Congress of RCP(B) New Economic Policy. FD 129
May 1: One thousand workers in Chanxindian (Shanghai?) march in China’s first May Day parade. H32
June 22-July 12: Third Comintern Congress. FD 254, MO 343
July 23-31: CCP First Party Congress (XIV660) in Shanghai, at No. 106 Wangzhi Road (now 76 Xingye Road). The Congress was under police surveillance, so the delegates fled to Lake Nanhu in Jiaxing County, Zhejiang Province. There were twelve delegates representing 53 party members: Li Da and Li Hanjun (Shanghai), Zhang Guotao and Liu Renjing (Beijing), Mao Zedong and He Shuheng (Changsha), Dong Biwu and Chen Tanqiu (Wuhan), Wang Jinmei and Deng Enming (Jinan), Chen Gongbo (Guangdong), Zhou Fohai (Japan), Bao Huiseng (at large) Chen Duxiu. There were two Comintern Representatives: Maring and Nicolsky. H34 Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohai were soon expelled. A Central Bureau of three was elected: Chen Duxiu (Secretary), Li Da (Propaganda) and Zhang Guotao (Organization). H36
October: CCP is established in Hunan with Mao as Secretary. MP 343
December: Maring establishes contact with Sun Yatsen. MO 343


China Recovers Qingdao. H50n17
January: CCP sends delegates to the ICCI Toilers of the East Conference in Moscow. H41
January 22: Hong Kong Seamen’s General Strike. Lasted for 15 days and won recognition for the Seaman’s Union. First victory of workers over imperialists. GR145, OW 145, MO 343, H45
February 6: GPU formed from Cheka. FD 150
March: 4th Comintern Congress: Chen Duxiu attended. T 38
March 27-April 2: Eleventh Congress of RCP(B) FD 255
Spring: Sun Yat-sen in Canton, allies with Chang Tso-lin in Manchuria in a war against the Beijing warlord government. Chang is defeated by Wu Pei-fu,. In Canton, Dr, Sun’s subordinate, Chen Chiung-mong, drove Sun from the presidential residence on the nite of June 15/16. Sun Yatsen then fled to Shanghai
May 1: First National Labor Congress, held secretly in Shanghai, called by the railway workers. GR145, TR65 Sun’s KMT revises the labor code to permit unions. TR65
May: CCP 2d Party Congress in Hangzhou. XII 516
June – August: Trial of SR terrorists in Moscow FD 154
July 16-23: CCP 2d Party Congress in Shanghai. XIV660 Twelve delegates representing 195 Party members of whom 21 were workers. H41 (The official Party History comments on the line of this Congress [two stages] are generally false but very interesting. It even suggests that the Party line was for a bourgeois democratic revolution, followed sometime later by proletarian revolution.) See H41-42 CCP issues Manifesto of the Second National Congress, T 34 Alliance with KMT. H55
August: Comintern Rep Maring arrives in Shanghai and meets with Sun Yatsen. Calls CCP CC meeting and instructs members to join KMT as individuals. All in attendance opposed this instruction but obeyed! T 37. MO 343
September 14: Anyuan Coal Strike led by Mao and Liu Shaoqi. H46
November 5--December 5: Fourth Comintern Congress. MO 343
December 30: USSR established FD 150


January: Comintern Executive Committee adopts “Resolution on the Relationship between the Communist Party of China and the Guomindang” based on Maring’s proposal at CCP 2nd Congress.
January 12: According to Pavel Miff, the first Comintern order for the CCP to coordinate activity with the KMT was issued on this day. RT59n
January 15: Troops loyal to Sun Yat-sen drive Chen Jiongming from Canton. XII528
January 26: Adolf Joffe negotiates with Sun Yatsen and signs “Joint Manifesto of Sun Yatsen and A. A. Joffe” saying socialism is premature, and that the KMT “is the central force … and should assume leadership.” T 39, MO 343 Sun-Joffe Joint Statement becomes basis of a new KMT-CCP-USSR “Three Way Alliance”. RS98, TR62
February 1: RR workers break through warlord army lines in Honan to hold a meeting establishing a single union for the British owned Beijing-Hangzhou line. After forming the Union, the workers immediately declared a general strike. The strike is broken by the Chinese army. The two Communist strike leaders refuse to capitulate and are shot (Lin Hsiang-chien) and tortured to death (Shih-yang) OW 149
February 4: Beijing-Hankou Railroad Workers Strike begin a 30,000 strong General Strike. H48
February 7: National army at Changhsintien fires on massed strikers, killing four, wounding many, and provoking nationwide outrage against government. OW 149 The strike is broken and the movement subsides. H48
February 21: Sun Yatsen returns in triumph to Canton after General Chen Jiongming is driven out. Sun returns to command the KMT army and navy. H55, XII528
April 17-25: 12th RCP(B) Congress. FD 256
June 10-20: CCP 3d Party Congress in Guangzhou XIV660, H56, MO 344, OW 152 Mao is elected to CC for the first time. T 41 CCP orders all party members to join KMT as individuals—this was the only cooperation form that Sun would permit. H56, T 44 “All work to the KMT!” TR63. Mao says this Congress was in May. RS 158 Sun Yatsen establishes the “Three Major Polices” for the KMT: Alliance with Soviet Russia, Alliance with the CCP, Support for the workers’ and peasants’ movement. OW 155
October 6: Mikhail Markovich Borodin arrives in Guangzhou to serve first as Sun Yatsen’s organization instructor and, later, political adviser. XII531 (date) H57, T 44
October 23: Through a skillful betrayal of his superior (Warlord Wu Pei-fu) the warlord Feng Yu-hsiang, the Christian General, manages to seize Beijing, turning it over to the pro-Japanese forces of Zhang Tso-lin for a huge bribe. Wu had allied himself with the KMT. XII315
November 15: OGPU established. FD 150
December: Mao goes to Guangzhou to attend KMT First Congress. MO 344


January 16-18: 13th RCP(B) Conference FD 257, T621
January 20-30: KMT First Congress, adopts Borodin’s Party system (Democratic Centralism) and platform system. MO 344 Approves admission of Communists. RS22 165 delegates, of whom 20+ were CCP, including Li Daxhao, Tan Pingshan, Lin Zuhan (Lin Boqu), Zhang Guotao and Qu Qiubai. H57 Sun Yatsen call for the slogan “Land to the tiller!” H58 The “Three Great Polices” are adopted: Alliance with Soviet Russia, cooperation with the CCP, and assistance to the workers and peasants. H58 The Congress adjourned for three days to mourn Lenin’s death! XII537
January 21: Lenin dies. FD 219 Borodin reorganized the KMT along a Leninist organizational basis on this day. TR64
February: Mao returns to Shanghai to work in CCP Orgburo and handle liaison with Shanghai KMT. MO 344
Spring: General Galen (Vasily Blucher H61) arrives in Canton to serve as KMT military advisor. He institutes the political commissar system in KMT. T45
May 1: 100,000 workers demonstrate in Shanghai. TR66
May 23-32: 13th RCP(B) Congress FD 258
May: With General Galen’s help, the KMT establishes the Whampoa Military Academy to train a new revolutionary army. T 45, MO 344, TR64 Sun Yatsen was the Chairman of the Academy; he appointed Chiang Kaisheck Chief of Staff. H61, Most of the instructors were graduates of Japanese military schools or the Paotin and Yunnan military academies. They were aided by a few Russian officers who were trained at the Frunze military academy. Funding was through Russian aid and local taxes. USSR sent General Pavlov in June, but drowned in combat a month later. His replacement, Vasilii K Blyukher, arrived in Ocotber 1924. XII540
June: Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with China. MO 344
June 7-July 8: 5th Comintern Congress. FD 225, MO 344 Brandler and Thalheimer scapegoated for failure of 1923 German insurrection. T638.
June 19: A Vietnamese revolutionary attempted to assassinate the govenor-general of Indo-China, while he was in the Canton foreign concession on Shamian Island. The authorities responded with a pass system for all Chinese workers on Shamian. The CCP organized an anti-imperialist strike in Canton and a blockade that lasted over a month. This was a victory for CCP efforts to unite Canton labor. XII541
July: Workers in Shamian foreign concession of Guangzhou stage a political strike against a new police regulation limiting Chinese access to the district. This strike helped revive the labor movement in China. H60
July: By July there was internal KMT opposition to the CCP fractions from both the left and right wings of the KMT. Borodin was worried. Chen Duxiu, Tsai Ho-sen, and Mao, advocated a break with the KMT. But Borodin and Voitinsky insisted on unity. XII545
July: KMT sets up the Peasant Movement Institiute, which Mao ran for time. H61
October: “Christian General” Feng Yu-shiang mutinies and drives warlord regime from Beijing. OW 158 Emperor flees to Japanese concession, in Tianjin, for protection. OW 159
October 15: Sun Yat-sen orders his forces to crush the “Merchants Militia” in Canton, which had been set up to protect their property from radicalism and social turmoil. In breaking the militian, Sun’s troops burned and looted the merchan districts of the city. This experience set many merchants against Sun. XII546
November: Returning from Europe, Zhou Enlai is appointed director of the Whampoa political department. H61
November 13: Sun Yat-sen, now dying of cancer, leaves for Beijing in hopes of becoming president. XII546


January 11-22: CCP 4th Party Congress in Shanghai. XIV660 Party had 994 members. H64
January: CCP Fourth Party Congress in Guangzhou! XII521
February: Sun’s Eastern Expedition, with 19 Soviet advisors, seizes control of Guangdong up to the eastern borders. But the troops must return to Canton when the Yunnan and Guangxi armies take control of the city in the army’s absence. XII546
February 7: 2nd Congress of National General Union of Railway Workers T 45
March 12: Sun Yatsen dies of liver cancer in Beijing. OW 159, MO 344, XII547
March 21-April 6: Fifth Plenum of ECCI meets in Moscow MO 344
May 1-7: Second National Labor Congress meets in Guangzhou T 48, MO 345 First Provincial Assembly of Peasant Associations meets in Guangzhou. TR69
May 15: A Japanese capitalist killed Gu Zhenghong, a Communist worker in his cotton mill. CCP meets to plan response. H66
May 28: CCP calls a large mass meeting to plan May 30 action. H66
May 30 Incident: Communist trade union demonstration in Shanghai demanding an end to British and Japanese extraterritoriality, and return of the Foreign Concession, is fired on by the British Settlement Police. RS 159, H65. The CCP operated out of Shanghai University. H66 Textile workers are shot down in front of the Laocha Police Station. 13 killed, dozens wounded. H66, T 49, XII548-9
June 1: Canton General Strike and boycott of British goods declared. Demontrations in 28 cities. XII549 This strike brought the KMT to power in Canton. T 625 Boycott of Hong Kong declared. MO 345 DMalreaux’s novel, The Conquerors, is based on this strike. P
June 11: 200,000 people rally in Shanghai under the slogans “Down With Imperialists!” and “Abolish the unequal treaties!” H67
June 12: KMT army returning from the “Eastern Expedition”, recapture Canton. The Yunnan and Guangxi commanders flee into the British Concession on Shamian Island. XII550
June 23: 2,000 armed pickets surrounded HK and Shamian Island. TR70-72 Led by Zhou Enlai, 2,000 cadets and instructors from Whampoa join the rally of 100,000 in Guangzhou. H67 The are fired on by British troops in position across the Pearl River in Shamian. 52 killed and about 172 wounded. H68, GR161, XII549 The massacre triggers the Hong Kong General Strike as the Shanghai May 30 Movement spreads to Hong Kong and Guangzhou, involving 250,000 strikers. 100,000 workers marched up to Guangzhou and stopped the shipping. The Guangzhou Revolutionary Government responds by breaking relations with Britain and blockading Guangzhou harbor. The Hong Kong Strike Committee blockades Hong Kong. The strike lasts 16 months. XII551, H68 Andre Malraux’s first novel, “The Conquerors” is about this strike.
July 1: KMT forms the National Government in Guangzhou, and appoints Borodin the “Senior Advisor.” H69 Revolutionary armies arrive from Hunan and Guangdong, joining the Guangdong units. They are reorganized in six armies of the National Revolutionary Army, with Chiang Kaisheck in command. H69-70, XII551
August: Mao works in the peasant school in Guangzhou. Then becomes secretary of KMT Propaganda Department and editor of Political Weekly, the KMT journal. MO 345
August 20: Liao Chung-kai, Sun’s stongest dupporte of an alliance with the USSR is assassinated by conservative KMT leaders. Chiang Kai-shek supported Borodin and used this crisis to win great power in Canton XII553
September 25: Anarchist bomb kills 12 at Moscow CC meeting. FD 109
September 30: With KMT support, the bourgeoisie and warlords closed down the Shanghai General Labor Union HQ. T 51
October: CCP membership increases to 3,000. H67
October 14: Heroic KMT First Corps, with Russian advisors, storms into Cheng Chiung-ming’s “impregnable” fortress and destroys the command. XII555 Beginning in October, Chiang Kai-shek launched a second “Eastern Expedition” that attacked and defeated the warlord coalition of Chen Chiun-ming that was threatening Canton. Chiang cuts off their retreat and destroys their armies. By January 1926, the Guangxi Clique decised it must join the KMT to avoid destruction. XII555-6
October: Chen Duxiu reacts to closing of Shanghai Laobr HQ and calls for CCP to leave KMT, his motion is defeated. T52
October: 2nd Congress of KMT in Canton. Leftist leader Chiang Kaisheck is elected to Central Executive Committee for the first time. T52
October: Mao ran the Propaganda Department of the KMT Central Executive Committee. (until 5/26) MT
October 26: Wuhan falls to the Northern Expedition. T 625
130,000 HK strikers join the Revolutionary Army in Guangzhou. OW 160
November: KMT “Western Hills” faction meets outside Beijing to plot attack on CCP. They later move their HQ to Shanghai and seize KMT party records in prparation for calling a Second KMT Congress they will control. But Chiang Kai-shek and the opposition succees in calling their Congress first—in Canton—on January 4, 1926! XII557 KMT “Western Hills Faction” meets outside Beijing and votes to expel leftists from the Party. MO 345
December: CCP membership increases to 10,000. H67
December: KMT Army liberates all of Guangdong Province.
December 18 -31: 14th RCP(B) Congress FD 260


January 1-19: Second KMT Congress. H74 (January 4-19 per XII557) The debates indicate a strong undercurrent of criticism of communist secret activities and anti-CCP feeling. The rivalry between the KMT and CCP is official set aside for resolution a a later meeting that never occurred. XII558
January: Mao’s “Analysis of Classes in Chinese Countryside” is published in “The Chinese Peasant.” MO 345
March 13: ECCI Resolution criticized CCP and demanded unity with KMT. XII568
March 18: Beijing troops fire on a KMT-CCP student demonstration demanding abrogation of the Boxer Protocols and all “unequal treaties.” 47 demonstrators were killed. The Beijing government issued arrest warrants for five KMT leaders, including, LI Dachao (CCP). Li hid in the Soviet Embassy. XII570.
March 20: “Zhongshan Warship Incident” On the pretext that the CCP was secretly moving the Zhongshan warship to Whampoa to kidnap him, Chiang Kaisheck’s declares martial law. XII573 CCP leaders put under house arrest. Guangzhou-Hong Kong pickets disarmed. H75 All Soviet advisers were put under house arrest. Jiang now rules Guangzhou. TR93 Borodin bargains with Chiang and makes big concessions: CCP will support the Northern Expedition, and new restrictions on Communists in CCP. XII574
March 22: KMT Executive, at Chiang’s command, adopts a resolution barring CCP from Whampoa Academy and from the First Army of the National Revolutionary Army. Chiang suddenly then released the prisoners and returned the guns he had captured, calling the incident “a mistake” and asking to be “severely punished!” H75 Mao wanted to attack at once with the great forces then under CCP control. But Chen Duxiu and N.V. Kubishev where overwhelmed and did nothing. H75
March 24: Nanjing falls to the KMT and is looted. British Consular officials and missionaries are killed. British and American gunboats shell the city, killing twelve. TR144
KMT joins the Comintern as a “sympathizing party” AFTER the coup. Trotsky votes against allowing the KMT in. T446
April: Mao Becomes head of KMT school for peasant agitators and holds this post until October. MO 345
April 4: The warlord government in Beijing breaks into the Soviet Embassy and captures a trove of documents from the military attache’s office that implicates the KMT and CCP in Soviet activities designed to wreck the Beijing government. XII560
April 15: Second Plenary of KMT Second CC meets. Jiang’s “Resolution on the Rectification of Party Affairs” stipulates that CCP members must not exceed 1/3 of the members of all KMT executive committees at higher levels, CCP barred from serving as directors of KMT executive departments. CCP must provide a list of all who are KMT members. H76 Chen Duxiu agrees to accept the purge, and CCP loses all influence in KMT leadership. H76
April 27 –29: 14th RCP(B) Conference. FD 259
April: Borodin returns from Moscow and instructs CCP to accept Chiang’s dictatorship and his “Resolution Adjusting Party Affairs” which requires that CCP members not criticize Sun’s “Three peoples Principles”, CCP cannot hold positions as head of KMT Departments in KMT CC, CCP cannot make up more than 1/3 of any local party committee, CCP must turn over party list to KMT.
May: Pilsudski’s fascist coup in Poland—supported by Polish CP! FD 225
May 15: KMT CEC passes a resolution barring Communists from office in KMT Central and Provincial headquarters. MO 345 CCP ordered to had over the membership list of all Communists in the KMT. XIIKMT members prohibited from joining CCP. Plans for the Northern Expedition approved. The Canton Government is now a military dictatorship. TR95-6 As a sop to the left, Eugene Chen, a leftist, is appointed foreign minister. XII575
June 4: Chen Duuiu’s open letter to Jiang Kaishi pledging loyalty and urging the continuation of the UF. TR100
July: Chen Duxiu called a party plenum to urge CCP to withdraw from KMT. Opposed by Qiu Quipai and Comintern Reps. This motion was defeated. T 54 and later criticized by Bukharin. T 55
June 5: KMT appoints Chiang Kai-sheck Commander in Chief of the army. XII581
July 9: KMT launches the Northern Expedition. H79, XII582 It left Guangzhou with 60,000 men but had 200,000 by the time it reached Wuhan. GR182 The system of co-opting potential enemy forces led to a tremendously bloated National Revolutionary Army of greatly diluted quality. XII583
July 12: Changsha falls to Northern Expedition. TR111
July 20: Dzerzhinsky dies of a heart attack. FD 234
July 27: Chinag leave Canton for the front with Galen and other Russian advisors. XII583.
July 29: Chiang Kaishek declares martial law in Canton, purportedly to support the Northern Expedition. TR105
August 11: Army arrives at Changsha. XII583
August 22: Revolutionary Army occupies Yuezhou, and then all of Hebei Province. H79 Great victories flow all over south China, and the Army moves north. H81
September 4: With the army away, and the anit-British boycott a year old, the British Navy conducts a brief action at Canton. The KMT fears that British action is imminent. XII595
September 6: Hangzhou fall to the Ironsides. TR112
October 10: Eugene Chen, acting foreign minister, orders the abandonment of the anti-British strike and boycott, TR108, XII595
November 5: Nanchang falls to KMT. TR112
November 29-December 6: Seventh Enlarged Plenum of ECCI meets in Moscow. MO 345
December 13: Chen Duxiu calls a special CC meeting on how to handle the crisis with the KMT. Chen warns against danger of left tendencies in the mass movement which was alarming the KMT. H 90 KMT government moves to Wuhan. TR125
December 26: Giant rally against British Imperialsm in Wuhan. XII599



January 1: KMT Government moves to Wuhan OW 167
January 5: Chinese crowds surge into the British concession in Hankow, which falls to KMT control. XII601
February: Mao writes “Report of an Investigation into the Peasant Movement in Hunan.” MO 345 This is officially portrayed as an attack on Chen Duxiu’s “right capitulationism” that led to the 1927 massacre. The idea is that peasants are the “vanguard of the revolution” (H92) and that the CCP should press for peasant seizures of power right now. So, Chen’s rightism is based on his capitulation to the KMT desire to stop the social revolution in the countryside. H92
February 17: First of three General Strikes organized by Zhou Enlai. The warlord Sun Chuanfang suppressed the first two stike, beheading many workers. GR188 Comintern delegation arrives in Canton: Earl Browder, Tom Mann, Jacques Doriot. Chiang pledges his support to them. TR109
February 28: Borodin’s wife is captured by Beijing warlords and imprisoned in the capital. She was captured when Beijing troops seized a Soviet ship traveling to Hankow. On July 12, charges against her were dropped, and she escaped Beijing posing as a nun. XII667
March: Against Trotsky’s lone dissenting vote, the ICCI Executive admits the KMT to the Comintern as a “sympathizing party.” TR117
March 10-17: KMT Third Plenum in Hangzhou. T 628
March 17: Three Comintern representatives wrote a report devastatingly critical of the CCP’s line and sociology, substituting moral for class categories, no TU department, passivity, etc. TR114
March 21: As the Northern Expeditionary Army approaches Shanghai, the Shanghai General Labor Union, under the guidance of Chen Duxiu, Zhou Enlai, Luo Yinong, and Zhao Shiyan, declares a General Strike and then an armed uprising. H92, XII616 In thirty hours of fighting the workers defeat the warlords in Shanghai and occupy all of Shanghai except the foreign concessions. H93 Bai Chongxi the KMT commander outside the city enters with the army after the fighting ends. H93
March 24: KMT troops liberate Nanjing. US and British gunboats fire on the city in retaliation. T625 The KMT troops join in the looting started by the fleeing warlord armies. GR189 The British, American and Japanese consulates are looted. XII617 On the pretext that foreigners were killed, US & British warships fire on Nanjing as KMT army occupies the city in order to intimidate Chiang Kaisheck, and may have hastened his decision to strike at the Communists. H93, OW 172 Northern Expedition forces enter Nanjing and loot foreigners homes, burn their property and kill six. Pearl Buck was a witness. ST103
March 26: Chiang held meetings with the foreign states in their Shanghai consulates, and apologized to Britain, the USA, France, Japan, and Italy, for the “Nanjing Incident.” He promised to disarm the Shanghai workers. He receives millions in financial backing from frightened Chinese capitalists H93
April: Chiang Kaishek exchanges portraits with Stalin. T 446, TR172
April 1: Comintern refuses to allow a split with KMT. H94
April 5: Chen Duxiu and Wang Jingwei release a declaration dismissing rumor that the KMT is about to expel the Communists, disarm the worker’s pickets, and crack down on the trade unions. H94 Chinag declares martial law. XII631 Stalin gives a speech defending the UF with KMT in answer to Trotsky’s criticisms. TR162,
April 6: Warlord forces invade the Soviet Embassy in Beijing, capturing compromising documents. The pretext is that the CCP was planning a Beijing insurrection on the site. 22 Russians, 36 KMT arrested. Seven truckoads of documents are removed. XII629-30 Nineteen CCP members are captured on the Premises. Li Dachao is captured and executed by strangulation. ST105 The next day, the Soviet Consulate in Tianjin is searche, and Shanghai Consulate surrounded. XII630
April 12: Murder of workers and Communists begins in Shanghai. Most executions done by criminal gangs. Assisted by French Concession police, (ST195) the Red Band and the Green Band rushed out of the foreign concessions in a surprise attack on the workers picket corps on duty there. H95 5,000 were killed. GR191, (TR175 is the best account) With advanced warning, the Concession gates were closed to prevent workers from escaping to Concession territory. XII635 Zhou Enlai was captured but allowed to escape because the KMT commander holding him was an old friend. GR191 Stalin purportedly arrested all the Chinese in Moscow when this happened. NE 84. Massacre was duplicated in Nanjing, Guangzhou, and the countryside. OW 173 Zhou Enlai estimated that 5,000 were killed in Shanghai. RS76 Between March 1927 and June 1928, 26,000 Communist were killed, out of a total of 60,000. Party membership was reduced to 10,000. H108 Locomotive firebox story is apochraphal XII636n185
April 18: Chiang Kaisheck abandons the KMT capital at Hangzhou and establishes a new Nationalist Government in Nanjing. ST105, OW 174. T 628, H95
April 27-May 6: CCP Fifth Party Congress, Held in Wuhan. XIV661 MN Roy attended. T 63, 627 This was the “Bolshevization” Congress tightening Stalin’s control over the Comintern apparatus. MO 23 Party had 58,000 members. H100 The Congress took the position that the bourgeoisie “as a whole” had betrayed the revolution. This is criticized as leading to left deviations later. H100 The congress characterized the “left Guomindang” as a petty bourgeoise formation that was still revolutionary. This right error led to the failure to prepare against the Party’s betrayal by the Left Guomindang. Chen Duxiu was reelected as General Secretary. H100 Chen Duxiu and Borodin pinned their hopes on continuing the Northern Expedition with Left Guomindang and Communist troops. H102
April 28: Li Dachao hanged in Beijing by Chang Tsolin. H96, MO 346
May 12: British police raid the Soviet Arcos trading company in London. Arcos is charged with espionage. Britain severed diplomatic relations with USSR on this pretext, which torpedoed the “Anglo-Russian Trade Union Unity Committee.” TR207
May 17: Counterrevolutionary coup in Hubei. T 67
May 18-20 (MO says 5/20-5/26) Eighth Plenum of ECCI in Moscow to discuss Chinese events. MO 346 T628 Trotsky and the Opposition bitterly attacked Bukharin and Stalin for China failure. XII656 See XII656n227 says North and Eudin’s book, M.N. Roy’s Mission to China, pp. 92-3 gives extended detair re the Mosocw debates on China.
May: The May Directive from the Comintern arrives in Wuhan. It urges the CCO to organize a new Communist Army of 70,000 and turn the peasant associations into organs of government to conduct land reform. Party history says this was correct and might have prevented Wuhan disaster! H103
May 21: Left Kuomintang General Xu Kexiang (H101) begins massacre of Communists in Changsha. T629. Bordin decides to curb Stalin’s social revolution line in hopes of preserving the Left KMT and using it to defeat Chiang Kai-shek. XII664
June 1: A famous telegram from Stalin arrives in China. He calls for the seizure of land by the masses from below. But this line now, would split the left KMT and destroy the CCP. The CC realized the order could not be realized. XII657
June 20: Feng Yuxiang, the KMT commander and Left Guomindang commander of the Wuhan troops held talks with Chiang Kaishek and then demanded that CCP members leave the army. H102
July13: CCP withdraws from Wuhan Government. Chen Duxiu resigns as General Secretary MO 346, T 73
July 15: Left KMT orders all CCP members to quit the CCP or face punishment. T 74
Mid July: Comintern orders the reorganization of the Central Committee. The new Provisonal Standing Committee is Zhang Guotao, Li Weihan, Zhou Enlai, Li Lisan and Zhang Tailei. H104
July 13: CCP issues a statement condemning the KMT and the National Government in Wuhan. H104
July 14: Soong Ching Ling (Sun’s widow) writes a statement condemning the KMT for violating Sun’s principles. H104
July 15: Wuhan Left KMT officially breaks relations with CCP. H105 Left KMT orders CCP members to quit the party or suffer severe consequences. TR269 Party history says this event marked the failure of the Great Revolution. H105 Chen Duxiu resigns from the center. XII516
July 27: With executions taking place in Wuhan, the Left KMT leaders gather at the train station to bid fairwell to Borodin! TR269 Boprondin is heading overland to Russia with some advisers and bodyguards, Eugene Chen’s two sons, and Anna Louise Strong! Borodin arrived in Moscow on October 6 XII671-2 Eugene Chen’s book, China Called Me, details this amazing trip., as does Stong’s book, China’s Millions. P
August 1: Red Army Day. Birth of Red Army credited to “victory” in Nanchang Uprising on this date, led by ZHOU Enlai. But soon had to withdraw south. OW 180 The CCP carried out the attack under Lominadze’s orders, in the name of the “Left KMT”, so the people thought it was a coup of the left against the right. After three days, KMT forces caused the CCP to flee. T 75 The official history says the retreat took place immediately after capture of the city because it was planned to unite the new armed forces with CCP peasants in the south and establish a base area in Guangdong. But the column was broken up by KMT attacks, and the survivors melted away into the local armed peasants. H111 Isaacs’ account is at TR280 The army started marching south on August 4th in blistering heat. There was no peasant support because the countryside was sparcely populated. Some units went over to the enemy. Some communists escaped to the coast and reached Hong Kong in small boats. By the time Zhu De’s shattered unit struggled into southern Hunan to meet Mao’s group in the spring of 1928, there were fewer than 600 soldiers left. XII675
August 7: CCP “August 7 Emergency Conference” purges Chen Duxiu and Tan Pingshan for UF disaster. But then orders a new left disaster—the Autumn Harvest Uprising. T 75 Qiu Qiupai becomes new CCP Secretary General. MO 346 (But OW says Li Lisan is new party leader. OW 182)
August 11: Galen leaves China. XII668
September 8-12: Autumn Harvest Uprising in Hunan: CCP was underground during period of white terror when the uprising was ordered. Mao opposed the plan because there was no CCP army units, only irregulars, and refugees from defeated units. It began with a train robbery on September 8, that captured money and a few arms. XII677 Only about 3000 cadres participated, capturing small towns. Defeated by KMT army in a few days. Mao was captured by landlord mlitia, but successfully fled and hid. XII680. Mao’s story is in Red Star Over China. Some retreated to Jingangshan with Mao. Most were dispersed and lost, thus breaking the CCP’s ties with the miners and peasants. T 76 The Politburo blamed Mao for the defeat. As punishment, and for not followoing orders that would have lead to a bigger defeat, Mao was dismissed from the Politburo. XII680
September 27: Trotsky and Vujovic expelled from ECCI. T 633
October 1: Qiu Qiubai and other leaders escape Wuhan and make it to Shanghai, where they re-establish the secred headquarters of the CCP. XII681
October 7: Mao reaches Maoping in Jinggangshang and establishes first revolutionary base area. H115
November 1: Powerful Peasant Association in Guangdong is ordered to create a “Soviet” in Haifeng and Lufeng counties. 200,000 to 300,000 peasants took part. Suppressed by KMT. Thousands were killed and the movement destroyed, T 77 Mao organizes a Soviet in Chaling and then moves into Jinggangshan Mountains. MO 347
November 10-15: CCP CC November Plenum removes Mao from the CC, the Hunan Provincial Committee AND the Front Committee. MO 347 Mao is removed as an alternate member of the Provisional Politburo. MO 81 This Plenum adopted an extreme left line calling for attacks on cities which would have destroyed Mao’s base in Jinggangshan. MO
November 15: Trotsky and Zinoviev expelled from AUCP. T 633
December 1: Chiang Kaishek marries Song Meiling. ST116, XII686n287
December 2: 15th Congress of AUCP. Until the left KMT expelled the Communists, Stalin consistently supported the CCP-KMT United Front “from above and within”. MO 118 Trotsky was expelled BEFORE the Congress opened. T 633 The Congress expelled all members of the United Opposition’ Trotsky, Zinoviev, and their followers. T634 Stalin suggested a coming “Third Period.” MO 119
December 11-14: Canton Insurrection. After defeats in Nanchang and Autumn Harvest Uprising, Stalin ordered Lominadze to prepare a new insurrection. Heinz Neuman was assigned to help. Model Army units and Red Guards participated, declaring a Soviet the first day. MO119 At 3:30am Red Guards captured police headquarters. Mot other police stations wee taken by noon. Looting and the execution of enemies, including 300 policeman shot. XII692-3 There was no working class support. The sailors on the river helped the Whites move across to attack the Reds. TR287 Three days later the insurrection was suppressed by the KMT which says it killed 5,700 revolutionaries. All of the Canton CCP Branch was wiped out. MO 119 Five Russians were captured and shot. XII694 Canton’s working class was demoralized by this hopeless act and thereafter lost confidence in the CCP. I visited Martyrs Park, containing the grave mound of the martyrs, in Guangzhou in April 2001. T 78 After the initial victory, on the first day, Ye Ting argued that the CCP forces should evacuate the city before Zhang Fakui’s vastly superior KMT army arrived. Heinz Neuman severely criticized Ye as a “waverer.” They stayed, fought and were defeated. ZHANG Tailei died in the battle. H117 900 buildings and 46 streets were burned out. 200 Cmmunists and 2000 Red Guards were killed. Only 100 deaths on the enemy side. KMT execution squads killed thousands more after the battle. XII695
Decenber 15: KMT raided the Soviet Consulate at Canton, captured and shot five Russians. TR291, OW 185
December: Soviet Embassy raided in Beijing and documents seized OW 185


January: South Hunan uprisings begin under Zhu De. MO 347
February 9-25: Ninth Plenum of ECCI in Moscow. T635 China discussion dominated by Stalin, Bukharin, Li Lisan and Hsiang Chungfa. MO 347 This meeting criticized the November Plenum for “leftist putchism.” Neumann and Lominadze arrived from China. The Canton Commune was condemned. Lominadze, Neumann, and the Chinese leaders blamed for it. MO 90 Stalin played a big role. MO 89 H121
April: Mao and Zhu De join forces in Jinggangshan establishing the “Fourth d Army of the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army”, CA 12, MO 347 Zhu’s forces increase the command from 2,000 to over 10,000 troops. H126 Party members were 25% of the army. H128
March: Ho Tingying arrives in Jinggangshan with the orders from the November Plenum. Mao is deposed. MO 84
May 8: Tsinan Incident inflames Chinese hatred against Japan. While marching on Beijing, the KMT army encounterd Japanese units in Tsinan, northwest of Qingdao. As the Japanese troops were leaving, skirmishes broke out between the two armies, depite the efforst of Generals Chinag and Fakuda to stop it. After a truce, the Japanese attacked and defeated the Chinese trops, killing thousands of soldiers and civilians. This event ended KMT efforts to wi a rapprochment with Japan. XII706
May 20: Maoping Conference in Jinggangshan. This was the meeting between Mao and Zhu De that created the Maoist line on revolution in China. MO 94
June: On Hainan Island, the KMT kills all be 130 of the CCP regiment resisting them. The survivors fled into the mountains where they were isolated for a decade. By 1939 they had recruited 300 guerillas to fight the Japanese. This history was the material for “The Red Detachment of Women.”
June: CCP CC (in Shanghai?) rehabilitates Mao. He does not learn of this until November. MO 81
June: A party representative from Hunan arrived in Jingangshan with orders for the Army to move to southern Hunan. Mao and Zhu opposed this, but many Hunanese soldiers insisted on moving. When the 29th Regiment prepared to move on their own, Mao and Zhu were compelled to lead them. The KMT forces were much stronger in Hunan and the soldiers of the 29th Regiment deserted and returned to their home villages. H131
June 1: Zhang Zolin agrees to withdraw his troops from Beijing and turn the city over to the KMT without a fight. He is killed the next day, returning to Manchuria, by bomb planted on his train by the Japanese, near Mukden. XII710
June 8: KMT Northern Expedition Troops enter Beijing and take power in the Capital. The Qing Emperor is living comfortably in a large mansion in the Japanese Concession. XII283, 317, 710
June 18-July 11: CCP Sixth Party Congress in Moscow. XIV661, T 639, CA 96, H121 Xiang Zhongfa, a Wuhan dockworker, “selected” by Comintern to be chairman of the Politburo and Party leader. Zhou Enlai assumed leadership of the OrgBuro and was the real leader. H122
July: Peng Dehuai’s 5th Independent KMT Division rebels in Hunan and joins Mao the Red Army with 700 new troops. The new troops form the Fifth Army in Hunan. The Fourth Red Army in joins Mao in Jingangshan in December 1928. H133
July 6: Victorious Chiang Kai-shek holds a ceremony at the coffin of Sun Yat-sen in the Western Hills outside Beijing. XII711
July 17-September 1: Sixth Comintern Congress. THIRD PERIOD LINE of imminent revolution is announced. T 635 Social Democrats are declared worse than the bourgeoisie. They are the very worst traitors to their class. MO 99 This Congress was evenly divided between “leftists” (Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Qiu Qiupai) who believed that the revolutionary tide in China was rising, and “rightists” (Zhang Guotao) who believed there had been a big setback after 1927. MO 101 Bukharin personally reprimanded all the leftists for Canton and Nanchang, and reprimanded Zhang for “opportunism.” MO 102
September: Mao conducts an extensive and intensive Party purge in Jinggangshan which create a secure underground apparatus and a reliable above ground party. MO 97
October 10: Offical founding of KMT Government in Nanjing. XII716
October 14: Second Maoping Conference MO 107
November 2: A messenger breaks through the KMT blockade with a June 4, 1928 letter from the CC saying that Mao has been rehabilitated and appointed head of the Front Committee. MO 106, 108
November 14: Mao holds the Sixth General Assembly of the Red Army in Jinggangshan. MO 108
December: Peng Dehuai breaks the KMT blockade and arrives in Jinggangshan. MO 347


Marxh: Third KMT Congress. XII811
May: Manchurian Warlord Chang Hsueh-liang ordered a police raid on the Soviet Consulate in Harbin. T 641
June: Second Plenum of CCP CC held in Shanghai. Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai and Hsiang Chungfa are the new leaders. MO 159, H145
June 27: Soviet Consulate in Harbin is raided by Chinese troops. MO 348
July 3: ECCI Tenth Plenum convened in Moscow. Bukharin removed as Chairman of ECCI. MO 125, 348
July 10: The Chinese Eastern Railway Incident. Jiang Kaishek’s troops seize the Chinese Eastern Railway in an anti-Soviet provocation. In 1896 the Qing’s concluded a secret pact with Russia. Russia built the Railway and operated it until 1924, when a new Sino-Soviet Agreement brought it under jpoint management. On July 10, the KMT abrogated the agreement and seized the railway by force. The USSR broke diplomatic relations with the KMT Government a week later. In October 1929, Jiang sent a force of 80,000 to attack across the Soviet border from Suifenhe in Heilonhjiang Province. The Chinese troops were defeated by the Red Army. H210,n20, T641
August 15: Fighting erupts between Soviet and Chinese troops.
October 26: CCP receives a Comintern Directive urging a “struggle against Right tendencies” in the Party, and demanding decisive action based on a supposed new “profound national crisis.” H148
November 15: Chen Duxiu and his followers are expelled from CCP. MO 348
November 16: Soviet troops and some CCP training units from USSR, cross into China and retake the CER. T641, MO 167 CCP CC adopts the slogan “Protect the Soviet Union!” Chen Duxiu opposes this line in a Open Letter to cadres and is expelled on November 15, 1929 as a Trotskyite. MO 167-168
KMT authorities in Nanjing accept return of CER to USSR in “Khabarivsk Protocol. T 641


January: Mao sends a letter to Lin Biao, “A Single Spark Can Start a Prairie Fire” MO 348
January 11: CCP adopts the Comintern view, from the October 26, 1929 Letter, calling for a new round of armed insurrections. H149
May: Pavel Mif and the 28 Bolsheviks arrive in Shanghai. MO 349
May: KMT armies and warlords fight each other on the Central Plains. H149
June 11: In June 1930, the CCP Politburo calls for attacks on large cities—this is the “Li Lisan line”. MO 349 The document adopted is “The New Revolutionary High Tide and Winning Victory First in One or More Provinces”, arguing that the sharp crisis in China will spark the world revolution. Li Lisan orders attacks on many cities. H149-150 Mao and Zhu attack Nanchang but turn back on August 2, 1930, when they can’t break the defenses. The CC in Shanghai orders a new attack a few days later, which lasts until September 13. When Mao and Zhu disobey orders to continue, the offensive is called off. Peng Dehaui took Changsha on July 29, but had to flee on August 3. GR277
June 19: Reorganization of Red Army is complete. Each soldier takes the Li Lisan oath of allegiance to the revolution. MO 349
July 27: Peng Dehuai’s Third Army takes Changsha and holds it until August 11. MO 349
August 1: First Corps under Mao and Zhu attack Nanchang. MO 349
AB (Anti-Bolshevik) Purge LM 139
August: Peng Dehuai’s troops fail to hold Changsha. T 647
Zhou Enlai, Qiu Qiupai and others return to Shanghai from Moscow.
September 1-13: Mao and Zhu attack Changsha again, but withdraw without permission of the Politburo. MO 349
September 24-28: Based on instructions from the Comintern, the Third Plenum of CCP CC meets and condemns Li Lisan’s fruitless attacks. The Comintern notes that, “For the time being, we have not yet achieved an objective situation of revolution throughout China.” H152 But denies his line is contrary to Comintern line. MO 349 Zhou Enlai and Qu Qubai return from Moscow to rectify Li Lisa’s errors. H152
October: Wang Ming and Bo Gu (Qin Bangxian) return from Moscow where they had won the confidence of Pavel Mif, deputy head of the Cominter’s Far Eastern Bureau. H153 They attack the CC established at the Third Plenary. Wang Ming published “The Two Line Struggle”, again supporting new attacks. H153
October 30: The Front Committee adopts Mao’s strategy of “luring the enemy to penetrate deep” into soviet areas. MO 349
November: Mao arrests 4,400 officers and men in A-B Corp purge. Leading cadres among Mao’s political opponents in the Kiangsi Action Committee are implicated. MO 231
November 16: The Politburo receives a letter from the ECCI attacking Li Lisan’s line. MO 349
November 25: Li Lisan is blamed for military failure, removed from the Politburo and sent back to Moscow. T 647
November 26: Wang Ming and Pavel Mif’s 28 Bolsheviks assume control of CCP. T647.
December 7: FU TIAN INCIDENT. The 20th Red Army rebels against Mao’s Front Committee. LiuTi leads a revolt of 400 men in an attack that captures Futien and frees the A-B prisoners. 100 of Mao’s supporters are killed. MO 233 Possibly the A-B corps members identified were all plants by the two factions, each thinking the other’s plants were the real A-B Corps! MO 234
December: Li Lisan’s trial before the Comintern’s Far Eastern Department and ECCI. MO 349 Lominadze and Syrtsov circulate a petition to CPSU CC demanding Stalin’s removal. MO 349
December 9-30: Mao and Zhu defeat the rebels and also defeat the KMT’s First Encirclement and Annihilation Campaign. MO 350


January 7: 4th Plenum of 6th CC in Shanghai, repudiates the supposed “right deviation” of Li Lisan. Pavel Mif dominated the proceedings, supporting the 26 year-old Wang Ming. H154 CA 8 Mif and the 28 Bolsheviks under Wang Ming expel Li Lisan and others. MO 350 The Party is decimated by a split, with renegades forming a new Central Committee, and the betrayal to the KMT, and execution, of several leaders. H155
January 17: British police in Shanghai raid a meeting of 25 Li Lisan factionalists, enemies of Wang Ming and the 28 Bolsheviks. Rumors circulated that Wang Ming turned them in. They were shot on February 7. MO 243
January 31: Mukden Incident. Start of Japanese Aggression. TSxxi
February: Second KMT Encirclement Campaign begins. MO 350
February: Wang Ming publishes The Two Lines, which argues that the Communists can never enter into any tactical alliance with the bourgeoisie. MO 244
April: Third Encirclement Campaign begins. MO 350
11th Plenum of ECCI convenes in Moscow. MO 350
GU Shunzhang, a worker promoted to leadership by Li Lisan, is captured by KMT secret police in Shanghai. Angered by Wang Ming’s ascension, he gave the police the addresses of Qiu Quipai, Zhou Enlai, and others. The police raid their homes but several escaped. Yun Taiying is shot. The CCP retaliated by killing about 100 of his family members. This act broke the CCP’s remaining ties to the Shanghai working class. MO 245 GU, the CCP Security Chief, was captured by KMT and went over to them. He planned the arrest of the Party leadership, but was thwarted by a CCP spy in the KMT security bureau. H155
May: Radio communication is established between the Red Armies for the first
time. MO 192
June: Wang Ming becomes CCP Secretary MO 350
June: Xiang Zhongfa, chairman of the Politburo, was arrested by KMT and went over to them. Wang Ming, then fled China for Moscow, and Zhou Enlai fled to the Central Revolutionary Base Area in Ruijin, Jiangxi. H155-6
August: Paul NOULENS-RUEGG: Comintern agent (leader of the Far Eastern Bureau) arrested by KMT in Shanghai. His office, full of sensitive documents, was ransacked. CCP bribed judge to prevent his execution. CA 2 Song Qingling led his political defense campaign. H168
September 18: “September 18 Incident”. Japan invades Manchuria, START OF WW II. OW 188 The Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria, attacked and took Bedaying and Shenyang. H160 The Japanese had only 10,000 troops. Jiang Kaishek had 165,000 troops in the Northeast, but made repeated concessions, refusing to fight. H162 Comintern orders CCP to take the line that the invasion of China is important only because it threatens Soviet power, and compels use of the slogan, “Defend the Soviet
Union with Arms!” H164
September: Third Encirclement Campaign ends. Wang Ming returns to Moscow. Bo Gu becomes Secretary of CCP Politburo. MO 350
November 7: First All China Soviet Congress of Workers, Peasants and Soldiers held in Jiangsi Province. Bo Gu (for Wang Ming) is still not strong enough to topple the rightist Mao, who is elected Chairman of the Central executive Committee. MO 248. Towards the end of the Congress, the KMT 28th Route Army goes over to the Reds. This is a big victory for Mao. MO 250
December 14: KMT 26th Route Army staged a mass defection and went over to the CCP in Ningdu, Jiangxi. This battlefield defection of a well armed and trained army of 17,000 was the first big KMT defection. H159


January: Politburo again calls for attacks on large cities. Partial return to Li Lisan line. MO 350
January 28: Japanese invasion of Shanghai. This was the first battle in which KMT troops fought the Japanese. The 19th Route Army resisted against the wishes of Chiang Kaishek. MC 53, H161, 162, ST137
January 29: Japanese air raid on Chapei is the first ever terror bombing of a civilan population. ST136
February: Jiang Qing joins CCP branch in Qingdao, Shandong. WB44
March: The ancient Tael currency is abolished in favor of the new Silver Dollar. XII821
March 9: Japan declares the Manchuko puppet regime with the deposed Pu Yi as emperor. H161 “March of the Volunteers”. Later China’s Anthem, becomes popular. H166
April 5: Central Soviet Government declares war on Japan. MO 253. This is Mao and Zhu De. But Party organization makes no statement.
June: Fourth Encirclement Campaign begins. MO 350
July: Zhang Guotao executes General Xu Jishen and Zeng Zhongsheng, and “many others” in AB Corps purge of his opponents. H173
August: Under pressure from Shanghai CC, Mao is criticized for left errors and yields leadership of the army to Zhou Enlai. CA x, 17, MO 351 Shanghai CC orders Mao to attack cities. He and the military leadership refuse, sending their explanation back to Soviet Area Bureau. In early October, the Soviet Area Bureau held a plenary in Ningsu, Jianxi. Mao is criticized for a “purely defensive” Right-deviationist line. Mao was relived as First Front Army Commissar and returned to the Rear. H175
September: ECCI Twelfth Plenum in Moscow. Wang Ming’s line is confirmed. MO 351 Wang begins to prepare Soviet areas for offensives aimed at seizing cities. MO 258
October: Oyuwan and Hsiangosi Soviets collapse. Red armies stationed there ordered to Schewan. Central Soviet orders urgent war mobilization. MO 351
December: USSR resumes diplomatic relations with KMT.


Per capita national income was 58 Yuan ($15.00 US) in 1933 prices. Arable land was less than 1/5 hectare per person XIV144-5
January: CCP Central Bureau (Bo Gu and the IKKI military advisor Otto Braun) leaves Shanghai and moves to Juiching in Jinggangshan base. MO 257
February: Fourth KMT Encirclement and annihilation campaign begins. Zhou Enlai, now in command, receives to orders from CC to counter attack with inferior forces. He refuses and retreats, destroying important KMT units and breaking the offensive. H175 CC now moves to force through adventurist attacks. Luo Ming and Deng Xiaoping, holding Mao’s line, are denounced as followers of the Right opportunist “Luo Ming line”. H176
March: Fourth Encirclement Campaign halted when Japanese take Jehol.
Ewart, Bo Gu and IKKI refuse to dump Mao CA 17
May 8: Zhou Enlai become Political Commissar of Red Army—replacing Mao. MO 351
August 1: This is the first time that “Red Army Day” is celebrated. MO 351
September 27: KMT Fifth Encirclement Campaign begins. MO 351
October: KMT 5th Encirclement and Annihilation Campaign. Interrupted by revolt of 19th Route Army in Fujian in November. MO 266
November 20: Fujian Revolt of 19th Route Army against KMT Government in Nanjing. CCP leadership did not support the rebels. MO 351 The Rebels had fought the Japanese in Shanghai in 1932 and now declared they would fight the Japanese and oppose Jiang Kaishek. Bo Gu, CCP leader, characterized them as “middle of the roaders”, and the “most dangerous” enemies, and refused to cooperate with the rebels.
December: Thirteenth Plenum of ECCI in Moscow continues the left line. MO 351


January: KMT troops suppress KMT 19th Route Army’s revolt in Fujian and restart the 5th Annihilation Campaign. MO 351, MO 266 This defeat permitted the KMT to completely surround the Red Army. H178
January 18-22: CCP CC Fifth Plenum of 6th CC in Ruijin, Jiangxi. Wang Ming’s left line dominates. H178
January 22 –February 1: Second All-China Soviet Congress convenes in Juiching. MO 351
April: In mid-April, the KMT gather superior forces to attack Guangchang, the northern gateway to the Central Soviet Area. Bo Gu and Li De order that the CCP fight a conventional battle against them. H179
April 28: Guangchang falls to KMT. Juiching now threatened. MO 352
August: Mao may have been expelled from the CC (for a third time) AND imprisoned at the Yutu prison for his right deviations, MO 10, 263
October: KMT Army enters the heart of the Soviet Base Area. H179
October 16: The Long March begins in Jiangxi, LM 2, Red Army had 75,000 to 81,000 men CA 80
November: KMT troops occupy Juiching. MO 352
December 1: Moving too slowly, only a portion of the Red Army escapes across the Xiangjiang River at Jieshou. The cumulative losses reduce the army to 30,000 of the 80,000 who began the march. H181


January: The Tenth Army Group is intercepted and pursed by the KMT until it is routed. The commander, Fang Zhimin, was captured and executed. H179
January 15-17: Zunyi Conference: At enlarged Politburo meeting, Mao takes over Revolutionary Military Committee and Secretariat of CCP. H182, MO 352
May: Twenty-two volunteers cross the Luding bridge on the Dadu River under fire and capture the KMT positions, allowing the Red Army to escape encirclement. H184
June 12: Advanced units of the Red Army complete the climb of the Jiajin Mountain (south of Maogong) at elevations above 12,000 feet and links up with the Fourth Front Army of Zhang Guotao. The two armies meet at Lianghekou, north of Maogong. The combined armies number about 100,000 troops. At a Politburo meting, Zhang agrees to move north. H185, MR, V. xli.
July 25: 7th Coingress, ICCI, H194
September 9: Against order, Zhang moves his column south. H186
September 12: At Ejie, the Politbureau meets and censures Zhang Guotao. Zhang refuses the order to move north. H186-187
September 19: The Long March ends in Shaanxi w/ 4,000 survivors LM 2. But 30,000 per H190, out of 300,000.
October 5: Zhang Guotao establishes his own CC and appoints himself Chairman. H187
December 9th Movement: Mass student demonstrations in Beijing against new Japanese advances. OW 198 Nym Wales (Snow’s wife) takes credit for leading these! MC 163. Smedley was living with the Snow’s, and working with them on the demonstrations, but she never claimed that they “led” anything. The entire CCP network in north China had been destroyed by KMT security forces by now. There were thirty uncoordinated survivors in Beijing who formed the organization the led the December 9 student protests. H192 “Los Angeles Nursery” established in Yanan. SM 167 Smedley was the Snow’s link to Madame Sun. SM 167 Smedley arranged Snow’s trip to Red Areas for “Red Star Over China” SM 173
December 17-25: Enlarged Politburo meeting held at Wayaobu to discuss military strategy, political situation, and tactical line. H195


Edgar Snow and George Hatem CA 251 arrive in Shaanxi. Snow interviews Mao for “Red Star Over China”
Japanese Germ Warfare attack in Shande, Hunan killed 10,000 LM 152, CA 252
January 22: CC denounces Zhang Guotao and orders him to dissolve his rival CC. H187.
February 27: CCP Protestant Minister Dong Jianwu carries a KMT message to Bo Gu that the KMT is willing to negotiate with the CCP. H200
April: Suffering several defeats, Zhang’s army is reduced to 40,000. H188
May: In Shanghai, CCP reestablishes links to its cadres there and directs Song Chingling to form the All-China Federation of All Circles For Resisting Japan and Saving the Nation. Affiliated groups spring up in other cities. H197
June 6: Zhang dissolves his rival CC. H188
July 2: He Long and Ren Bish’s (2nd & 6th Army Groups) finally arrive from Hunan-Hebei-Sichuan-Guizhou Base Area at Ganzi, in Western Sichuan. They are now rechristened the Second Front Army and are ordered to march north with Zhang’s Fourth Front Army. H188
September: Snow leaves Pao An.
November 22: KMT arrests seven leaders of the “Al-China …” group in Shanghai. This leads to mass demands for the prisoners’ release. H203
November 26: German-Japanese Anti-Communist Pact signed. MC 205
December 12: Xian Incident (“the 12/12 incident” in Chinese MC 241): Telegram from Stalin ordered Mao to release Chiang Kaishek. Mao purportedly wanted to shoot him. NE 84, CA 182 Smedley made daily English language broadcasts of the Xian Incident from the scene and became a celebrity, “The White Empress” of China. SM 177 But CPUSA in NYC denounced her in broadcasts that reached China! MC 216. Pravda and Izvestia denounced the plotters as “infantile leftists influenced by Trotskyites.” The Chinese were happy when they later learned of Bukharin’s execution, because they blamed him for these articles. MC 212. The pro-Japan faction of the KMT, led by HE Yingqin, began massing troops for an attack on Xian. The pro-American and British wing of KMT was led by Song Meiling (Jiang’s wife), H.H. Kung, T.V. Song. They wanted a peaceful resolution to the crisis that would save Jiang Kaishek’s life. H204


January: Mao moves his headquarters from Baoan in northern Shaanxi to Yanan. H207, RS 488 Agnes Sedley arrives in Yanan. GR447
February: Smedley initiated the Yanan Dance parties and was the chief dance instructor. She clashed with Mao’s wife He Zizhen, and knocked her unconscious with a single punch in Mao’s presence. SM 190 Lily Wu was the star of the parties. SM 189.
March/April: In Yanan, Smedley applies for membership in CCP and is denied. SM 186
July 7: Start of Japanese War with China. Massive Japanese invasion begins. Japanese move on Beijing in Marco Polo Bridge Incident (Lugouqiao Incident). The bridge was southwest of Beijing. The Japanese units attacked and defeated the KMT’s 29th Route Army stationed at the bridge. H212 START OF SINO-JAPANESE WAR CA 204 Beijing and Tianjin were occupied by the end of July. H212 Ten days later, Jiang Kaishek issued a proclamation calling for resistance. GR357
July/August: Mao delivers the lecture series “On Practice” and “On Contradiction” at the “Anti-Japanese Military and Political College” in Yanan. CA 225, H207
Summer: Helen Snow and Agnes Smedley arrive in Yanan. CA 254 Mao’s wife He Zizhen, attacked Lilly Wu in her cave and punched Smedley after Wu hid behind her. Smedley decked He, knocking her to her knees. WB145
August: CCP CC orders its Army to focus on guerilla warfare behind enemy lines. The KMT handles the fixed battles, which it always lost. H227-228
August 13: Japanese begin three-month assault on Shanghai. OW 201, J145
August 22: Red Army incorporated into KMT forces as the “8th Route Army” of the National Revolutionary Army. There were three Divisions: 115th (LIN Biao and Nie Rongzhen) 120th (HE Long), and the 129th (LIU Bopcheng and XU Xiangqian) Zhu De was the 8th Route Army Commander, Peng Dehuai was his deputy. H215-216 It is assigned to 2nd combat zone in Shanxxi. CA 208 Soviet Government concluded a non-aggression pact with KMT Nanjing Central Government. CA 208
Late August: Jiang Qing and Li Lilian arrive in the Northwest at Luochan, where the Politburo is meeting, and head to Yanan with the CP the next day. WB128 To quiet the opponents of the marriage, Mao asked Stalin’s blessing to marry Jiang Qinq! WB153
September 22: Lin Biao scores China’s first battlefield victory over Japan when his 115th Division ambushes the 21st Brigade of the Itagaki Divison in Shanxi. 1,000 Japanese troops killed, 100 vehicles destroyed, weapons captured. H227
Late September: Smedley and Lilly Wu are banished from Yanan after He Zizhen pressed th CC for their departure. Jiang Qing stays. WB146
October: Red Army units south of the Yangtze are designated the “New 4th Army” and assigned to the 3d combat zone in eastern China. CA 208, H230
November: Wang Ming returns from Moscow to contend with Mao for leadership. Wang’s line is that the Comintern wants the CCP to liquidate its military forces into the KMT armies for the duration of the war. This dovetailed with KMT demand for “one army under unified command.” H236-240 This is criticized as “right-deviaitonist” at H238.
Winter: Dr. Norman Bethune arrives in Yanan. CA 254
December 12: Japanese planes and ships attack the USS Panay at Nanjing creating an intenational incident. Japan apologizes. To avoid trouble, the US withdraws the 15th Infantry regiment from Tianjin two months later. ST180
December 13 : Nanjing falls to Japan, and the Massacre begins H225-226, MC 299 Central Government flees to Wuhan. CA 214. Lin Biao destroys a Japanese Regiment in Shanxxi, seizing all its equipment. This raises the prestige of CCP forces. CA 215.


January??: Le De asks Wang Ming to help him get back to Moscow. Wang warns him he will be purged and shot, so he should stay in China. CA 248 Li De marries Shanghai actress Li Lilien. CA 248 Li De Joined CCP.
January: KMT defense of Hangzhou became an international cause celebre, attracting Russian aid, Spanish Civil War vets, and activists: Norman Bethune, Frank Capra, Earl Browder, Mike Gold, Anna Louise Strong, W.H. Auden. The city fell on October 17. SM 201
April: ZHANG Guotao flees Yanan and goes over to KMT. CCP feared that the New 4th Army might join him. CA 226
April 6: KMY’s first victory of Japanese forces at Taierchuang, Shandong. ST186
May: Jiang orders the Yellow rivewr dikes blown up to slow the Japanese advance north. Eleven cities and 4,000 vilages are flooded, rdering 2 million homeless. The Japanese advance is slowed by three months. ST187
September: Japanese begin daily bombing of Yanan, destroying the city over the course of a year, but the bombing continues for years longer. CA 217
September 29--November 6: Enlarged 6th Plenary of 6th CC. Mao controlled the apparatus and assembled enough forces to defeat Wang Ming’s line. H240
October: Mao appoints KANG Sheng to head Security Service as a counterweight to Wang. CA 224
October 21-25: Kngzhou and Canton fall. ST194
October 25: Wuhan falls to the Japanese. RC 123 KMT evacuates Wuhan, flees to Chongqing. Guangzhou falls the same month. Strategic Stalemate. Japan now held the industrial cities of the East but could not suppress the resistance forces in the interior. H240
November: Dr. Norman Bethune dies of blood poisoning. CA 254
November: Mao offers to give KMT the party membership list. This offer is in “On the New Stage in the War of National Self-defense and of the National Anti-Japanese United Front” CA 238


January 13: CCP sets up “Souther Bureau” in Chongqing, under Zhou Enlai. CC243.
July 12: Under the threat of war, the Japanese force Britain to close the Burma road to limit supplies to China. ST211
August?: Li De returns to Moscow w/ Zhou Enlai on Jiang Kaishek’s private airplane. Li Lien, Li De’s wife, was not permitted to go. He never saw her again. CA 262 Mao tried to get Li De expelled from CPSU and shot in Moscow. CA 263
September: The American Army, with 174,000 men, and reserves, is ranked 19th in the world. ST203
December: KMT forces attack CCP Shaanxi-Gansu-Nigxia Border Region, capturing five county seats in preparation for an assault on Yanan. In Shanxi, Yan Xishan attacks the CCP New Army and 8th Route Army. Jiang Kaisheck personally led attacks on CCP forces in th Zhongtiao Mountains in Shanxi. The attacks are repelled. H253-4


January: Mao publishes “On New Democracy”, the CCP blueprint for the “New Democratic” stage of the revolution. H257 A criticism of Chen Duxiu and the alleged Trotskyite position that “only” democratic demands could be raised after the 1927 defeats, is at H257-8
August 20: Trotsky assassinated I Mexico City. T652


January 6: Southern Anhui Incident. On January 4, the KMT ordered the New Fourth Army’s Headquarters Staff and 9,000 troops to move north of the Yangze in Anhui Province. At Maolin, Jiang Kaishek attacked the New Fourth Army with 80,000 troops. Only 2,000 escaped after seven days bitter fighting. H260 Jiang killed the vice-commander and captured a general. MC 319
February: FDR sent Laughlin Currie to mediate the KMT-CCP dispute. He urges KMT to stop attacks. H263
March: USA passes Lend-Lease Act to support wartime allies. ST220
March 6: Jiang Kaishek publicly pledges to end attacks against CCP. H264
June 22: Nazi invasion of USSR. H266
September 10—October 22: CCP PB holds an enlarged meeting to “study” Party History on preparation for the coming Party Rectification designed to eliminate Wang Ming’s line. H289
December 7: Pearl Harbor (December 6 in China). Eight USA capital ships sunk (about half the fleet) at Pearl Harbor, HI. 177 planes destroyed and 4,000 casualties—most killed. At the same time, at Clark Field, in the Phillipines, have of MacArthur’s 35 heavy bombers and a third of his fighters were destroyed on the ground. KMT leaders congratulated each other as though a great victory had been won because the USA was now in the war against Japan. ST233
December 9: Jiang Kaisheck declares war on Japan—at last. OW 203
December 10: Japanese planes sink Britain’s newest battleship, the Prince of Wales, and also sink the destroyer, Repulse, off the coast of Malaya. ST230
December 11: Germany and Italy declare war on the USA. ST230
December 23: Guam and Wake Island fall to Japan. ST 233
December 25: Hong Kong falls to Japan. ST233


January 1: In Washington, 26 nations, including China, sign the Declaration of the United Nations, signaling the “formal establishment of the international anti-fascist united front.” H267
January 1: KMT proposes, to Washington, funds buiding the Burma Road from Ledo, Burma, to Lungling in China. ST247
January 2: Japanese capture Manila. ST233
February: CCP Rectification Movement begins. Mao releases “Rectify the Party’s Style of Work”, and “Oppose Stereotyped Party Writing.” H290 Liu Shaoqi”, “How to Be a Good Communist” was another test used. H293
May: Yenan Forum on Literature and Art.
April 16?: Doolitle Raid on Tokyo. The bombers were supposed to join the Flying Tigers in China but all were lost. ST274, 287
July 4: The Flying Tigers AVF is designated part of the Tenth Air Force, and Chennault is promoted to brigadier general. ST309
November: Madam Jiang Kaisheck arrives in the USA fpr a lengthy stay and dazzles Congress with her charm and English facility, greatly helping Jiang against Stilwell and the War Department. ST349 She moved into the White House in early January. ST351


Congress abolishes the Chinese Exclusion Act. F110
May DD: Comintern dissolved CA 107, H279
July 8: For the first time, the expression “Mao Zedong Thought” appears in print, H294.
September – December: Wang Ming becomes the central target of the Rectification. He writes a self-criticism adopting the official view. H295


April: With KMT armies sapped by corruption and poor morale, the Japanese launch a the ICHIGO offensive to forge a solid line of communication between Tianjin and Guangzhou, and perhaps, the final surrender of the KMT. ST457 Also to connect their territory with holdings in Indo-China, as the American close in from the Pacific. GR403 Attacks are launched agaist Henan, Hunan and Guangxi. The KMT is routed. Changsha falls in June. Guilin and Nanning fall in November. The Japanese chased the fleeing KMT troops as far as Guiyan in Guizhou Province. These defeats, at a time when Japan was considered beaten, exposed the corruption and incompetence of the KMT and led to public outrage against Jiang Kaishek. H283 Jiang depended on the American Flying Tiger bases to do all the fighting against Japan while he preserved his armies to destroy the Communists at war’s end. GR408
June 6: D-Day in France; Rome falls to the allies. ST459
June 18: Changsha falls without a fight. ST454
August 7: Stilwell promoted to General. ST475
Sepetmber 14: Stilwell flew into Guilin to organize the defense of the city and the Flying Tiger bases. Stilwell and Chennault decide to evcacuate the Americans and blow up the bases. ST488-9
October 19: Marshall informs Stilwell that FDR has releived him. Stilwell orders John Service back to Washington to argue for an alliance with the CCP. ST502-3
November 7: Patrick Hurley flies to Yanan, where he accepts CCP proposal for a joint CCP-KMY coalition government. Jiang Kaisheck rejects the deal. Hurley then backs Jiang’s proposal that CCP must first surrender its weapons to KMT. H287


February 4 - 11: Yalta Conference. By now, the USA had given up on KMT resistance to Japan. Chinag Kai-shek was not invited. MD474 To win Stalin’s promise of Russian troops against Japan, FDR cedes the CER, the Southern Manchurian Railway, and the port of Darian (Port Arthur) to Russia, after the war. It was agred that Mongolia would status quo (independence) would not be disturbed. Russia, in turn, agreed to support the KMT against the CCP. Soviet troops immediately poured into Manchuria, eliminating the Japanese units in a few days, and arming the CCP with captured Japanese equipment. This was the basis for the post-war criticism of the Yalta Ageement. ST515, MD474
April 1: US forces invade Okinawa. ST517
April 20: Seventh Enlarged Plenum of CC adopt Mao’s “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party.” H295 This work is the official line on all past Party struggles. It is not published until February 1953. MO 12.
April 23 - June 11: CCP 7th Party Congress S 182 Held in Yanan. XIV662 Mao is elected Party Chair (not just Party Secretary) for the first time. MO 286 Mao “urges” Wang Ming to remain on CC. H296 The Cominterm was gone, do this gave Mao a much freer hand then before. H298
May 1: Soviet Army enters Berlin. GR411
May 5-21: KMT 6th National Congress prepares for the coming civil war. H288 Jiang Kaisheck said: “Now our major goal is the elimination of the Communist Party! Japan is our external enemy while the CCP is our internal enemy. It is only with the elimination of the CCP that we shall complete our mission!” H310
May 8: VE Day. ST541
June: Raid on the offices of Amerasia Magazine finds copies of John Service’s reports from Yenan. Service and five others are arrested. ST526 This marks the beginning of the Red Scre, “Who lost China?” debate. P
June 19: 7th CC First Plenary H301, XIV662
July: The Japanese evacuate the South, burning and destroying Guilin, Luzhou, and Nanning. The KMT Army enters after the destruction. ST518
July 6: Chennault resigns from the 14th Airforce and blames Stilwell for the failure in China. ST520
July 15: Kang Sheng begins the two-week “Redemption Campaign” which leads to the forced confessions of many innocent cadres and their “unjust” punishment. H296
July 16: A-Bomb tested at Almagordo. ST520
July 26: USA, Britain and China issue the Potsdam Declaration, an ultimatum to Japan demanding unconditional surrender. H301
August 2: Patrick Huley announces that USA will support KMT against CCP. H287
August 6: Hiroshima. ST520
August 9: Nagsaki. ST520, J194 USSR declares war on Japan. H301 Soviet troops pour into Manchuria. MD388 CCP press denounced the bombing! GR415
August 11: Zhu De orders his Korean commander, Wu Ting, to attack the Japanese in Korea with 8th Route Army forces. GR418
August 14: On this date, the USSR signed the “August 14th Treaty” with the KMT, agreeing to assist only “the Central Government of China” i.e. the KMT. H395 n7, GR420
August 15: (August 14 in USA ST521) Emperor Hirohito announces Japan’s surrender. MD388, H302 TSxxi or 8/14 J194 Colonely Yeaton, of the U.S. Mlitary Observers Mission in Yanan, predicts that, without U.S. help, the KMT will lose the coming civil war with the CCP. ST524
August 28: Chongqing Negotiations. Mao, Zhou and Wang Ruofei flew to Chongqing for the talks with KMT representative Zhang Zhizhong and U.S. ambassador Patrick J. Hurley. H315
September 2: Japanese representatives sign the instrument of surrender. H302
September: USA begins transporting 41 KMT divisions to China’s eastern cities in preparation for the coming civil war. The transports are not com;peted until June 1946. H327 90,000 US marines land in Shanghai, Qingdao, Tianjin, Beijing, and other cities to hold them until the KMT armies arrive. H327.
October 10th Agreement: “Double 10 Agreement” KMT-CCP peace agreement signed on the 43d day of negotiations at Chongqing. H316
October 18: American troops surround and raid the 8th Route HQ in Tianjin. GR428
November 25: Republican Ambassador to China, Hurley, resgns, charging that the U.S. State Department is pro-communist, especially with regard to China. ST524
December 1 Massacre: 30,000 students at Southwest United University go on strike in support of CCP . “Oppose civil war and struggle for democracy.” They are attacked by KMT mobs with handgranades and four students are killed. H320


January 31: Qongqing Agreement signed between KMT and CCP to establish a democratic coalition government. GR435
February: U.S. 7th Fleet moves KMT troops into position on China’s coast. H328
Stalin gave KMT large caches of Japanese arms to be use against CCP. NE 14
May 4 Directive: CCP abandons wartime policy of alliance with landlords. Party calls for the confiscation of landlord’s land and immediate distribution of land to the peasants. H351
June 26: Civil War begins with a KMT assault on the Central Plains Liberated areas. H331 The KMT STRATEGY is to follow the railroad trunk lines, attack from south to north, seizing the major cities, and forcing the Red Army north of the Yellow River, where it would be trapped and destroyed. Chen Cheng, the KMT Chief of Staff, anticipated a three to five-month campaign. H331
October 12: Stilwell’s death at Letterman Hospital. ST528
December 30: Five thousand students from Beida, Quinghua, and other schools in eijing demonstrate against rapes and crimes of the U.S. Army in China. H341
December 31: CPC underground issues directives to build the anti-American demonstrations. 500,000 eventually take part in all major cities. H341


February: Shandong Province is site of first CCP victory, by Chen Yi, over KMT, greatly improving the CCP position in south China. H337
February 27: KMT puts down Taiwan uprising, massacring 30,000. OW 242, H345, There were six million Taiwanese and only two million KMT refugees on the island. XV830 There were mass executions of journalists, lawyers, doctors, capitalists, and anyone who might be an opinion leader. F46
March: Anna Louise Strong leaves China as CCP prepares to abandon Yanan to the superior KMT forces. J200
March 19: Red Army marches out and Yanan falls to KMT. J200, H338
May 12: President Truman announces the “Truman Doctrine” to combat Communist Revolutions in Greece and Turkey. RP198
May 20th Movement: Thousands of students in the KMT’s Nanjing capital, and in major cities, disrupt the meeting of the KMT’s Peoples Political Council, and call for an end to the Civil War. H344
July: KMT is undermined by corruption and a massive inflation. The pre-war currency is devalued 60,000 times. H343 KMT institutes conscription of all able-bodied men. H365


Stalin feared U.S. would enter to save KMT. Mao ignored Stalin. LM 131
Stalin sent Anastas Mikoyan to Mao, opposing his march south to destroy KMT. NE 14
January 1: Song Qingling and CCP supporters form the “Revolutionary Committee” of the KMT with progressive factions in Hong Kong in attempt to widen KMT splits. H369
January: A new Rectification movement begins in Harbin, Manchuria, focused on Xiao Chun, who had resisted the 1942 Yenan attack on Wang Shiwei, and was now criticing the CCP’s alliance with the Soviets in Manchuria and the violence of the land reform campaign. Ting Ling presided over the campaign, and Xiao was sentenced to hard labor. XIV 233-4.
April 1: Berlin Blockade begins as Soviets block land routes to the city. RP198
May: KMT holds a phony Constitutional Congress” in Nanjing, where Jiang is elected President. But the leader of the Guangxi KMT Faction, LI Zongren, is elected vice president, with strong American support. Li is seen as a potential American replacement for the failing Jiang. H365
May 14: The State of Isreal is declared in Tel Aviv. RP198
August: The inflation rate in Shanghai reaches 6,600,000 times the pr-war level! XIV150
September 16: In the first of the decisive battles, over 100,000 KMT troops go over to CCP in battle of Jinan, Shandong Province, which ended on 9/24/48, and linked the Red Armies in the North and South for the first time. H372-3
December: Suzhou falls to CCP. This was the decive battle of the Civil War. ST530


January 21: Jiang announces he will resign in favor of Li Zongren. Resigns. H384 Rittenberg is arrested for his affiliation with Anna Louise Strong. M 138, 169.
January 22: Li Zongren announces he will accept the CCP’s eight conditions for peace talks. H384
January 31: With Beijing surrounded, KMT commander FU Zuoyi surrenders rather than see the city destroyed in the fighting. H380.
February: Jiang’s son, Jiang Qingguo, transfers China’s gold reserves to Taiwan. XV 820
March 4-13: Second Plenary of 7th CC held at Xibaipo Village, Pingshan County, Hebei. H385
March 5: 7th CC 2nd Plenum in Hubei. XIV662. Mao arrives in Beijing. WB182
April 1: Zhou Enlai enters peace negotiaitions with KMT in Beijing. H385
April: Jiang Qing and Li Na sent to Moscow for health reasons. WB183 63 JQ had tonsillitis. J225
April 20: KMT leadership refuses to sign the negotiated agreement. H386 Four British Warships on the Yangzi, attempt to block the Red Army from crossing the river to attack the KMT. H386
April 21: Mao and Zhu De issue an order to the Red Army calling for an immediate “country-wide advance” against the KMT forces. The Red Army begins crossing the Yangzi River to engage the main KMT armies. H-396 The British warships are driven off and the Red Army crosses the river. H396
April 23: The Red Army breaks through the KMT defenses at Nanjing. Nanjing falls. The government flees to Guangzhou. H387
May 27: Shanghai falls to Red Army NE 24 Inflation had driven the price of a cup of coffee to 3 million Yuan. XV694
July 2-19: First National Congress of Literature and Art Workers, 650 delegates, met in Beijing. XV743
August 24: NATO formed by USA. RP198
September 21-30: Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference opens in Beijing with Mao presiding. H388 The Conference names Beijing the capital, adopts the western calendar, “March of the Volunteers” as national anthem, and five-star red flag as national flag. H390 On the night the conference closes, the foundation stone for the monument to the Peoples Heroes is laid in Tiananmen Square. H391
October 1: Mao proclaims PRC. 300,000 gather in Tiananmen Square. Mao pushes a button and the flag is raised for the first time. H398 Western Calendar NE 55 and new flag adopted.
October 9: KMT thugs burst into a CWMAA meeting in SF Chinatown, seize the PRC flag, beating participants and spraying them with blue dye. Later the KMT offred $5,000 rewards, on leaflets posted around Chinatown, for the murder of fifteen Communist leaders. K111-2
December: Mao’s trip to Moscow was to honor Stalin’s 70th Birthday, 12/21/49. NE 93
December 9: Stalin’s 70th Birthday extensivel celebated in Renmin Ribao. XIV265
December 10: Chiang Kaishek flees to Taiwan NE 24, XV 819
December 16 – March 4: Mao in Moscow. J226
December: Jiang Kaisheck appoints his son, Jiang Qingguo head of the Security Bureau and arrests hundreds as communist agents, including his chief of the general staff and his wife. XV821


Beijing dog killing campaign. XV687
“Three Self” Church campaign to break churches’ foreign ties established, followed by suppression of Catholics and unregistered religious groups. XV 692
Rents were set at 5% of income—or less. XV 695
January: USSR walks out of Security Council to protest seating of Taiwan on the Council. The Korean War broke out during this time and the US was able to pass a Security Council Resolution giving United Nations sanction to the war. XV 826
January 5: President Truman announces at a press conference that the USA will not support Taiwan. F51, XV820
January: The Central Government orders the Tibet authorities to sent delegates to Beijing to negotiate the liberation of Tibet. Instead, the Tibetan Regent Dagzhag Ngawang Sungrab deploys the main body of the Tibetan army in the Qamdo area in east Tibet for armed resistance.
January 14: From his stronghold ouside Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh declarews the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. His army is called the Viet Minh. RP198
February 14: Mao witnesses the signing of the Sino-soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance by Zhou Enlai and Andrei Vishinsky, and then returns to Beijing. XIV267 Mao had to agree to recognize Soviet control of Outer Mongolia in exchange for the Changchun Railway, Sovet withdrawal from Port Arthur, and the abandonment of Soviet property claims in Beijing. XIV268 He then moves into Zhongnanhai. His comments on the trip are at MSW 4.415, XV56, and 5.330-62, XIV269n16
April: Hainan Island is liberated. H402, F51
May 1: Marriage Law proclaimed. H422
May 6: Smedley dies at Oxford, after stomach surgery, on her way back to China with funds provided by the Chinese government. SM 344
June 6-9: Third Plenary of 7th CC XIV662, H408
June 25: North Korean forces cross the 38th parallel. RP198 Start of Korean War. NE 106, XIV271 US had previously written off Taiwan, but now announces its defense. NE 112
July 3: Truman sends the U.S. 7th Fleet into the straight to prevent the Liberation of Taiwan. XV822
July 26: PLA counterattacks UN forces, pushing them back from the Chinese border. RP198
September 15: McArthur lands at Inchon and cuts of North Korean Army from it troops fighting in the south. H410, XIV274
October 3: Through the Indian Ambassador, Zhouo Enlai warns the USA that China will intervene of U.S. forces move north of the 38th parallel. H411 U.S. forces cross the line a few days later. H411
October: Under orders from the Central Government orders, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) crosses the Jinsha River destroying the Tibetan forces and Liberating Quando.
October 1: China announces that USA troops have crossed in PRC territory from North Korea. J231
October 10: CCP CC issues the Instruction on the Suppression of Counter-Revolutionary Activities. H420 This movement to round up KMT remnants, bandits, secret societies, and reactionary parties was completed by October 1951. H421
October 19: China enters Korean War. The first Chinese troops cross the Yalu River with no air cover, which had been withdrawn at the last minute by Stalin. H413, NE 115
November 25: Mao’s son Anying is killed in Korea NE 117


A Party Rectification campaign began this year and lasted until early 1954. About 10% of the party was purged. XIV94
January: The 14th (current) Dalai Lam sends delegates to Beijing to negotiate.
February: “Campaign to Supress Counter-revolutionaries” begins and lasts into 1953. This was an urban campaign and probably led to 500,000 to 800,000 deaths. XIV88n25
April 11: Truman sacks McArthur. RP199
April 30: UN forces push the PLA back north of the 38th parallel, creating a stalemate. RP198
May 6: Smedley’s funereal at Babaoshan. SM 346
May: “Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet” is signed with Tibetan authorities. H403
May 23: Tibet and China sign the “17 Point Agreement.” NY Times, 5/25/01 This is Tibet Liberation Day.
June 10: PLA drives UN forces south through the 38th parallel. J231
Fall: Three Antis (against corrupt cadres) and Five Antis campaign (against the national bourgeoise) begins and lasts into Fall 1952 XIV88
October 26: The PLA peacefully enters Lhasa. H403


Three Antis Campaign: Against corruption, waste, and bureaucratism S 56
July 23: Egyptian military revolt deposes King Farouk. RP199
October 5, 1952: CPSU 19th Party Congress. XIV280
November 1: USA detonates first hydrogen bomb on Eniwetok atoll. WP199
November 4: Eisenhower defeats Stevenson. RP199


January 1: The CCP decides to move to socialism and launches the first five year plan on 1/1/53. Zhou Enlai and Chen Yun are the central figures. H445 “New Democracy” lasted three years! MM 30
March 5: Stalin’s Death, XIV280 (March 6 in PRC) Jiang Qing is in Moscow. Chou Enlai was the only non-Soviet pallbearer. J257 RP 199 says Stalin died on March 5.
June 15: Mao announces the “general line for the transition to socialism”—the
First Five Year plan. J259
July 27: Korean War fighting ends with signing of armistice agreement. XIV281
December: In talks with India over the status of Tibet, China first proposes the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence: “mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-agression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, ewuality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.” H470


KMT Lobby, “The Committee of One Million” is organized in the USA. XV826
The Neighborhood Committee system was fully in place by 1954. XV697
Dr. Li Zhisui appointed Mao’s personal physician by Wang Dongxing. S xvii
February 6-10: 4th Plenary of 7th CC (XIV662) establishes the “general line” for the transitional period, which is characterized as “one industrialization and three transformations”, or as “one body and two wings.” The one industrialization is the industrialization of the economy. The three transformations are the socialist transformations of agriculture, handicraft, and capitalist industry and commerce. The one industrialization was the “main body”, the three transformations were the “two wings.” H444 Gao Gang Jao Shushi are “exposed” as leading an “anit-party clique.” J260
March 14: Klement Gottwald, Czech leader dies after exposure to cold at Stalin’s funeral. J257
April: China and India sign a treaty on Tibet, in which India surrenders the extraterritorial privilges inherited from Britain. This led to the Five rinciples of Peaceful Coexistence in June. XIV283
April: 18-24: Bandung Conference in Indonesia, where Zhou Enlai emphasized peaceful coexistence line. XIV283
May 5: Defeat of French at Dien Bienphu. RP199
May 14: Brown v Board of Education outlaws separate but equal education. RP199
Spring: Gao Gang purge removes 410,000 cadres from among the CCP’s 6.5 million members. H466
June: Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence first announced in ajoint Sino- Indian Communique. XIV260
July: With Chinese mediation, the French and Vietminh agree to temporary partition of Vietnam at 17th parallel to be followed bu election in two years. The USA and South Vietnam do not sign the accord. RP199, XIV283
September 8: USA forms SEATO. RP199
September: First Session of First NPC passes the new Constitution of the PRC. H461, XIV95 The new title of “state chairman” is created for Mao, which is a break from soviet practice, which ruled through the elected soviet leadership. XIV104
September 20 - October 2: Kruschchev visits China. J257
September: PRC begins shelling Quemoy. XV824
October 1: The first high level Soviet delegation, led by Kruschev, arrives in Beijing. XIV281
December 2: Senate censures Joe McCarthy. RP 199
December: USA signs the 1954 Mutual Defense Treaty with Taiwan. F72, XV823


Immigration Scandal: As part of the Mc Carthy witch hunts, in 1955 the U.S. Consul General in Hong Kong charged that many Chinese had entered the USA illegally, suggesting widespread Communist infiltration. Many had entered fraudulently as “paper sons.” Fearing their loss of citzenship, the Benevolent Associations worked out a “confesion” program. Chinese would confess and then work out a new immigration status. But government questioners demanded the victims name names and identify suspected subversives. Around 36,000 Chinese confessed under the program. F114
The free supply system is ended, and government cadres are placed in a compex civil service grade system. XIV303
Ranks are reintroduced in the PLA. XIV96
January: PRC amphibious forces capture a small Taiwan held island off of Zhejiang Province. XV824
March 21-31: CCP “National Conference” in Beijing. XIV662
April 4: 7th CC 5th Plenum. XIV662
April 5: Rittenberg is released from jail on Dongguanxiang Street M 174 in Beijing and receives official apology. M171 He served six years in solitary confinement.
April: Bandung Conference in Indonesia. H470
June: HU Feng, LU Xun’s disciple, was targeted in the 1954-55 thought reform campaign. Organized by Mao, the campaign condemned the interference of intellectuals in politics. Hu Feng’s group was charged with “Counter revolutionary” activities in June 1955. XIV241
July: Mao’s speech, “On the Question of Agricultural Cooperation” unintendedly spurs the Collectivization of Agriculture. “The high tide of Socialism”, as it was called at the time! MM 32 To his credit, Chen Yun opposed collectivization. MM33
Summer: Campaign against “counter-revolutionaries” begins. TSxxi
October 4-11: 6th Plenary of 7th CC. XIV662Adopts Mao’s line of faster transformation in agriculture and criticizes Deng Zihui and the Rural Work Department as “Right Deviationist.” H485
December 1: Rosa Parks arrested in Montgomery, AL. Martin Luther King, Jr. launches Civil Rights Movement with the Montgomery bus boycott. RP199
December 5: ASL and CIO merge. RP200
December: Mao’s “Socialist Upsurge in China’s Countryside” is published. H486


January: The “socialist transition” in Beijing was “completed” in 10 days. XV700
January 14-20: CCP CC Beijing Confernece on on arousing intellectuals, chaired by Zhou Enlai. VIV243
February: 20th Party Congress—Moscow. ZHU De led PRC Delegation S-114
February 14: Kruschev’s “secret speech” denoucing Stalin. RP200
April 5: First Anti-Soviet Polemic. “On the Historical Experience of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. W 33 This two part editorial was the Chinese response to the CPSU denunciation of Stalin. J264
April 22: The Dalai Lama becomes chairman of the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region.
May 2: Zhou Enlai gives “100 Flowers “ speech. XIV243
May: Mao decrees: “Let a hundred flowers bloom”. TSxxii This speech has still NOT been published. XIV243n38
May 26: Lu Dingli, head of the CCP Propaganda Department elaborates Mao’s “100 Flowers Principle” in his May 26 article with this title. H505, XIV243
June 1956: Zhou Enlai’s speech at the NPC annual session calls for the “peaceful” liberation of Taiwan, which is consistent with China’s new non- beligerant “Bandung Line of peaceful coexistence. XIV261
July 26: US refuses to support joint British-French attack on Suez Canal to oust Nassar. RP200
June 8: CCP launches the Anti-Rightist Campaign. The first targets are “democratic “ leaders, Zhang Bochun, Lo Longzhi, and Qiu Anping, charged with an “anti communist plot” XIV254
August 22-September 13: 7th CC 7th Plenum. XIV662
September 15-27: CCP Eighth National Congress. H507 The Main Contradiction is said to be “between the advanced socialist system and the backward social productive forces.” H508 Mao proposes that he will resign as Party and state chairman “at an appropriate time.” H512
Politburo was Mao, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Chen Yun, Lin Biao, Deng Xiaoping. General Secretary: Deng Xiaoping S xxix Deng announces that “the transition to Socialism is basically completed.” MM 31 Deng was appointed to the Politburo Standing Committee at this Congress, and ranked number six in the party. MM 82 Under the influence of Kruschev’s denunciation of Stalin, Deng’s report discussed the problem of the personality cult in CCP, and calls for “collective leadership.” H511
September 28: 8th CC first Plenum. XIV662
October 23: Soviet forces crush Hungarian and Polish uprisings. RP200
November 10-15: Second Plenary of 8th CC. XIV662 The topic of this meeting was to halt the “rash advance” in the state plan, capital spending, excessively high targets, etc. Mao seemed to agree with this line. But he actually did not. Later, Mao said he was “forced” to compromise at this meeting. H514 The Polish and Hungarian rebellions were discussed at this meeting. H519 Mao announces Rectification Campaign, which was to be coordinated with the “100 Flowers Campaign” S 197, 200
December: Mao decides to socialize industry. The original target was to complete the process by the end of 1957. But, in December 1956, Peng Chen, the mayor of Beijing, set the target at 30 days and took over all the industrial properties in Beijing. Other authorities quickly followed and the “transition” was done within 30 days throughout China. But there was no change in personnel or organization, just the formal ownership change. XIV120


The USA announces deployment of matador Missles to Taiwan. They can carry nuclear of conventional warheads to China. F72
January: Zhou Enlai travels to Eastern Europe in role of CCP peacemaker between Moscow and the Hungarians, Poles and Yugoslavs. XIV261
February 27, Mao officially launches Rectification Campaign with the publication of “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People”, H 521, TS7 The purpose of this speecs was to encourage freedom of speech for intellectuals in the 100 Flowers Campaign. Mao was criticzed from the left by cadres worried about the Polish and Hugarian risings. XIV250
March 12: Mao speaks at the National Propaganda Conference. J266
April: Rectification campaign against “the Triple Evils” (subjectivism, sectarianism, and bureaucratism) is launched. TS7
April 4: Kruschev writes a letter to world leaders proposing a Soviet-US test ban treaty and nothing that only the USA, USSR and Britain have nukes now, but it will be difficult to get an agreement later—implying that China won’t get weapons. XIV493
April 27: Anti-Rightist Rectification Campaign begins with a announcement from the CC. J266
April 30: Mao’s Self Criticism: “In my mind, I began somewhat to crave greatness and success. I only began to change in March and April last year. I had talks with comrades from more than 30 departments and later talked about the ten major relationships at the Supreme State Conference.” H503, 625 n2
May: “100 Flowers” at zenith calls for criticism of Mao and public opinion turns against the CCP S 200
June 8: Renmin Ribao warns that counter-revolutionaries are trying to seize power. TS7
June 18: “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People” is published. J266 Anti Rightist Campaign begins. S 201 Deng Xiaoping ran the campaign with great severity. S 207
June 26: At 4th session of NPC, Zhou Enlai criticizes the “fallacies” of the Eastern European parties that were implicated in the intellectuals rebellion against Party authority. J266
July: “Anti-Party Group”, Malenkov, Molotov, Bulganin, Kaganovich, purged by Krushchev. NE 138
August: Soviets successfully test an ICBM. XIV286
August 23: PRC artillery begins a massive bombardment of Quemoy. The 7th Fleet breaks the blockade of Quemoy. The PRC shifts to shelling the island on odd numbered days. XV824-25
September 20—October 9: Third Plenary of 8th CC: XIV 662 Deng delivers the main political report on the “anti rightist” movement. MM 93n 60,000 were designated Rightists by September 1957. This number rose to 550,000 at the end of the campaign. H528. The last of the Korean Volunteers return to China. H415 Mao calls for “big leap forward” in production. H553.
October 4: Sputnik RP200
October 9: Principal Contradiction: Between proletariat and bourgoisie, under socialism, first announced by Mao in his speech on October, 9, 1957 at Third Plenum of 8th CC. MSW5.492-3, XV68
October 15: The Soviets signed an agreement in Moscow to give China a sample nuclear weapon and the assistance to build more. The Soviet-China Friendship Association is formed in Moscow. XIV286, XIV 483
November 2: Mao’s second visit to USSR: 40th Anniversary of October Revolution, and meeting of the Cnferenc eof Communist and Workers’ Parties. Mao was extremely proud of Deng’s performance in debate against the Russians—especially Suslov. Mao’s appreciation may have later saved Deng’s life in GPCR. NE 154
November 2-20: Mao in Moscow. XIV286
November 3: “Mutnik” (Suptnik 2) launched with Laika. RP200, XIV286
November 13: Renmin Ribao editorial calls for a “big leap forward.” H533
November 18: Mao’s Speech at the Moscow Meeting of Communist and workers’ parties. Mao gave his “Eastwind prevailing over the westwind” speech, which he said marked a turning point in the military superiority of the socialist camp over the west. This was based on Siovet achievements such as the soviet ICBM tests in August and Sputnik in October. This angered Krushchev, who was then promoting a thaw in the cold war. RS 489 The USSR said it would surpass the USA in 15 years. Mao countered that China would surpass Great Britain in steel production within 15 years. H533, XV62 The speech is reprinted at XIV286n51.
November 19: Mao’s speech to Chinese students in Moscow emphasized the East Wind line. XIV287n51


W.E.B. Dubois visited China this year W 14

January 11, Nanning, Guangxi Party meeting : Mao calls for speeded up economic progress and attacks hierarchy. Mao announces his theory of “uninterrupted revolution” in Nanning. H534 Mao introduced this idea in January 1958, during the repression of the rightists. “The theory of permanent revolution was introduced at a time when the political situation in China was particularly repressive, thereby linking social radicalism and political despotism, an association that was to fatally distort the remainder of the Maoist era.” 40
January 31: First US satellite, Explorer I. RP200
March 8, Chengdu meeting, follow-up to Nanning “Go all out, aim high, and build socialism with greater, faster, better and more economical results” This Great Leap slogan may have come from this conference. S 235
May: Black Flag Incident: Yang Shangkun, director of the General Office, retaliated against 8 subordinates who criticized him in the current rectification campaign. Mao backed the eight.
May 3: 8th CC 4th Plenum. XIV662
May 5-23: Second Session of 8th National Congress S 231, H513 This officially launched the Great Leap Forward. XIV305 Liu Shaoqi’s main political report emphasized “the general line of going all out, aiming high and achieving greater, faster, better and more economical results in building socialism.” H536 Liu supported the Great Leap. XIV307 Output targets were doubled for the five-year plan. H537 After the Session, the Fifth Plenary of the 8th CC was held, and Lin Biao was elected to the Standing Committee of the Politburo. H537 Zhou Enlai and Chen Yun were the only dissenters on the Politburo. XIV307
May 17: Mao on Nuclear War, See Mao’s Second Speech to Secong Session of the 8th Party Congress on May 17, 1958. “If nuclear war breaks out … This will not be a bad thing.” XIV488-9n12
May 25: 8th CC 5th Plenum. XIV 662 Ming Tombs Reservoir: Buses left Zhongnanhai with leaders made to do manual labor at Ming Tombs Reservoir. Mao worked for less than an hour. Mao ordered the entire Zhongnanhai staff to work for 15 days, except for Jiang Qing, who had to send all but two nurses on her staff. S 246ff
June 1: Mao expouses his “poor and blank” thesis in “On the Introduction of Cooperatives.” J300
July: Chiang Kaishek moves 200,000 troops to Quemoy W 35
July 30—August 3: Krushchev’s second visit to China. J262 Krushchev’s secret visit to Beijing. XIV486 Mao received him at Zhongnanhai wearing only a swimsuit. Krushchev left in only 3 days.
August 6: On a visit to Qiliying village in Henan, Mao admired the commune built there—the first in China. Mao said, “It is better to run peoples communes.” This statement was used to justify the immediate collectivization of agriculture into communes. RC52
August 17: Beidaihe Enlarged Politburo meeting calls for Peoples Communes and a doubling of steel production in one year based on backyard furnaces. S 271, H539. Mao calls for revivival of the “Yanan Spirit.” XV88 Backyard furnaces were built at Zhongnanhai for the leaders to tend. S 277 1957 targets: steel from 18 to 30 million tons. Grain 300 to 500 million tons. China reached 30 million tons of steel in 1983. S 643 C Twenty to thirty million died in the famine. MM 203 The meeting adpted the “Resolution on Setting Up People’s Communes in the Rural Areas.” Within one month, all the collective farms in China were turned into Peoples Communes. H541, MM 220 Peoples Communes are formed S 652 Life on the communes was regimented and militarized. H542
August 23: Matsu and Quemoy shelled. XIV491 Mao’s reply to Krushchev’s “peaceful coexistence” line. Mao gave Kruschev no warning of this attack. XIV485 The Chinese fired 41,000 shells the first day. XIV493 The US 7th Fleet and the US 5th Air Force in Japan went on alert. The carrier Essex and four destroyers in the Mediterranean were ordered to the Taiwan Strait. Two other carier groups also went in. XIV495 The PRC was frustrated by its failure to take the small islands. F72
August 29: During Quemoy crisis, the Politburo passes a resolution declaring the People’s Communes the “basic social units of Communist society” and predicting the early transition to Communism. XIV500
September: Anna Louise Strong arrives from the U.S. and is given a suite at the Beijing Hotel. M 231 Mao predicts that the grain produced by the Great Leap would soon exceed the demand of all the people and all the animals in China. XV41
September 5: USSR Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko arrives in Beijing with his China expert, M.S. Kapitsa. XIV499
September 6: Zhou Enlai proposes the resumption of Sino – US talks on Quemoy. XIV496
September 7: At the height of the Quemoy bombing crisis, Krushev warns Eisenhower that the USSR will treat an attack on China as an attack on the USSR. XIV491
September 19: CCP and State Council issue the Great Leap “Directive on education work” calling for a cultural revolution and criticizing education for neglecting politics. One man manbagement was abandoned at universities. XIV400
November 28 – December 10: 6th Plenary of 8th CC held in Wuchang. H546, XIV662
December: Food shortages begin. Peasants are taxed on a portion of grain based on the exaggerated harvest reports. Many must surrender all their grain to meet the tax. S 283


January: Beijing was swept with rumors that urban communes would be formed and all private property would be confiscated. S 288
Meat vanishes from the Zhongnanhai dining hall. S 289
January 1: Batista flees Cuba and the revolution triumphs. RP200
March: SEATO held maneuvers in Southeast Asia against a hyppthetical Chinese attack, and included nuclear weapons in the exercises. XIV503
March 10: Mass demo in Lhasa attepts to persuafe Dali Lama to stay in Tibet. XIV511, 7,000 rebels gather in Lhasa, Tibet. At 10:00 AM the PLA is ordered into action, suppressing the rebellion in two days. Armed rebels are soon everywhere suppressed.
March 28: State Council dissolves the local Tibetan government. H419 Land reform is completed in Tibet within two years. H420
March 31: Dalai Lama flees Tibet with CIA-KMT support. XIV503, RP200 Wins asylum in India. XIV511
April 2-5: Seventh Plenum of 8th CC held in Shanghai S29, H551 Mao encourages peole to learn from Hai Rui!! H552
April: Long Live Leninism is published, ostensibly aimed at Yugoslavia but really at Soviet revisionists. XV65
April 18-25: First Session of Secong National People’s Congress accepts Mao’s resignation as Chairman of the Republic, and elects Liu Shaoqi. Song Qingling and Dong Biwu are vice chairmen. H551 Liu is now always referred to as “Chairman” Liu. S 298
June 12: Peng Dehuai returns from travels in the USSR and Eastern Europe (XIV312) to make a biting critique of the “petty bourgeoise fanaticism” of the Great Leap. Kruschev then immediately cancelled the nuclear aid agreement with China, and launchned a public attack on the GPCR. Mao used the timing of Peng’s return to suggest he was being backed by the USSR. XIV295 Peng’s house was next to Mao’s in Zhongnanhai. XIV313
June 20: Soviets abrogate the 1957 nuclear assistance program. This occurs in the context of the Peng Dehuai criticisms. XIV515
June 25: Mao visits Shaoshan and discovers that his parent’s grave makers were destroyed for steel furnace fuel. S 302
July 2—August 1: Enlarged meeting of the Politburo was unexpectedly called by Mao at LUSHAN Conference H555, S 309 Peng Dehuai confesses his errors. H561
July 14: Peng Dehuai’s 10,000 character letter is sent to Mao. H556, J301
July 16: Mao issues Peng’s letter to all participants. H557 Mao identifies Peng as “a Rightist Hai Rui.” H558-9
July 18: Kruschev criticizes the Communes. Mao interprets Peng’s criticisms as “collusion” with Kruschev XIV515
July 24: Nixon-Kruschev “kitchen debate”. RP200
August 2-16: 8th Plenary of 8th CC opens at Lushan. Peng Dehuai purged for his private criticism of Great Leap. Lin Biao replaces Peng as minister of defense.
September 13: USSR gives India $375 million for its 3d five year plan. Beijing is furious. XIV512
September 15: On Kruschev’s USA tour he promises to “bury you” economically. RP201
September 30—October 4: Krushchev’s third, and final visit to China, on the 10th anniversary of the PRC. J263
October 31: Addressing the Supreme Soviet, Kruschev compares Mao to Trotsky as against Lenin’s “flexible” foreign policy at Brest Livosk. XIV514
December: Lin Biao attacks Zhu De as a “black commander” S 329.


“Long Live Leninism” attack on CPSU is published. W 119
Famine Hits Zhongnanhai: Dr. Li’s rice ration was 16 pounds/month S 339
February 1: :Greenboro Four” lunch counter sit-in. RP 201
April 15-17: SNCC organized Shaw University. RP202
May 1: Gary Powers’s U-2 shot down. RP202
May 23: Mossad capture Eichmann in Argentina. RP202
June 17: First SDS Convention in NYC elects Al Haber president. RP202
June 20-26: At the Rumanian Party Congress in Bucharest, Sino and Soviet leaders clash over global strategy, Nukes, and economic development. XIV 517
July: The Soviet Experts are Withdrawn M 246, RS28, H597, XIV282 They gave two weeks notice. XV 483 Moscow said the GLF prevented the use of the experts anyway. XIV517
July-August: A special meeting was held at Beideho to try to cope with the disaster of the Great Leap. XIV 322
September 19: Castor stays in Harlem Hotel during UN trip. RP203
September 30 – October 22: In Moscow, Chinese and Soviest clash over plans for upcoming meeting of 81 parties. XIV518
October 12: Kruschev’s shoe pounding at UN. RP203
October: CC calls for “readjustment” correcting the Five Winds: the communist wind, the wind of exaggeration, of enforcing arbitrary orders, of blind guidance in production and the wind of cadres acceding to privileges. H566
November 10 – December 1: Meeting of 81 Parties in Moscow. Only a handful support Beijing: Albania, Australia, Japan, North Korea, North Vietnam and Indonesia. XIV518
Winter: Food begins to vanish from Beijing shops. M 239
December 20: NLF founded in South Vietnam.


January 14-18 Ninth Plenum of 8th CC XIV662 Deng makes “White cat, black cat remark” NE 209
January 17: Patrice Lumumba assassinated in the new Republic of the Congo. RP204
January 20: John F. Kennedy sworn in as President. RP204
February: Mao discovers the electronic bugs in his train.
February: At the February Party Congress in Tirana, the Albanians side with China. The USSR withdraws it advisors. XIV520
March: Politburo Conference in Guangzhou devoted to food crisis. Deng makes his “Black cat, white cat speech”
April: Soviets supply military aircraft to India. XIV521
April 12: Yuri Gagarin is first man to orbit the earth. RP204
April 17: Bay of Pigs defeat for USA in Cuba. RP204
May 4: CORE organizes first Freedom Rides. RP204
August 12: Berlin Wall begun. RP205
September 1: William Z. Foster dies in Moscow. J257
October 22: 22d Congress CPSU. The sharp attacks aginst Stalin and Albania, cause Zhou Enlai to walk out. Kruschev then brokde diplomatic relations with Albania. XIV520
October 30: Stalin’s body removed from the Lenin Tomb. Soviet’s explode the largest weapon ever detonated – 60 Megatons. RP204
CPSU 22nd Party Congress. RS28


By 1962, “more than 3 million cadres and party members” had been labeled Rightists. H562 But most were rehabilitated by 1962. H587
January 11-February 7: The 7,000 Cadre Conference, Liu Shaoqi’s report did not blame famine on the weather. (1/11/- 2/7 S 646) Liu criticized the vehemence of the attack on “right opportunism” and is reported to have called for the rehabilitation of Peng Dehuai. Liu had sup[ported Mao in launching the GLF, but now criticized it. Liu said wrong political decisions accounted for 70% of the disaster. XIV326, XIV442 This conference pointed out that cadre’s were forced to lie and attacked Mao’s line. Mao made a self-criticism speech on January 30. S 387 Lin Biao sharply defended Mao, saying his thoughts were always correct. Hua Guofeng also refused to criticize Mao. S 388 The conference upheld the Three Red Banners of the GPCR. Mao named the Five Black Categories: Landlords, rich peasants, counter-revolutionary elements, bad elements and anti-communist rightists, at this Conference, on January 30, 1962. MT 164 Landlords, capitalists, revisionists, counterrevolutionaries and criminals. M 321, XV74
January 30: Mao makes a self criticism for Great Leap, saying, “I’m directly and indirectly responsible for all the mistakes made by the Central Committee because I’m the chairman.” “I should be the first person to be held responsible” H581 Mao establishes the Five Black Categories: Landlords, rich peasants, counter-revolutionary elements, bad elements and anti-communist rightists. Listed in Mao’s speech at the January cadre conference. January 30, 1962, MT 164
Feburary 10: In Berlin, USA exchanges Rudolf Abel for Gary Powers and a student. RP207
February 20: John Glenn orbits the earth. RP207
March: Encouraged by the USA, Taiwan begins extensive preparations to invade China to take advantage of the GLF chaos. XIV524
March 15: Gus Hall and other CPUSA leaders are indictied for failing to register as subversives. RP207
March 19: France signs truce with Algerian Rebels. RP207
April: Liu Shaoqi plans to rehabilitate 70% of the purged rightists. S 391
May: Mainland refugees flee to Hong Kong to excape famine and economic chaos. XIV524
May: Soviets encourage Xinjiang residents escaping the GLF famine to flee to the USSR, providing visas at the Soviet Consulate. There were local riots and the PRC closed the Soveit Consulates in Xuinjiang. XIV520
June 25: Supreme Court abolishes school prayer. RP208
July 9: USA explodes a nuclear warhead in space—200 miles above the Pacific. RP208
July: Deng gives his “white cat, black cat” speech. (This was a defense of the “Agricultural Responsibility System.”)H568
August 1: New edition of “How to be a Good Communist” by Liu Shaoqi, is published with some fanfare. W 69
August 6: Mao confronted Liu and Deng’s criticism of the Great Leap and attacked the Ministry of Finance projection of a big deficit. Mao opposed the idea of an individual responsibility system and warde bapout a feudal or capitalist restoration. XIV333Mao warned, “Never forget class struggle.” TSxxii, CD Mao’s allies were Jiang Qing, Lin Biao, Kang Sheng,, Chen Boda, and Wang Dongxing. XIV332
August: At a meeting of the Secetariat to review the data on individual farming, Deng makes his “Black cat/white cat” quip. XIV332 Soviets meet with Indian officals to discuss a license for building soviet fighter aircraft in India. XIV521
September 13: Supreme Court in Gideon, affirms right to counsel for criminals. RP209
September 24-27: 10th Plenum of 8th CC: VIV662 Mao goes on the offensive against his GLF critics. XIV450 Declares that class struggle continues under socialism and there is a danger of capitalist restoration. He linked the degeneration of the USSR to the continuanmce of calls struggle under socialism. XIV334 The bourgeoisie is right in the party. S 395 Mao calls for a new Rectification Campaign called the “Socialist Education Campaign.” XIV348
September 29: Jiang Qing’s first public appearance--with Mao & Sukarno’s wife S 401
October 20: Sino Indian War. Indian troops cross the McMahon line into undisputed Tibetan territory. The Pla launches a coordinated offensive, decimating the Indians. XIV523
October 21: Indian and Chinese troops clash. RP 209 The PLA fights well and its prestige rises. XIV338
October 22: JFK announces Cuban blockade. RP209
November 20: USA lifts the Cuban blockade in deal with Soviets. RP209 Bijing accuses Moscow of adventurism and then capitulationism over Cuba. XIV521


February: CC meeting launches the Socialist Education Movement. The Four Cleanups (accounts, warehouses, property and work-points) and the Five Anti’s (corruption and theft, speculation and profiteering, extravagance and waste, decentralism and bureaucracy) against capitalism in the countryside. H605, CD 83 Mao’s emphasis is on criticizing the “agricultural responsibility system initiated by Deng to rescue China from the Great Leap. XV 469
March: CCP responds to CPUSA criticism. XIV527
May: As part of SEM, Mao writes the “First Ten Points” with emphasis on organizing peasants in class struggle against LL class. W 71.
Summer: Food becomes available again in Beijing. W 264June 1: US Supreme Court bans prayers and religious exercises in schools. RP211
July 25: Soviets sign test ban treaty with USA, upsetting China. XIV527
August 27: W.E.B. DuBoios dies in Ghana. RP212
September: “The Later Ten Points” attributed to Liu Shaoqi. Emphasis on relying on Party leadership for ideological direction of SEM. W 71
November 2: Diem assassinated in Saigon, RP213
November 22: JFK assassinated in Dallas. RP213
December: Mao issued a general call “To learn form the PLA.” XIV338 Mao denounces the Ministry of Culture as a “ministry of emperors, kings, generals and ministers,” a “ministry of scholars and beauties,” and a “ministry of foreign dead people.” H610


Rectification Campaign: In early 1964, high cadres went down to the basic levels to do investigations. Liu Shaoqi went to Hunan for 18 days. His wife Wang Guangmei, spent five months in in the Taoyuan Brigade near Tianjin. The learned that corruption was widespread and that many basic level cadres opposed the Party, as did a large percentage of the peasants. XIV349
January 27: Diplomatic relations with France. XIV533
February: “Learn from the PLA Campaign.” Government offices were ordered to establish or PLA style Political Departments. XV118
February 23: Mao ordered all actors, poets, , writers, and dramatists to leave the cities for the rurual areas to reform their thinking. J412, J523n6
“Learn From Dazhai” and “Put politics in command.” initiated this year. CD83
China establishes diplomatic relations with its first Western European country—France. W 6, H590
Spring: CC work teams dispatched to Beida. TSxxii
April: China provides $42 million credit to Tanzania. XIV533
May: First edition of Red Book published.
Lin Biao’s Four Firsts “Put the human factor first, political work first, ideological work first, and living ideas first” This started the Mao Cult.
May: Party decides to build the “Third Line” in western China. H614
May & June: Mao and Liu Shaoqi estimate that 1/3 of the grass roots units in country are not in our hands, but in the hands of the enemy. H 606
June: After reading the “Report on the Situation in the Rectification Campaign Carried out in the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles asn the Associations Under It (draft), Mao complained that these circles were a basis for counter-revolutionary “Petofi Clubs.” H610
June: Final break with CPSU W 41
July: “Five-Man Group of the Cultural Revolution”: set up. Lu Dingyi, propaganda Chief, Kang Sheng, Peng Zhen, Beijing mayor; Zhou Yang, deputy chief of propaganda, Wu Lengxi, Head of Peoples Daily.
July 14: The 9th Comment is published. This refers to the last of the “comments”—the polemics—attacking the Soviet Line.
August 2: Gulf of Tonkin Incident. RP217, XIV526
August 7: Beijing Review pledges China’s assistance to Vietnam. XIV531 China pledges to respond militarily if North Vietnam is bombed. But the North is later bombed, and China did nothing, upsetting the Vietnamese. XIV531
August 21: Palmiro Togliatti dies. J257
August: PLA starts shelling Quemoy. H593
September: The Miltons arrive in Beijing. M 4
September: The Revised Later Ten Points incorporate Liu Shaoqi’s experience of assive corruption at the basic level and demands the sending of work teamd n to smash the corruption and win peasant support. Mao opposed this line ecause it eliminated Mao’s ideas about fighting revisions by reimposing arsh discipline from above. XIV350
October 1: Free Speech movement begins at Berekeley with the arresyt of Jack Weinberg at an unauthorized CORE able. RP219
October 14: Krushchev removed as chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers W 12, XIV529
October 16: China detonates its first nuclear weapon W 13, H620, XIV529
November 23: Supreme Court refuses to stike “under God” from the Pledge of Allegiance. RP219
December 11: Gusanos fire a bazooka at the UN to protest Che Guevarra’s speech to the General Assembly. RP220
December: Mao’s “final break” with Liu Shaoqi for watering down the SEM. Mao sent him a 23 article directive which Mao says he ignored. XV80
December: 3d National Peoples Congress meets. At this forum, Zhou Enlai suggested the “four modernizations” for the first time. H616


Military ranks were abolished this year. XV117 When?
January: Edgar Snow interviews Mao. W 81
January: Mao writes “The 23 Articles” to reorient Socialist Education Movement, against Liu’s anti corruption focus. XIV350 Mao calls on the peasant masses to supervise the Party. For the first time, this article calls for the peasants to direct the “spearhead” of criticism against “those people in authority within the party who take the capitalist road.” W 72 Mao fought Deng and Liu Shaoqi at a conference held this month.
January 17: New York Times reports a 50,000 man PLA railroad construction unit in North Vietnam with antiaircraft divisions. XV224
January 24: Winston Churchill dies. RP221
February 21: Malcom X murdered in NYC. RP221
January 25: This is the day Mao decided to purge LIU Shaoqi NE 212
February 8: USA bombs Hanoi while Soviet Premier Kosygin was there. China responds with three days of Anti-American demonstrations in Beijing. W 83
March: Soviet troops break up a foreign student demonstration at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow. 130 students were injured and the USSR blamed China for instigating the demo. The Chinese students were welcomed home as martyrs. W 85
March: Demonstrations begin at Soviet Embassy in Beijing. W 84. They last for years.
March: U.S troops land at Da Nang. China begins sending “relief troops” to Vietnam to operate ground to air missles, AAA, engineers, railway workers, mine sweepers, logistics, etc. By the end of March 1968, 320,000 Chinese troops were serving in Vietnam, and over 5,000 were killed. H594-5
April 17: SDS launches first national demonstration (over 20,000) against Vietnam War in Washington DC. RP223
April 28: LBJ sends 14,000 soldiers into Santo Domingo to prvent Juan Bosh from taking power as President. RP222
May: The Cultural Revolution group is formed. M 296
May: Period of greatest tension with USA over Vietnam War. Red Flag publishes Lo Juiching’s article “Commemorate the Victory over German Fascism! Carry the Struggle Against U.S. Imperialism Through to the End!” The Chinese see this as a War threat directed to the U.S. W 86
May: Voice of America announces the arrests of Peng Zhen, Lu Dingyi, Yang Shangkun and Luo Ruiqing. M 298
May: Lin Biao abolishes all insignias of rank in the PLA XIV338 Soldiers all now wear a single red star on their caps.
June 26th Directive: On Barefoot Doctors. S 421
August 11: Watts riots triggered by arrest of Marquette Frye. 34 killed. RP223
August: Andre Malraux interviews Mao, who says “I am alone with the masses. Waiting.” W 93
September 3: Lin Biao’s “Long Live the Victory of Peoples War” is published as an attack on Lo Juiching’s military line. “The principal contradiction in the world is between the revolutionary peoples of Asia, Africa, and Latin America and the imperialists headed by the United States.” W 95-96 GPCR Begins. This was the first “opening gun” of the GPCR. (Yao Wenyuan’s attack on Wu Han, on 11/10/65 was the second gun. XV227)
September: Attempted PKI supported coup directed at Sukarno leads to murder of 100,000 Communists and Chinese in Indonesia. RP224, XIV339
November?: Mao sends “work teams” to Beida and other campuses. They are later recalled and the Beida president, Lu Ping, sequesters 80 radicals at the “International Hotel” in Central Beijing for seven months, trying to convince them they were wrong for supporting the work teams. NIE Yuanzi: Philosophy Instructor at Beida, and chair of the Philosophy Department’s Party Committee, is among the captives. W 127
November 10: GPCR BEGINS YAO Wenyuan’s criticism of “ Hai Rui Dismissed from Office” 11/10/65 is published in Shanghai’s Wenhui Bao. H628. The play supposedly compared Peng Dehuai to the loyal Hai Rui, wrongly dismissed from office for telling the Emperor the truth. 600,000 deaths in GPCR. MM 47 GPCR officially ended in 1969. But Deng changed the “official” date to 1976. MM 47 Around this time, Mao replaces the director of the Central Committee General Office, YANG Shangkun, with his own man—Wang Dongxing. CC361 Mao, with Lin Biao’s help, removes PLA Chief of Staff LUO Ruiqing from his post. CC361
November 17: the American experience the heaviest casualties of the Vietnam War. 155 Americans were killed and almost as many wounded in fighting in the city of Ia Drang. P
November 28: Mao and Jiang Qing attended Anna Louise Strong’s 80th birthday party in Shanghai with all the Americans. W 98 Mao commented on Progresive Labor Party’s line on the Indonesian massacre, which blamed PKI for “errors”. Mao thought the criticism was untimely after such a massacre. W 105 Rittenberg attended. Mao terrified Yao Zhen and Wu Lengxi with smoking joke that “I am in the minority again.” W 288


January: With Lin Biao’s support, Jiang Qing begins work on a highly critical review of “the struggle” in literature and art since 1949. The text, released by Mao in 4/66 as an intra-Party document, concludes that a “great socialist Revolution on the cultural front” has to be launched to counter the long dominant “dictatorial anti-Part anti-socialst black line.” CC362
February 2-20: In Shanghai, Jiang Qing, with Lin Biao’s support, gives keynote speech at PLA “Shanghai Forum” conference on art and literature. TSxxiii, H630, XV118 Her address condemns the Party’s literature and art activities as counter-revolutionary. This was the “February Report” issued to attack the February Outline. XV 130
February 3: “February Outline Report on Current Academic Discussion” by Peng Zhen’s group of five, including Lu Dingyi, submits a report to Mao on the “academic debate” in progress since November. It said that the Hai Rui play was merely academic and historical and not an attack. Mao neither endorsed nor rejected the report. H630, CC 362
March: Mao meets with Kang Sheng, Jiang Qing and Xhang Chunqiao. He slams the “February Outline Report”, calls the Popaganda Department “the Palace of Hell, and warns that the CC Propaganda Department and Beijing Municipal Party Committee that they are shielding scoundrels, suppressing the Left, and disallowing revolution. H631, XV 130
March: Lin Biao ousts his military rival, Luo Ruiqing (Chief of Staff), who attempts suicide in Beijing. CC362, H631
March: China boycotts the CPSU 23d Congress. This broke relations with the USSR H598
March: Nancy Milton speaks at big Vietnam Rally in Beijing Worker’s Stadium. W 121
March 28: Peng Chen, Mayor of Beijing, is “overthrown”. W 120, H631
April 9-12: At a meeting of the CC Secretariat in Beijing, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping accuse Peng Zhen of committing mistakes and opposing Mao. At a Politburo meeting in Hangzhou, chaired by Mao, Peng’s group of five is dissolved and it is decided to form a new ad hoc group directly under the Politburo Standing Committee. CC362. LU Dingyi is implicated in the arrest of his wife on charges of slandering Lin Biao’s wife. CC362, XV 131
April 10: After revising Jiang Qing’s February report on Literature and Art, Mao orders it transmitted to all levels of the Party. H631
April 19: Renmin Ribao carries an article announcing the start of the GPCR. XV 595
April 21: Rev A.J. Muste expelled from Saigon for attempting to organize a peace march. RP230
May 4-18: At an enlarged Politburo Meeting, LO Juiqing and PENG Zhen are criticized. Lin Biao accuses them of conspiring with Yang Shangku, director of the CC Secretariat, in a military coup against Mao. “Every sentence of Chairman Mao’s works is a truth; one single sentence of his surpasses ten thousand of ours…” This Politiburo meeting set the stage for the reorganization of the Beijing Party Committee, the Propaganda Department, and the Party Secretariat. XV 132-3
May 7: In a letter to Lin Biao, Mao describes his ideal society, in which the distinction between mental and manual labor is overcome. This “instruction” from Mao is treated as a directive that intellectuals should be reeducated by the workers and peasants, and becomes the source of the “May 7th Cadre Schools.” H, 643, TS251
May 9: China detonates fusion weapon. W 122. Peoples Daily editorial “Open Fire Against the Anti-Party Anti-Socialist Black Line” W 122
May 13: US shoots down a PLA MiG in Vietnam. RP230
May 15: Universities close—for five years! W 125
May 15-17: One million people demonstrate outside the British Charge d’affaires office in Shanghai. On May 16 the office was stormed and First Secretary Hewitt, his wife and three children were held for three hours as all their possessions were destroyed. They were kicked and beaten and their clothes smeared with glue. CC170-171
May 16th: Joint Meeting of the Politburo with the Cultural Revolution Group. M 305 “Four Olds Campaign” started. Peng Zhen, Luo Ruiqing, Lu Dinyi and Yang Shangkun all dismissed. Lin Biao makes a sensational speech implying that the four dismissed leaders had been plotting a coup against Mao. Central Cultural Revolution Group is set up to handle the public campaign. Central Case Examination Group is formed to manage the purge of “senior counter-revolutionary revisionists.” Zhou Enlai chairs both groups. The Politburo issues the “May 16th Circular” drafted by Chen Boda declaring war on “representatives of the bourgeoisie who have sneaked into the Party, the government, the army, and the various spheres of culture.” CC362-363. It revoked February Outline Report and called for GPCR in 1966 S 457 Peng Chen’s Cultural Revolution Group is dissolved. A new Cultural Revolution Authority is formed by the Standing Committee of the Politburo. W 125. Reactionary “academic authorities” are attacked, putting intellectuals in a dangerous predicament. H633
May 25: NIE Yuanzi: Philosophy Instructor at Beida, and chair of the Secretary of the Philosophy Department’s Party Committee, puts up first Big Character poster attacking school president and “dark forces” who supported the February Outline and opposed Mao. The school moves to suppress NIE. Zhou Enlai sent a work team to suppress NIE and support the school, but when Mao learned of the poster’s contents he ordered a radio broadcast that night, extolling the poster, saying that it was the first “truly Marxist wall poster.” XV 135 TS148, TSxxiii (NE 235 says the date was 6/1/66) NIE was a friend of Kang Sheng;’s wife, CAO Yi’ou. TS148 The first Red Guards were organized by hundreds of Kang Sheng’s agents sent to campuses. NE 237
May: Late in May, Mao talks to Ho Chi Minh about death and succession. H634
May 18: At an enlarged meeting of the Politburo, Peng Zhen, Luo Ruiqing, Lu Dingyi and Yang Shangkun were attacked as an “anti-party” clique. Lin Biao accused them of planning a coup d’etat. H634 Lin proclaims Mao infallible: “Everything Chaiman Mao says is the truth. A single sentence of his carries more weight than ten thousand ordinary sentences.” “Whoever is against Chairman Mao will be punished by the entire Party and condemned by the whole nation. H634-5, J321 for date.
June: Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping send the first Work Teams to the campuses to restore order and Party control. CC363. About 400 teams with 10,000 cadres are dispatched. They are told to reestablish party authority over the movement. XV 136 Children of the Party elite form the first “Red Guards.” CC 363 Mao meets with Ho Chi Minh and has an unusual talk with him about revolutionary succession. XV 203
June 1: Mao’s Big Character Poster is published. J321 Renmin Ribao in the editorial “Sweep Away All Monsters and Demons”, calls for a GPCR. H635
June 2: A task force led by the head of the Central Cultural Revolution Group, Chen Boda, takes over Renmin Ribao and publishes Nie Yuanzi’s big-character poster in which Party authorities in the capital are attacked by name. CC363 , H635Chaos begins on University campuses. CC 363
June 4: Renmin Ribao announces that Peng Zhen has been dismissed from office and that the Beijing Municipal leadership was “connected by a big black line to an anti-Party, anti-socialist clique.” TS149
June 6: Beijing Girls Middle School—next to Zhongnanhai-- petitions Mao and CC to abolish school entrance examinations. The exams were abolished by the State Council a week later. NE 507 n 17.
June 13: Miranda v Arizona establishes Miranda rights of accused. RP231
July 1: NY Tines reports that Chinese ships came under attack in Haiphong Harbor. XV233
July 1: Red Flag publishes an extensive criticism of Zhou Yang, who had been in charge of literature production since 1949, accusing him serious mistakes from the 1930s to the present. This campaign was rightly seen as the beginning of an attack on all literature. XV596
June 13: Official announcement cancels the national college entrance examination scheduled for July. XV 543
June 18: Mao visits Shaoshan, arriving in three cars with his Unit 8341 bodyguards. RC150
July: Campaign against “The Four Olds” begins: old thoughts, old culture, old customs, old habits NE 191, W 146
July 8: Mao’s July 8, 1966 letter to Jiang Qing says that great disorder under heaven can bring great order across the land. H642
July 16: Mao’s Yangtze Swim at Wuhan bridge. NE 234 The New China News Agency reported that Mao’s swim was so vigorous that his speed was four times the world Record. XV 136-8
July 17: Mao meets w/ LIU and DENG and ZHOU. He denounces them for sending work teams to quell the students.
July 18: The three make public self-criticisms at Great Hall of the People. NE 235 Mao sends a letter to Jiang Qing that criticized Lin Biao. J xxi
July 20: Jiang Qing speaks at Beida. J xxi
July 21 & 22: Mao convenes 11th CC plenum and packs it with Lin Biao men and his supporters, still only winning a slight majority. The Sixteen Point Decision on the GPCR is adopted. The plenum endorses the Politburo’s sacking of PENG Zhen, LO Juiqing, LU Dingyi and YANG Shangkun. LIU Shaoqi is stripped of vice chairmanship and demoted to number eight in the party. LIN Biao replaces LIU and is made sole vice chair. CHEN Boda and KANG Sheng appointed leaders of the new Cultural Revolution Group. Mao wrote his own Daxibao at the meeting and posted it outside the door. A series of eight massive Red Guard Rallies began a week after the plenum. XV 139-143. Mao says NIE Yuanzi’s poster and the student movement is just like the Paris Commune, but more important, he condemns the leaders who suppressed the students with the new work teams and withdraws all the work teams. W 138
July 22: Jiang Qing makes her first public appearance of the GPCR at a huge Beida meeting on the East Athletic field. She attacked Mao’s ex-wife Zhang Shaohua, the mother of Mao Anqing. She said Zhang’s mother was a traitor who had collaborated with the KMT and then escaped to Yanan with her son. On the platform with Jiang Qing was Kang Sheng, Chen Boda, Guan Feng, and Qi Benyu, all from the Central Cultural Revolution Group. TS164-165
July 22: Liu Shaoqi speaks at a rally of 1 million in Beijing, condemning the Vietnam War. W 138 This was Liu’s LAST public appearance.
July 26: The Cultural Revolution Group dissolves the university work teams. J322
July 29, Meeting of 10,000 students at Great Hall to criticize Work Teams. Liu and Deng’s self criticisms. Mao watched from drawn curtain, then made a dramatic appearance snubbing Liu, Deng and the others.. S 470
August: The Cultural Revolution Group 13 members, led by Chen Boda, Kang Sheng and Jiang Qing, is set up. China is now ruled by three groups loyal to Mao: The Cultural Revolution Group, the Military Affairs Committee (Lin Biao), and the Government State Bureaucracy (Zhou Enlai) on an ad hoc basis. CC and Party no longer function. W 142 Party Branches are suspended late in 1966. W 143.
August 1: Mao writes to the Red Guards at the Qinghua University Middle School expressing his warm support for their rebellious spirit. Red Guards appear all over China. Mao surprises Red Guards at Tiananmen with a wave from the gate.
August 1 - 12: Eleventh Plenum of 8th CC S 471 Mao presides. On August 4, Mao condemned Liu Shaoqi’s work teams as “an act of suppression fo the student movement” and “a mistake in matters of political line.” H636 Mao’s big character poster attacking Liu Shaoqi, “Bombard the Headquarters”, was unveiled on August 7. H636 , S 471 Lin Biao named “Chairman Mao’s closest comrade in arms and successor” W 139 The programme of the 11th Plenum, “the Sixteen Point Decision”, is published as the Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. (Reprinted at CC33) MM 49 which exempted the Army and the peasants from the GPCR W 141 This is the OFFICIAL launch of GPCR . CC 363 More than 77,000 residents with “bad backgrounds” are expelled from Beijing. CC363
August 5: Mao’s big character poster, “bombard the headquarters!” isnposted. It praises Nieh Yuanzhu and those who opposed the wok teams. XV 548
August 10: Mao receives the masses at Zhongnanhai west gate S 471
August: Jiang Qing attacks Zhou Enlai with forged newspaper article from 1930’s S 474
August 18-November 26: over 13 million Red Guards come to Beijing, free of charge, to see Mao, at eight giant rallies. XV 143 On August 18, SONG Binbin, the female Red Guard leader, pinned a Red Guard armband on Mao at the first Red Guard Tiananmen Rally, 8/18/66. A million Red Guards then assemble and Mao reappears w/ LIN Biao, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Kang Sheng and Deng. Mao meets with Nie Yuanzi and other Red Guard leaders. NE 235, 237. Lin Biao delivers his “Four Olds speech.” M 318 Red Guards begin a nationwide rampage breaking into homes to route out the Four Olds. CC364
September: Free Transportation proclaimed as students board trains to spread the GPCR W 158
September 10: Zhou Enlai meets with Red Guards from the No. 15 Middle School for Girls. The want to change the rules for traffic signals so that the red light means “go.” Zhou gave a clever speech to discourage this idea. CC 332
October 1: Foreign Experts are invited to join party leaders atop Tiananmen gate. Mao signed Rittenberg’s Red Book. M Photos
October 6: At a mass rally in Beijing, the radical factions dominate, thanks to Mao’s support. XV 548
October 15: Huey Newton and Bobby Seale form Black Pamther Party in Oakland, CA. RP233
October 9-28: A GPCR Central Work Conference was held in Beijing to access the progress of the GPCR. Mao and Lin started out trying to reassure the frightened cadres that most of then would pass the test of the GPCR. But as the conference dragged on for two weeks the debate became acrimonious and the assurances stopped. Lin attacked Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, who were compelled to submit self-criticisms to the conference. XV 151
October: Local Party leadership of GPCR is suspended by order of the CCP Center, giving impetus to mass organizations with links to the Central Cultural Revolution Group. CC364 Students and teachers from Beijing Teachers University ransack Confucius’s ancestral home in Qufu, Shandong, exhuming corpses and defacing more than 2000 graves. CC364
Wang Hongwen creates the “Workers’ Headquarters” in Shanghai to organize the contract workers and the underprivileged laborers. XV 153
November: Zhou and the Center shift support to the “Third Red Guard Headquarters” in Beijing. The first two HQ’s were set up by cadres to try to protect themselves. The Third HQ was the excluded, non-party, rebels. W 168
November: Workers in Shanghai halt train traffic to protest not being allowed to travel to Beijing. CC364 Mao now endorses rebel workers’ groups. The Central Case Examination Group involves a growing number of students in a nationwide search for the 61 renegades. CC364 Free travel for Red Guards is ended. XV 151
Winter: The Shanghai Commune. Defended by the “Million-Man Army.” NE 374
December: The Central Case Examination Group begins building a secret file on LIU Shaoqi. A number of senior “counter-revolutionary revisionists” are rounded up and confined to special prisons in Beijing. The CCEG beings using torture to extract confessions. CC 364 The “Contract Workers” demonstrate in Beijing and win Jiang Qing and Rittenberg’s support. W 188 Shanghai’s economy and government collapses as amidst fighting by contending radical groups, contract workers, Red Guards, and Scarlet Guards. Runs on banks, hoarding, disruption of power and transportation occur. XV 158
December 12: Peng Chen, Xia Yan, Tain Han, Lu Dengyi and Yang Shangkun are broght to the Beijing Workers Stadium and humiliated by 10,000 Red Guards. J3287
December 18: Zhang Chunqiao meets with Kwai Dafu at Xinhua University and gives him copies of Liu’s and Deng’s self-criticisms at the October work conference. Red Guard posters attacking them now go up all over the campuses. XV 152
December 26: At his seventy-third birthday party, Mao toast the unfolding of a nationwide all-round civil war! CC365
December 31: Rittenberg’s group seizes Radio Beijing. M 353


Hydrogen Bomb detonated by PRC
January: Contract workers group declared counterrevolutionary by the Cultural Group. W 190
January: Three weeks of relentless demonstrations begin in fron of the Soviet Embassy. Chinese students demonstrate in Red Square. Part of the Soveit Embassy is sacked; officers from a Soviet ship in Darien are paraded through the streets for refusing to wear Mao buttons; Soviet dependents being evacuated from Beijing are forced to run a gauntlet of jeering Red Guards at Beijing Airport. XV 237.
January 7: The January Storm. A mass rally dismisses the mayor, ZAO Diquan. Zhang Chunqiao returns from Beijing to set up a new municipal government. XV 159 Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, in concert with Wang Hongwen of the Shanghai No 17 Cotton Mill, seize power from the city Party and government functionaries. H647
January 16: Red Flag publishes Mao’s comments saying that the action was a revolutionary seizure of power from those in authority taking the capitalist road. H 648
January 22: Red Flag editorial calls on revolutionaries across the country to seize power in support of Chairman Mao. H648 “Rebellions” then take place all over China.
January 23: Renmin Ribao calls for mass seizures of power all over China. GPCR is now described not as the seizure of power from revisionists in the Party, but as “a great revolution in which one class overthrows another.” XV 160
January 23: CC issues a Directive ordering the PLA to “support the broad masses of the Left.” XV 161
January: Vice Minister Tao Zhu from Guangdong, number four in the Party, is cast down and put under house arrest in Zhongnanhai. CC 365 Tao is allegedly responsible for the “Sea of Red”-- the covering of walls with quotes from Mao so that no posters could go up and advocating “Doubt everything, overthrow everything.” to create chaos. W 181 Cadres children, hundreds of them, stage repeated sit-ins at the Ministry of Public Security to protest the harsh treatment of them and their parents. CC365
January: Rittenberg, leading “the Mao Zedong Thought Combat Corps” seizes control of Beijing Radio. The Corp is overthrown but Rittenberg switches allegiance to the victors in time to retain control. He is backed by Wang Li, his sponsor. W 283.
February 5: Shanghai Commune (modeled on the Paris Commune) proclaimed, supposedly replacing the party with mass communist democracy. W 196, J330 Later that month Mao recalled Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyaun to Beijing where he denounced them for their anarchism and “counterrevolutionary politics.” A Revolutionary Committee is formed to stop the anarchy. J330
February 9: Bo Yibo’s mass criticism rally at Beijing Worker’s Stadium. He was charged as the leading figure in the 61 Renegades case. His defiance of the Red Guards forced them to cancel the rally. CC122 Bo was imprisoned but never surrendered or signed a confession.
February 23: PLA kills 169 and wounds 178 “masses” occupying a newspaper office in Qinghai. Four soldiers died and twenty-six we wounded. CC137
February 27: Under criticisms from Mao for abandoning the role of the Party, the Shanghai Commune is renamed “the Shanghai Municipal Revolutionary committee. W 198 Revolutionary Committees now become the standard form of political rule in China. CD 25
February Reverse Current: Mao criticizes the Paris Commune model, violence against cadres, and exempts sensitive military areas form the GPCR, and tries to limit the scope of mass organizations by eliminating free travel, preventing the formation of the “counterrevolutionary “national Red Guard Groups.” XV 176 With this apparent support some state and military leaders, e.g. General Nie Rongzhen, Ye Jianying, Xu Xiangqian and Chen Yi, in 2/67, call a meeting to question and criticize the GPCR, saying that army discipline was endangered. H650, LM 333, CC365 Mao turns against the leaders and seizes control by refusing to convene Politburo meetings. From now on, the leadership meets in “briefing sessions” chaired by Zhou Enlai, attended only by those unconditionally loyal to Mao. CC365 Mao warns that that the mass organizations must not be suppressed (by leading cadres). This has the effect of encouraging criticism of Zhou Enlai for his earlier conservative moves to restore order.
March 7: Mao brings the PLA into the schools to restore order, and never again allows the masses to create the anarchy of the Shanghai Commune. XV 551-2 The PLA tends to support the more pro-cadre conservative factions. This had the effect of aggravating the Red Guard split in the spring pf 1967
March: Two factions emerge in Beijing. The conservative Heaven faction led by “Red Flag Rebels” from the Aviation Institute (Zhou). The radical Earth Faction led by “the East is Red Revolutionary Rebels” from the Geology Institute (Jiang Qing). W 206, XV 553
March: At a meeting of the Military Affairs Commission, Mao opens the campaign against Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. W 220, CC365 The Center issues an intra-Party circular describing the treachery of key Party leaders in the 1930’s (The 61 Renegades). Nationwide hunt for the 61 Renegades begins. CC365 Red Guard free travel is formally suspended. CC365
April: First articles against Liu and Deng appear in the press. W 221.
April 10: WANG Guangmei is interrogated by Red Guards at Qinghua University. Transcription of interrogation is at CC101, J334
April 21: Right Wing coup in Greece prevents election of Socialist George Papandreou. RP240
April 28: Muhammad Ali arrested for defying the draft. Confvited on June 2o, and sentenced to five years. RP241
April 30: Indonesian charge d’affairs Yao Dengshan is expelled and lands in Beijing to a hero’s welcome. XV 246
May: China supports a strike movement in Hong Kong. Mass riots and fighting jeopardize British rule. The Hong Kong police and a helicopter carrier hold out and stop the insurrection by June. XV 239 This leads to the July and August attacks on the British Embassy and the Shanghai Consulate. XV 239
May 1: May Day Rally: Red Guards climbed Tiananmen Gate, entering from East Gate within Gu Gong and passing in single file a few feet from Mao before exiting at West Gate! M 375.
May 7: May 7th Cadre Schools Established S 476
May 13: Students criticizing Chen Yi break into the Foreign Ministry breaking into classified files. W 228, XV 246
May 17: The May 16th Circular is published in Renmin Ribao. J321
May 29: 2nd Red Guard attack on Foreign Ministry is assisted by former Indonesian Charge d’affaires hero Yao Dengshan. On May 1 he had appeared on front page of Peoples daily standing between Mao and Jiang Qing with arms interlocked. Rittenberg said Yao would soon replace Chen Yi as Foreign Minister W 229, XV 246
June: Li Lisan commits suicide while in the custody of the Central Case Examination Group. CC366
June to August: 1000 Rebel Organizations muster tens of thousands of people massed around Zhongnanhai—the Frontline of Ferreting Out Liu Shaoqi. H653
June 5: Isreal launches the Six Day War. RP242
June 7: “Foreign Experts”, accompanied by police, break into the British Embassy compound in Beijing. The haul down the Union Jack, burn it, and tear up two portrait of the Queen. Photo at CC192
June 17: PRC detonates first Hydrogen Bomb. RP242
July 18: Mao in Wuhan. With Mao away, Central Cultural Revolution Small Group (Jiang Qing & Kang Sheng) call first struggle session against Liu Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and Tao Zhu by staff at Zhongnanhai. CC366 Zhongnanhai under Red Guard siege. Kang spreads rumor that Zhu De has set up a rival, pro-Soviet CP to contend with Mao. NE 269 Zhou was surrounded in Great Hall by 100,000 Red Guards, over an eighteen-hour period he talked his way out. NE 270. Liu and Deng (with families) were struggled against inside Zhongnanhai on 7/18. NE 270.
July 20: “Wuhan Incident” 9th PLA Independent Division Mutiny, unit 8201 (The Million Heroes v. the Worker’s General Headquartees) in Wuhan. W 247 The PLA supported veteran cadres Million Heroes group. After delivering Mao’s criticism, Wang Li and Xie Fuzhi, Mao’s emissaries, are kidnapped when the Million Heroes stormed their hotel. XV 182. Zhou Enlai was there too according to Jiang Qing but escaped through a ruse. J345 Zhou Enlai later arranges their release and they return to Beijing as heroes. PLA main force units disarm unit 8201 and hunt down the sympathizers. 66,000 are wounded and 600 killed in Wuhan. CC366
July 22: In response to the Wuhan attack on her faction, Jiang Qing issues the call “attack with reason defend with force”, inflaming the radicals. XV 554, H 653, CC367. This was an apparent endorsement of violence by a top leader. XV 182
July 22: Wang Li arrives at Beijing airport from Wuhan, with foot in a cast, and is greeted by the entire CCP leadership as a hero. CD249
July 23: Detroit Riots. RP243
July: “Drag out the handful in the army” This slogan was an attempt by the Cultural Revolution Group (Earth) to purge the army just as the party had been purged. Rittenberg explained this to Milton. W 258 The PLA was the last functioning governmental power, had it been attacked, anarchy would have prevailed.
August 7: Wang Li, the hero of Wuhan, calls for seizing control of the Foreign Ministry. W 267 Wang Li and Yao Dengshan control the Ministry for about two weeks. XV 247
August 8: The Zhongnanhai beating of Liu Shaoqi & Wang Guangmei is filmed and broadcast on TV. NE 271.
August 19: Shanghai rally of 1 million at Peoples Square, sparking days of protests to eliminate vestiges of imperialist culture from Shanghai. Hotel names, Banks and street names were changed. Shops catering to bourgeois tastes were closed.
August: Cultural Revolution Group’s Earth faction breaks into Chen Yi’s Foreign Ministry. They burn the British charge d’affaires office. S 492 Allegedly for suppressing demos in HK. W 271 Rittenberg gets control of Beijing Radio. Posters openly denouncing Zhou appear in Beijing, put up by secret May 16th Organization. The Earth radicals are moving against the remaining two power bases: the PLA and Zhou (cadres). W 270
August: Zhou is surrounded at Great Hall of the people and trapped for two days and nights by thousands from the Earth faction. He finally talks his way out.
August: During the last week of August, Mao denounces Wang Li as a “big poisonous weed”, he stops the attack on the PLA and openly backs Zhou Enlai—this ends the crisis. W 273 GUAN Feng, also from Central Cultural Revolution Group, is also arrested. Guan is said to be behind the calls to “Drag out a small handful in the army!” Wang Li is blamed for the sacking of the British Legation. CC367 Wang Li, Mu Xin, Lin Chie, and Guan Feng are all purged from the CRG. Qi Penyu is dumped four months later. XV 183.
September: Mao announces his plan to reconstruct the Party and government. Revolutionary Committees will be established everywhere, ending the factionalism. New Party Committees will be formed on the basis of three 3 in 1 combinations: old, middle-aged, young; workers, peasants soldiers; masses, PLA, cadres. The Ninth Party Congress will be called based on these new Party Committees. XV 193
September: In Zhuji County, Zhejiang, the PLA occupies the train station and executes 146 civilians to guarantee the safe passage of Mao’s train. CC367
September 1: Zhou reasserts power with Lin Biao. W 285 Red Guard travel is halted; radicals are told to stop beating their opponents; Yao and Wang Li are soon arrested. XV 248
September 5: Jiang Qing gives a speech denouncing the “May 16th Rebels” for attacking Zhou. W 287. She described them as a small number of “extreme leftists”. She repudiates the “drag out the handful” line, and her own call to “attck with words, defend with force.” XV 184 A ten year hunt for the “May 16 Conspirators” begins, and results in the arrest of an estimated 3.5 million people. CC367 Chen Boda was closely associate with the May 16 Group. He may have turned to Lin Biao for protection, just at this time. XV 185
September 18: Secretary of Defense McNamara proposes ABM stytem to stop a Chinese attack. RP245
October 1: Lin Biao gave the main speech from Tiananmen Gate. W 295
October 8: Che Guevarra captured and executed in Bolivia. RP 246
October 14: The CCP Center, State Council, CMC, and Central Cultural Revolution Group issues an order to immediately open all universities and schools and resume classes. CC76
November: In Inner Mongolia, a Revolutionary Committee under the leadership of a Han general is set up and denounces Ulanfu, the pre-1966 stalwart leader. In Beijing, Jiang Qing announces a nationwide movement to “cleanse the class ranks.” CC368
November 12: Jiang Qing canonized the “revolutionary model plays.” XV 607 The Five Model Theatrical works are: Raid on the White tiger Regiment, Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy, Sha-chia-bang, The Red Lantern, and On the Docks. XV 608
December 10: The first “commercial” atomic bomb is detonated under New Mexico as part of an experiment in natural gas recovery. RP248
December: CCP Center orders the PLA to take control of China’s public security and legal apparatus. Some 34,400 policeman and cadres are targeted, and over 1,100 die in the purge. CC 368 Chen Boda announces that the CCP underground in eastern Hebei, may have been controlled by the KMT befoe 1949. The authorities in Tangshan respond with a massive investigation into 84,000 case of suspected treachery, resulting in 2,955 deaths. CC368 At the end of 1967, the NCNA announces that 350 million Red Books were produced in 1967. CC 368


January 23: North Koreans capture The Pueblo. RP250, RS 30, XV 252 Korea supports USSR. Red Guards denounce Kim Il Sung as a “millionaire and aristocrat.” XV 252
January 26: Seige of Khe Sanh begins. RP251
January 31: Tet Offensive begins. RP251
January: Central authorities initiate a nationwide clampdown on economic speculation. ZHAO Jianmin, a member of the CCP Secretariat, is arrested in Beijing and accused of being a KMT special agent. Some 14,000 people associated with him are rounded up and executed in a nationwide purge. CC368 Qi Benyu, a member of the Central Cultural Revolution Group is purged and accused of conspiring with Wang Li and Guan Feng in the May 16 Conspiracy. CC368
February: Central authorities call for urgent spending cuts. Bank accounts are frozen. Jiang Qing takes personal control of the LIU Shaoqi investigation. CC368
March: Lin Biao’s rivals in PLA are purged and replaced by his own men. YANG Chengwu, acting chief of staff, TU Lijin, air force political commissar, and FU Chongbi, commander of the Beijing Garrison, are purged. Lin’s followers dominate the reorganized Central Military Commission. CC369 Yang was accused of having supported a “second” February Adverse Current. XV 186 Competing factions stole weapons from Vietnam bound supply trains and fought each other in Guangxi. XV 187
March 11: Jiang Qing said that she met with student leaders of the Daqing Patroleum College who were in Beijing on March 11, 1968. The leaders of the Patroleum College had refused to criticize the February Counter Current, thus tacitly supporting Liu Shaoqi. J350.
March 16: My Lai massacre in Vietnam. RP252
March 31: Pesident Johnson announes he will not seek reelection. RP253
May: Taiwan aircrew defects to China. Photo, CC178
April 4: MLK Assasinated in Memphis, TN by James Earl Ray. RP253 Mao, commenting on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., issues his statement in support of the “Afro-American struggle against violent repression.” CC369 In Wuzhou, Guangxi, fighting between the PLA and the 22 April Grand Army, results in the destruction of the city and the deaths of several thousand Red Guards. CC369
April 23: Columbia University Student Strike begins with building seizures. RP254
May: “Purify the Class Ranks” campaign is launched targeting “ultra-leftists” but is widened to include many innocent cadres. XV 313 After the workers are sent into the campuses in July, the campaign picks up steam. XV 556
May 2: French students fight rightists at University of Nanterre. Protests break out in Paris the next day and lead to a general strike of 10 million workers. RP254 Red Flag flies from Arc deTriomphe on May 7.
May 22: In Guanzhou, the East Wind Red Guards bombed a meeting of the Red Flag Red Guards faction, killing many. The PLA stood idly by. CD23
June: Demonstrations in at Vietnamese Consulates in Guangzhou, Kunming, and Nanning, protest Hanoi’s acceptance of the Paris peace talks proposal. Severe damage to Kunming Consulate XV 249
June 3: The Red Flag strikes back at Zhongshan University using two machine guns take from the PLA. The besieged East Wind faction strikes back with homemade phosphorus bombs and sends a telegram to Mao on June 5, asking for help. CD 23
June 4: Sirhan Sirhan assassinates Robert F. Kennedy in Los Angeles. RP256
June: Cotton and cloth rations are reduced as the economy worsens. June 1968 is the height of the cannibalism in Wuxuan County, Guangxi. CC369
July 3: “The 3 July Directive” orders the Guangxi Red Guard factions to stop paralyzing railroad traffic. CD 28 The trains were carrying “revisionist” Soviet war material to North Vietnam. P In Guangxi, sections of Nanning are reduced to rubble in pitched battles with tanks, heavy artillery, and napalm. CC369
July 18: “18 July Directive” calls for end to fighting in southern Zhejiang Province. CD28
July 24: “The 24 July Directive” calls for a return to law and order in Xian. CD28
July 28: Mao meets with GPCR Small Group and student leaders in Great Hall in futile attempt to end factional fighting. S 501 “You have let me down.” Says Mao. CD27 This may have been the point at which Mao turned against the students because he brought in the PLA to the campuses that very day. Mao sends “Mao Zedong Thought Teams” of workers from his “six personally directed factories”, and 8341 Corps, to take over Qinghua and the other Beijing Universities, to restore order. Qinghua University is surrounded by soldiers. NIE Yuanze is taken into custody and confined to her room. Later, when she is sent to the Beida May 7 Cadre School in Liyuzhou, Jiangxi Province, she was punished by assignment to the worst job: emptying the heavy buckets of urine collected each night in the dormitories. TS 259, XV 187
July: “Tournament of Girls”: Beijing Revolutionary Committee collects photographs of 680 pretty middle school students as part of a secret citywide search for a bride for Lin Biao’s son. CC369
August 5: Mao’s Mangoes gift from a Pakistani delegation to workers at several factories. These were given to the workers involved in surrounding Qinghua to suppress the Red Guards on July 28. CD 28, XV 188 Mango worship. S 503 The Mangoes were treated as holy relics and powerful magical medicine.
August 20: Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. RP259, XV 408
August 30: Yao Wenyuan publishes an article, “The Working Class Must Exercise Leadership in Everything”, ascribing the Red Guard factionalism to their petty bourgeois origins, and demanding that the workers and PLA intervene. This leads to the disbanding of the remaining mass organizations and the end of the Red Guard Publications. XV 188
Autumn: Clean the Class Ranks Movement begins. At Beida, families were divided and put in dormitories. TSxxiii
September: Revolutionary Committees are set up in Tibet and Xinjiang. Renmin Ribao that All Chin, expect Taiwan, is Red. CC370
October 13 - 31: 12th Plenum of 8th CC. A rump of only 54 CC members attended. XV 193 Mao waited until revolutionary committees had been set up in 29 provinces and municipalities before calling the meeting. H658. Liu Shaoqi, in prison now, is stripped of power and expelled from Party. Mao prevented the expulsion of Deng. S 575, XV 195. Mao rejected the recommendation to expel Deng Xiaoping. XV 195 May 7th Cadre Schools are initiated. CC 370 Many delegates arrived straight from their cowsheds, and many could not attend because they were still being held by Rebels at home. Of the 97 CC members, only 40 were qualified to attend. 10 alternates were elected to meet a quorum. Liu Shaoqi is expelled. H658-9 “The 61 Renegades, “The Xinjinag renegade cliques”, the northeast renegade clique, and the south China renegade clique cases are all briefly discussed. H660
October 16: Black Power salute by two Black Olympic winners in Mexico City. RP261
November 6: Student Strike at San Francisco State to protest discrimination and dismissal of Black Panther Party instructor. RP263 Strike ends on March 20, 1969. RP 267
November 12: Liu Shaoqi dies in Kaifeng, Henan Province. H659
November 15: “Notification Concerning Work Assignments for University Graduates in 1968.” The CCP Center, State Council, CMC, and Central Cultural Revolution Group issues an order establishing the “Sent Down Youth” Program for all graduates. CC77
November: In a Report to the CCP Center, the Beijing Revolutionary Committee announces that 80,100 “class enemies” had been discovered in the city, including about 80% of th former leading personnel in the municipal administration. CC370
December: Mao orders students to the countryside. W 342, CC370, H666, XV85 quotes Beijing Review #52, 1968, pp 6-7. It is “very necessary for educated young people to go to the countryside to be reeducated by the poor and lower-middle peasants…” XV 188-9 Between 1968 and 1978, 16 million urban youth are sent down. CC 370. In Guangxi, teachers of bourgeois class backgrounds are labeled “birds and beasts” and put on public display in so-called “class struggle education exhibits.” CC 371


Revolutionary Foreigners head home en masse. W 350
January: Renmin Ribao New Year’s editorial declares that the decisive victory in the GPCR has been won, and that total victory is near. CC 371
January 24: PRC diplomat defects to Holland, disrupting diplomatic rapproachment with USA. XV 410
February: A national planning conference announces the forthcoming publication of Volumes 5 & 6 of Mao’s Selected Works. CC371
March: The “Neirendang”, a purported counterrevolutionary underground organization of ethnic separatists is smashed in Inner Mongolia. Estimates of 346,000 arrests and 16,000 deaths. CC 371
March 3: Chinese PLA attacks Soviet positions on Chenbao Island in the Ussuri River, sparking the border crisis. XV 254 300 PLA and frontier guards dressed on white camouflage and crossed the ice to the island. The shot the Soviet commander, who had locked arms to bar the Chinese. Nineteen Soviets were captured and immediately executed. XV 257. Lin Biao may have provoked the attack to give him more weight at the 9th Congress. XV 321
March 6: War Scare. Fighting w/ USSR over Zhenbao Island on Ussuri River leads to war mobilization through August. S 513
March 15: Chinese lose 800, and Russians 60 men in the Soviet defense of Chebao Island. XV 261
April 1-24: 9th Party Congress Opens. Deputies could not be selected by voting. They were recommended through consultations with the CC. There were 1,512 deputies. H660 2/3 of the delegates wore military uniforms. XV 198. Jiang Qing’s faction fought Lin Biao’s faction for control of the delegates, with Zhou in the middle. S 508 Lin Biao’s faction won, and he was appointed Mao’s successor. S 512. Milton’s view is different: New Politburo Standing Committee: Mao, Lin Zhou, Chen Boda, Kang Sheng W 346 Characterized by Milton as Mao-Zhou v. Lin-Chen Boda. Revival of Party (Mao’s goal) would hurt PLA. W 347. Hua Guofeng first joins the CC. MM 64 The Report said China should ready itself for an early war, a big war, and a nuclear war with the USSR and USA. H661 Only 32% of the 8th CC made it into the Ninth CC. The Politburo Standing Committee was Mao, Lin Biao, Chen Boda, Zhou Enlai and Kang Sheng. H662. New Party Constitution adopted. XV 197 The Congress established a plan to restore order based on the following principles. First, the establishment of Revolutionary Committees in every province was acclaimed as a great victory. Criticism, struggle, transformation must be carried out in every work unit in China in the following stages: establishing 3 in 1 RC, mass criticism and repudiation, purifying the class ranks, consolidating the Party organization, simplifying administrative functions, and sending white-collar workers to participate in labor. XV556
April 22: Formosan nationalist, Peter Huang, fires at Chiang Chin-Kuo in New York, narrowly missing him. F138
April 25: After the close of 9th CC, Lin Biao gave Zhou a list of those to be immediately executed and told him to take it to Mao for his approval. Mao struck Wang Guangmei’s name from the list. NE 274
April 28: 1st Plenum of 9th CC, XV v15, p 883
May 15: California State Police kill James Rector at Peoples Park, Berkeley. RP269
May 17 Directive: “Dig tunnels deep, store grain everywhere, and never seek hegemony.” Led to massive Beijing Tunnel Complex. S 23
June: The Yuping, Guizhou bamboo flutes appear in Hong Kong markets. They are inscribed with classical verses and quotations and cause a stir. The China watchers see them as containing hidden messages about opposition to the GPCR. CD 33
Summer: The US warns China of Soviet preparations to possibly attack China. XV 408
June 5-17: China boycotts the Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties in Moscow. XV 268
June 18-22: SDS split Convention in Chicago. RP271
July 20: Moon landing by Armstrongband Aldrin. RP272
August 5: Liu Shaoqi and his family were attacked inside Zhongnanhai. His children were then taken to their schools for more interrogations and beatings. PR 223
August 9: Tate-LaBianca murders by Charles Manson in Los Angeles. RP273
August 15: Woodstock Music Festival RP 273
September 3: Ho Chi Minh dies at age 79. RP274
September 11: Zhou and Kosygin discuss the border war at Beijing Airport. XV 266
October: Lin Liguo uses his position in the airforce to plot the coup. The code name was “combined fleet” H670
October 8-11: Days of Rage in Chicago. RP275
October 17 Lin Biao’s “Army Order No. 1”, orders removal of GPCR purge victims from Beijing in case of war with USSR. NE 273 Lin Biao’s “number one order” announces that the Soviet Union may launch an attack on China at any time and orders China to prepare for war. TS256 Lin feared that the arrival of a Soviet negotiating mission was the cover for a surprise nuclear strike. XV 322 Lin also dispersed many senior cadres, thus strengthening his position in Beijing. XV 322n66
November 12: LIU Shaoqi dies in Kaifeng, Henan Province, in old prison.
December 1: First draft Lottery for Vietnam. RP278


March 6: Weatherman townhouse explosion in Mnhattan. RP282
March 8: Mao expresses his view on rebuilding the government: Convene the 4th NPC to create a new Constitution that would abolish the head of state. Xv 314
March 28: Anna louise Strong dies in Beijing, RP283
April: Launch of China’s first satellite
April 11: Following 9th CC, Chen Boda plots with Lin Biao to win the State Chairmanship for Lin. Mao took the position that the State Chairmanship should be abolished. But on April 11 Lin Biao made the counter proposal that Mao should take the job. The real aim was to try to slip Lin into the position. H668, XV 314
May: USA invade Cambodia XV412
May 4: National Guard kills four students at Kent State Cambodia protest. RP285
June: CC decides to reopen universities, to admit worker-peasant-soldier students as the priority. H665.
July 2: PRC fighters intercept a U.S. spy plane off the coast. Kissenger says this may have been a provocation by Lin Biao to derail U.S.-China relations win the power struggle against Mao. XV 323n68 Duing his vist, Mao told Nixon that “a reactionary group” opposed contact with the USA. XV 414
August 7: Marin Courthouse shooting. Jonathan Jackson killed, RP289
August 13: At a Constitution Work meeting, Wu Faxian (a Lin supporter) insists on adding the words “with genius, comprehensively and creatively” in the sentence crediting Mao with developing Marxism. Kang Sheng and Zhang Chunqiao (Jiang Qing supporters) oppose this.
August 23 - September 6: Second Plenum of 9th CC at Lushan. Lin Biao makes a speech in which he persists in his proposal to make Mao the State Chairman, arguing that Mao is a “genius” and implying the Jiang Qing clique does not sufficiently recognize Mao’s genius. They worked the delegates who were indignant that “some people” deny Mao is a genius, depreciate his thought, and “don’t want Mao to be state Chairman”. At this point, Mao became aware of Lin’s factional activities. H669 Lin had hoped to target Zhou at this meeting, but Lin was Mao’s target. NE 295 Milton said Lin chose the wrong principle enemy— the USA. Mao picked USSR, so Lin was “by definition” a counterrevolutionary.” W 347, XV v15, p883 Wang Hungwen got confused and praised Lin Biao’s genius speech in his Shanghai caucus. XV 319
August 25: PB Standing Committee decides to stop discussing Lin’s speech. Chen Boda is forced to do a self-criticism. H669
August 31: Mao writes “An Opinion Of Mine” attacking Chen Boda and Wu Faxian. XV 319 From now on, Lin Biao is under continuous attack from Mao. XV 323
October 1: Edgar Snow and wife appear wit Mao atop Tiananmen Gate. XV 417
October 1: IWK celebrates China’s National Day with events in both New York and San Francisco. F144-5
October: Canada recognized China. F140
Later in the year, the CC’s North China Convention meets for an entire month to criticize Chen Boda. H670
Autumn: Classes resume at Beida and Qinghua. TS 272
November16: The CC campaign against Chen Boda begins and lasts until April 1971. Chen is deemed an “anti-party sham Marxist.” XV 323, 324n69 Jiang Qing is the major beneficiary of the attack on Lin.
October: Lin’s ally, Wu Faxian, appoints Lin Biao’s son, Lin Liguo, deputy director of the General Office and of the War Department of the PLA Air Force Headquarters.
December 18: Mao’s meeting with Edgar Snow. Mao tells snow his two reasons for purging Liu: 1) Liu opposed the GPCR, and 2) Liu wanted to revive the Soviet alliance to aid Vietnam. W 97. Mao justified his Personality Cult as a device to break up the anti-Mao forces in the party. W 145. Mao passed Nixon invitation to Snow, thinking he was a CIA agent. S 532 Snow’ version of the meeting is in his “The Long Revolution” pp 169 – 172.


Vietnam enters Laos. Mao supposedly waits until U.S. “defeat” in Laos, then launches “Ping Pong” diplomacy. W363
March: Li Biao plotters settle on the code name “Outline of Project 571” for the coup. H671.
March: U.S. State Department announces that it is lifting all restrictions on travel to China. F142
April 10: Pingpong Diplomacy as US team begins tour of China. RP296, F142
April 24: 250,000 Anti-War demonstrators march in Washington. RP296
May 3: Erich Honecker succeeds Walter Ulbrect in East Berlin. RP297
May: Zhou Enlai sends letter to Kissinger inviting him for a secret visit to China. XV 417
June 13: New York Times begins serialization of the Pentagon Papers. RP298
July 6: In Kansas City speech Nixon includes China among the great “five powers.” Nixon announces plan to visit China. W 363
Mao-Zhou split w/ Lin Bio/PLA was supposedly over U.S. Main Danger line. W 365
July 9 - 11: Kissinger makes his first secret visit to China. H687, XV 418. Bringing a new respirator for Mao. S? Relations with Vietnam suffer. XV 422
July 15: Nixon announces he will visit China. RP299, F145
August 2: Secretary of State William Rogers announces that the US will support PRC admission to the United Nations. PR299
August 21: George Jackson killed at San Quentin. RP299
August: Mao’s sudden departure on a trip to south China, sets back Lin Biao’s coup plans. During his talks in the south, Mao begins to criticize Lin by name, saying that the recent Chen Boda purge “was really a struggle between two headquarters.” H671
September: The KMT intelligence service planned to assassinate Zhou Enlai in Paris, using a trained dog carrying a bomb. But Zhou stayed in Beijing because of the Lin Biao crisis and avoided the bomb. This story is at F147
September 3: Mao arrives in Hangzhou from Nanchan and is alerted to suspicious activity.He retuns to Beijing early, on the 12th, thwarting the plot.
September 6: Lin Biao learns of Mao’s veiled threat against him. XV 329 Lin Liguo reveals part of the plot to his sister, Lin Toutou, who argues with him and tries to talk him out of the plot. XV 331
September 7: Lin Biao and Ye Qun at Beidaihe learn of Mao’s comments and panic. Lin Liquo orders the “combined fleet” to “first degree of readiness.” H671
September 8: Lin Biao issues a handwritten order approving the assassination of Mao in the South. H671
September 8: Lin Liquo and the Joint Fleet discuss options for killing Mao on his private train. XV 329 Lin Toutou telephones Mao’s guard regiment protecting her family and tips them to the plot against Mao. At 10:20 pm she went to see the commanding officer to warn him, in person, of the danger. The commander then alerted Beijing. XV 331
September 9: Attica Prision uprising. RP300
September 11: Mao’s train speeds through the assassination points before the plotters are ready. XV 330
September 12: Mao’s train arrives safely in Beijing. XV 330
September 12: Learning that Mao has survived, Lin Liguo plans to set up a rival regime in Guangzhou. XV 330
September 12: at 10:30 pm, Zhou Elai receives a report from the Central Guard Bureau that Lin Liquo had flown a Trident from Beijing to Shannaiguan that evening. H672
September 13: At 12:32 am Lin Biao, Yeh Cun, and Lin Liquo take off in the Trident headed north toward Mongolia. XV 332
September 13: Zhou asked Mao whether to shoot down Lin’s plane. Mao responded, “Rain has to fall, women have to marry, these things are immutable; let them go.”
September 13: Lin Biao, Li Liquo and Ye Qun flee in the Trident and die in a plane crash near Undar Khan, Mongolia. H672 People are shocked that six newly-promoted Politburo members would take part in this bizarre plot against Mao. H673.
September 24: Zhou arrest Lin’s allies and begins the purge of Lin’s supporters. XV 334
October 1: Lin Biao did not appear at the rostrum. Deng Xiaoping realized that there had been a big shake-up. He wrote a letter to Mao and was rehabilitated in 1973. PR 105. Milton says there were NO CEREMONIES in Tiananmen Square! M 412 This is wrong.
October 25: The 26th General Assembly of the U.N. restores China’s seat. Taiwanese representatives are expelled. H690, Goldwater demands that the US withdraw from the UN in protest. F155
Decenber 26: Christmas bombing of Hanoi. RP304


Air hostess Vesna Vulovic plunged 33,330 feet into a snowbound forest in Czechoslovakia in 1972 when the airliner she was on exploded, setting the world record for freefall survival.
January 10: Chen Yi’s Funeral marked beginning of Mao’s rehabilitation of the Right. Mao said at the funeral that the February Adverse Current had been a positive attempt to oppose Lin Biao, Chen Boda, Wang Li and the other bad leftists. S 546 This was Mao’s last public appearance, NE 309
February 21: Nixon & Kissinger arrive in Beijing, greeted by Zhou on the tarmac. XV 423. Stayed at Diaoyutai Palaces. NE 306
February 22: Nixon and Pat attend performance of the Red Detachment of Women. Nancy Tang interprets for them. Photo after J334
February 28: Shanghai communiqué signed. H687, XV 423
March 30: Eastertide Offensive. North Vietnamese troop pour through DMZ as US forces flee. RP308
April 15: US renews bombing of North Vietnam promting demonstartiona across the USA. RP308
April 16: Pandas Ling Lin and Xing Xing arrive at Washington Zoo. RP308
Spring: Michelangelo Antonioni’s documentary on China is released and criticized for its naturalism by Jiang Qing. J457
May 22-29: Nixon visits the USSR, while the US is conducting intense bombing of Vietnam. J274 I was arrested in an SDS demo against the bombings at Towson State College in Maryland. P
July 28: Jane Fonda in Hanoi. RP312
August 12: Jiang Qing’s first meeting with her biographer, Roxane Witke. J xxiii
August 25-30: Jiang Qing continues talks with Witke at secret Guangzhou location. J xxiii
September: The Philadelphia Orchestra visits Beijing and is cordially welcomed by Jiang Qing. But after they left, the campaign against classical music began (in 1974). J458-9. This was undoubtedly the Anti-Beethoven campaign that I, but no one else, remembers. P
September 25: Japanese President Tanaka Kakuei meets Mao and Zhou in Beijing. H688
September 29: In Beijing, Japan and China agree to establish diplomatic relations. H688
November 7: Nixon reelected President. RP315
Winter: Edgar Snow dies. W 81
December 17: With Zhou’s attack on ultra-leftism in full swing, Mao acts to reign it in. Mao declares Lin Biao an “ultra-rightest and revisionist.” XV 342 Zhou & Marshal Ye Jianying wanted Lin Biao declared an ultraileftist. Jiang Qing wanted Lin Biao declared an ultra-rightest. S 576


January 27: US-Vietnam peace accords signed in Paris. Melvin Laird announces the end of the draft and the all volunteer army. RP317
February: Deng returns to Beijing S 648
March 8: Meeting at Great Hall of the People to apologize to “Foreign Experts” persecuted during GPCR. Attended by Zhou Enlai, Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, Wang Hongwen, and others. Zhou blamed Lin Biao for mistreatment of foreigners. But went on to denounce Rittenberg’s plot with Wang Li re “The Madman of the Modern Age”, which involved innocent people like the Epsteins, and Shapiros. They were now released and the PRC issued them an apology. David Crook was released. Zhou said that the only really bad foreign element was Sidney Rittenberg. W 373.
March 10: Mao and Zhou propose the rehabilitation of Deng Xiaoping to the Politburo, and his appointment as vice premier of the State Council. NE 326 Mao intended for him to replace the dying Zhou Enlai. S 576, H680
March 29: Last USA soldiers leave Vietnam. RP317
May: PRC diplomatic Liason Office opens in Washington DC. F168 The delegation rented an entire floor at the Mayflower Hotel. F170
May: Mao appoints Wang Hongwen, Hua Guofeng, and Wu De to the Politburo. XV 339
April: Deng Xiaoping resurfaces. J450
Summer: ZHANG Tiesheng praised for blank examination paper. TSxxiv
July: Mao asserts that Lin Biao, like the KMT, was a worshipper of Confucius and an opponent of the legalist school. H695 Mao also criticized the work of the Foreign Ministry (Zhou Enlai) and the Military Commission (Ye Jianying—in December). This offered the Gang an opportunity to go on the offensive against Zhou. H695
August 24 – 28 10th CPC Party Congress S 576, XV v15, p883. Deng Appointed to CC S 648. Chen Yonggui appointed Vice Minister of Government. W 375. Mao adds “Right to Strike” into PRC Constitution. W. 375. Recovering fro the Lin Biao debacle, Leftists are again given prominent roles. Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao, and Yao Wen Yuan prepared the tree major documents or the Congress. XV 342 The Politburo Standing Committee was enlarged to nine, with seven of them leftists, against Zhou and Yeh Qianying. XV 343 Mao’s assessment that Lin Biao was a “rightist”, and the need to criticize him listed as a primary task. H683 Zhou emphasizes the “Two Supepowers line.” XV 432
August 30: 1st Plenum, 10th CC. XV v15, p883
September 11: Allende murdered in Chile. RP318 China is among the first countries to support the fascist coup. P
October 6-24 Yom Kipper war begins with Egyptian and Syrian attacks. RP318
October 10: Geral Ford replaces Spiro Agnew as Vice President following Agnew’s corruption plea of nolo contendere. RP319
October 19: First OPEC oil embargo in retaliation for US support of Isreal in Yom Kippur War. RP319
December: Deng appointed to Politburo S 648 and Chief of General Staff of PLA to reign in Regional Army Commanders. S 577 Mao calls for the rehabilitation of He Long, Luo Ruiqing, Yang Chengwu, Yu Lijin and Fu Chongbi. Mao makes a self criticism saying that he had one-sidedly believed Lin Biao. H680-1


January: China seizes two islands from South Vietnamese control. XV 444
18 January: “Campaign to Criticize Lin Biao and Confucius” is Go4 response to rehabilitation of Deng. The first document was “Lin Biao and the Doctrines of Confucius and Mencius”. XV 343 Campaign is really directed by Kang Sheng aimed at Zhou, now vulnerable because he is losing contact with Mao. XV 346, S 578 The historical “Duke of Zhou” becomes a targeted figure. XV 345 There was little public enthusiasm for is campaign
Februay 4: Patty Hearst kidnapped by SLA. RP319
March 20: Mao criticized Jiang Qing in a nasty letter S 578
April 10: Deng Xiaoping “Three Worlds Speech” at UN. W 367
April 10: Mao has CC issue a notice to limit chaos caused by Confucius Campaign, criticized slogans such as “Stop working for the erroneous line.”, which was fuelling strikes. H697
June 1: Zhou checks into hospital. Zhou’s wife found an attendant with influence over Mao. Mao finally consented to Zhou’s cancer surgery. S 583
July: Mao is found to be terminally ill--diagnosed with Lou Gehrig’s disease S 581
July 17: At a Politburo meeting Mao criticized Jiang Qing and warns her “You should watch your step and avoid forming a small faction of four.” “She doesn’t represent me; she only represents herself.” H697, S 584
August 9: Nixon resigns, replaced by Ford and Rockefeller. RP320
September: Mao traveled to Wuhan and Changsha
October: The Gang sends Wang Hongwen to Changsha to Make accusations against Zhou and Deng to try to head off Deng’s appointment as first vice-premier. H698
October 4: Mao proposes that Deng replace Zhou as Premier. XV 349
October 24: In discussions with Danish OM Paul Hartling, Mao explains, Our country at present practices a commodity system; the wage system is unequal too, as in the eight-grade wage scale, and so forth.” These statement were widely promoted by the Left. H704
November 12: Rebuke of Jiang Qing. NE 331
November 29: Peng Dehuai dies from beatings after 130 interrogations. NE 193
December 23: Zhou and Wang Hongwen visit Mao in Changsha. Mao warns Wang against forming a faction, says, “ Jiang Qing has wild ambitions. Don’t you think so? I think she has.” H698


January 8-10: 2nd Plenum of 10th CC & 4th NPC Convene, XV v15, p883. Deng is formally appointed vice premier, vice chairman of the party and member of Politburo Standing Committee. XV 351 Deng now controlled day to day work of CC. S 589, NE 332, H699 At 4th NPC, the dying Zhou calls for what will later be called “the four modernizations.” of agriculture, industry, science & technology, national defense. To be completed by 2000. NE 332, MM 112 Mao add the “four great freedoms” to China’s Constitution: the right of the people to speak out freely, air views freely, hold great debates, and write big character posters.” MM 112.
January 13-17: First Session of 4th National Peoples Congress held in Beijing. Zhou calls for four modernizations. H701
January: Hua Guofeng named NPC Vice Premier and Minister of Public Security. MM 64
February 9: Renmin Ribao releases “Do a Good Job in Studying the Theory of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat”, quoting Mao on danger of capitalism. This is followed by articles attacking empiricism and calling for limiting bourgeois right. H704
February 15: Politburo meeting on Mao’s declining health. Dr. Li made the report. S 599
March: Campaign Against Lin Biao and Confucius. “On the Social Foundation of the Lin Biao Anti-Party Group” Go4 attack on growing number of rehabilitation of rightists. Accusing party veterans of empiricism v. ML theory of younger left leaders. S 599 This campaign implausibly identified Lin as a “rightist.” It was an attack on Zhou for his rehabilitation of the Rightists. The campaign was driven hard by the Center but despite its intensity and length won little public support. W 370
April 5: Chiang Kai-sheck dies. F193
April 30: Saigon falls and Vietnam is liberated. RP321
May 3: Mao attacks Go4 Empiricism campaign via note dictated to Zhang Yufeng. “Don’t form a gang of four”. After this note, Deng chaired the Politburo meetings. S 600
May 27: Deng attacks Jiang Qing at a Politburo meeting, accusing her of going after Zhou and Marshal Ye. NE 335
June 3: Deng again attacks Jiang Qing at a meeting, forced her to make a self criticism and won Mao’s support. ME 335
July/August: Daqing film “Pioneers” banned by Jiang Qing, but rescued by Mao. NE 340
Kang learns that Mao is angry with Jiang Qing. He sends word to Mao that Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqio are traitors. NE 340 But Nancy Tang and Wang Hairong refuse to tell Mao. S 600.
Jiang Qing’s week long interview w/ Roxanne Witke creates the impression she wants to be Empress. Mao has book read to him and is angry, has heart attack. NE 340
August 14: In answer to a request from a woman teacher, Mao gives his views on the classical novel, Outlaws of the Marsh. Jiang Qing publishes Mao’s comments, which, by implication suggest that Mao is a “figurehead”, with real power in Zhou’s and Deng’s hands. H705
September 15 – October 19: Deng Xiaoping chairs the first “National Learn From Dazhai” Conference! NE 335 Deng and Jiang Qing addressed 3,700 delegates. JQ had pictures of herself taken while working with Chen Yonggui. J466 Jiang travelled to Dazhai in a private train with 100 retainers. She asked for black-out curtains, and new florescent lamps because the old ones were to noisy. She asked to bar all motor vehicles from the brigade area during her stay to avoid the noise. WB355 Mao deleted her speech from publication in the Conference documents, saying it was “bullshit.” WB356
September 22: Sarah Jane Moore attempt to shoot President Ford in San Francisco. RP321
September: Mao Yuanxin replaces Nancy Tang and Wang Hairong as Mao’s liaison with politburo. XV 355Deng now comes under constant attack from Mao. Zhou pays his last visit to his old barber at the Beijing Hotel. XV 347n154
October: Mao criticizes Deng for “black cat, white cat” line. S 607
November: Deng refuses to back down and is suspended from Politburo. Mao authorizes a new campaign against Deng and Zhou. NE 344 The “Campaign to criticize Deng and Counter the Rightist Wind.” H406, Deng’s “Three Poisonous Weeds” are On the General Program for All Work of the Whole Party and Whole Country”, Some Questions on Accelerating the Development of Industry, and “Report on the Work of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. MM 75
December: President Gerald Ford visits China for talks with Deng Xiaoping. H688, XV 431
December: Near death Kang Sheng visits Mao and rails against Deng and Zhou. NE 343.


January 8: Zhou Enlai dies. S 609 Deng does funeral oration. This was Deng’s last public appearance while Mao lived. E 346, J468
January 21 & 28 Politburo meetings: Mao appoints Hua Guofeng “acting premier.” XV 358 He was a middle figure between Jiang Qing and Deng Xiaoping. S 610
February: The CC convenes a series of separate meetings with provincial, municipal and autonomous region Party groups to instruct them in Mao’s view of the centrality of class struggle and Mao’s view that the GPCR was 70/30 good. H707
February: Posters at Beida begin attack on Deng Xiaoping. TSxxiv
March: Shanghai literary gazette attack on Zhou leads to public demonstrations supporting him—especially in Nanjing. The incidents quickly spread.
April 4: Hua Guofeng presides over the Politburo meeting that declares the Tiananmen events a “counter revolutionary incident.” Mao Yuanxin transmitted Mao’s instructions that Deng is to be dismissed from all posts. WB361 Mao reads and approves the Politburo report. H709
April 5: “April 5th Incident.” Hundreds of thousands of protestors enter Tiananmen to honor Zhou and criticize the Left. A 14 hour riot ensued in which vehicles were burned and people roughed up. WB361 Ten thousand police beat them with wooden clubs, dispersing the crowd. H709 April 10: Politburo purges Deng Xiaoping for Tiananmen incident. NE 355
April 7: Radio broadcast announces that Mao and the Politburo have appointed
Hua Guofeng first vice-chair of the CCO and Premier. The same broadcast announces the fall of Deng Xiaoping. Deng is stripped of all Party and government posts. H709
April 30: Mao’s poolside chat with Hua, “with you in charge, I am at ease.” S 4-5 The Go4 version is a slip of paper purportedly handed to Jiang Qing: “Act according to the principles laid down.” MM 66
May 11: Mao watches movies: “The Sound of Music” and “Love Story” S 617
July 6: Zhu De dies. H710.
July 28: Tangshan Earthquake. 125 miles from Beijing. Mao shaken up, moved to room 202. Tianjin was the city most affected. MM 61, S 622, CD111 The second most devastating earthquake in human history. J469
August 28: Jiang Qing wants to take two doctors from Mao’s team on her trip to Dazhai. 623
September 2: Second Learn From Dazhai Conference. On arriving, Jiang Qing announced, “I’m hee top fight revisionist errors. I’m Chairman Mao’s secretary; anything that’s in his hands is also in my hands.” WB365 Jiang arrived in a convoy of seven vehicles, trailing four riding horses for her. Last year she told the peasants to build an air raid shelter for her next trip. When she discovered hey had disobeyed she was furious. She told the peasants who met her to take a pen and write down their parents names. When they worte their fathers’ names first, Jiang lectured them on ancient Chinese matrilineal society. “Women hold the power”, she said. “Always think of your mother first—and ebel against your father.” WB366
September 5: At 9:30pm, while in Dazhai, Jiang Qing is called and told to return to Beijing. Mao is in a coma. WB366
September 9: Mao Dies at 12:10 am S 625. Hua Guofeng declares an eight-day mourning period. MM 65 Mao’s death leaves only four members of the Politburo Standing Committee—two were Go4: Hua Guofeng, Ye Jianying, Zhang Chunqiao, and Wang Hongwen. The services lasted for eight days. J470
September 11: Wang Hongwen sets up a parallel CC office to communicate directly with the Provinces, instructing them to report to him. H710
September 18: Mao’s Funeral. One million gather in Tiananmen Square. MM 65 At 3:00 pm on 9/18 there were 3 minute long whistle and siren blasts throughout China followed by 3 minutes of silence. S 25 WANG Hongwen presided at the Memorial Service. Hua Guofeng gave the main speech—its theme was the greatness of Mao and the evil of Deng. WB368 Jiang Qing and Wang Hairong got in a fight. Wang pulled off Jiang’s wig. She was bald. NE 371 Hua Guofeng ends his eulogy with an exhortation “to deepen the struggle against Deng Xiaoping.” MM 65
October 4: A tough Gang article in Guangming Ribao frightened Hua and triggered the coup against them. Their followers were told to “expect good news” by October 9. XV 370
October 5: Hua called a Politburo meeting at Zhongnanhai. The left proposed appointments to the vacant posts: Jiang Qing, CCP Chairman, Zhang Chunqiao, Premier, Wang Hongwen, NPC President. The meeting adourned with an agreement to take up these questions the next day, WB371
October 6: Go4 Arrested. The Gang made a tactical error by all staying in Beijing while hatching their plot. XV 367-370 They had control of the media. The tried to gain control of the Central Party apparatus, and they were preparing for armed struggle. XV 367-370. Hua Guofeng called a special 8:00 pm pre-politburo meeting for those associated with the publication of Volume 5 of Mao’s works. The Politburo meeting was to be at midnight. MM 67 This included all of the Gang of Four (Jiang Qing, Yao Wenyuan, Chang Chunqiao, Wang Hongwen). The 8341 unit made the arrests. MM 68 Yao Wenyuan and Jiang Qing did not attend and were arrested at home. Mao Yuanxin, Chi Qun, Xie Jing and others were arrested at the same time. The arrest was plotted by Hua Guofeng and Ye Jianying with the support of all the PLA top commanders. Wang Dongxing, commander of Mao’s bodyguard, the 8341 Unit, supported Hua. MM 67 After the arrests, civilian and secret police agencies rounded up the Gang’s supporters and executed some of them. MM68 Hua is named Party Chair and Chair of the Military Commission. H709-10
October 8: Hua announces that Voume 5 of Mao’s works will be published and the mausoleum will be built. XV 372
October 14: The arrest of the Gang is announced, sparking public jubilation. H712
October 16: Massive anti-Gang demonstrations in Shanghai. J471
October 21-24: Millions parade through Beijing denouncing the Gang. J471
November 2: Carter defeats Ford. RP322


January: The New “hundred flowers” policy is announced. MM 71
February: Hua and his allies pledge the “two whatevers” policy”, “to support whatever policy decisions were made by Chairman Mao” and to “unswervingly follow whatever instructions were given by Chairman Mao. MM 69
March: Ban on Beethoven is lifted. F260
March 10-22: Hua come under fire from Party veterans at a Central Work Conference meeting. Chen Yun and Wang Chen argue that there is a need to revaluate the April 4th Incident and a universal desire to rehabilitate Deng Xiaoping. Hua fights back labeling the Gang “ultra-rightists.” XV 373
April 10: Deng writes a letter to the CC condemning the “two whatevers” line. XV 374
July: Two Whatevers Faction (“adhere to whatever policies were set by Chairman Mao and implement whatever instructions were given by him.”) Joint editorial in Renmin Ribao, Hongqi and Jiefang Ribao.
July 16-21: 3d Plenum of 10th CC. XV v15, p883. Deng is formally rehabilitated, joining the Standing Committee of the Politburo and the Go4 is blamed for the “slanders” against him. Deng is appointed Vice Premier of the State Council and Chief of the General Staff of the PLA. MM 84
August 12 - 18: 11th Party Congress NE 378, XV v15, p883. Triumvirate of Hua, Marshall Ye, and Deng now rule China. NE 379 Hua read the Main Political Report. H722 The Congress announces the formal end of the GPCR. H722 Hua notes that “Beyond any doubt…[the GPCR] will go sown in the history of the proletariat as a momentous innovation which will shine with increasing spleanor with the passage of time.” XV 200 Revised Party Constitution adopts the “Four Modernizations.” MM 74 The “Three Poisonous Weeds” are hailed as “Fragrant Flowers.” MM 85 A massive purge of the left begins. “Of the 201 members of the new CC selected at the Eleventh Congress, 76 were officials who had been purged as ‘capitalist roaders’ during the GPCR and rehabilitated after 1972.” MM 85 One third of the old CC was purged. The new Poliburo Standing Committee is Hua, three allies, and Deng. XV 376
August 19: 1st Plenum of 11th CC. XV v15, p883
Fall: First National College Exam offered since GPCR, PR 226, MM 73
September: Anti Gang of Four campaign widens to attack on radical leftism. Anniversary of Mao’s death, speech by Chun Yun, “seek truth from facts”, criticize dogmatism.
September 4: Golden Dragon Restaurant massacre in San Francisco. The Joe Boys attacked customers there at 2:30 am intending to kill the Wah Qing leaders who were eating. Five were killed and eleven wounded—all tourists. No Wah Chings were hurt. CP153
September 9: Mao’s Volume 5 released AND Mao Memorial opened.
October 1: Hua grants 10% wage increases to all state workers. MM 76
October 21: China announces that the national college entrance exam is restored. XV 575
November 1: Beijing Review says USSR is the more dangerous superpower, and “the more dangerous source of world war.” XV 439
November 19: Rittenberg released from prison. M 431
December: Jiang Qing attempts suicide by banging her head against her cell. WB374


February 18-23: 2nd Plenum of 11th CC. XV v15, p883.
February 26: At Fifth NPC, Hua announces his “Ten Year Plan 1976-1985”, “Report on the Work of the Government”, to carry out the Four Modernizations via massive capital investments. The plan calls for enormous industrial capital investment and foreign investment. MM 78 The ten year plan was abandoned with a year. MM204, XV 377, XV 493 for date.
Spring: Vietnam begins expelling the “Hoa” Chinese. XV 439
March: 5th NPC per TSxxiv
March: At National Science Conference, Deng reassures the participants that Marxists hold scientists and intellectuals to be a part of the working class. H720
May 11: Hu Yaobang moves against Hua Guofeng. The Guangming Daily “Practice is the Sole Criteria for Judging Truth.” Attacking the “Two Whatevers” H729 And “Seek truth from facts.” MM 91 “On Practice” is the text for this epistemology debate. Attacks on “Two Whatevers”, “bourgeois right”. Purported superiority of “distribution according to work.” XV 378
May 28: The Bay Area Committee Against the Crimes of Chinag Ching-Kuo organized a demo of 200 at a Chinatown park. They burned CCK in effigy and then marcked on KMT HQ on Stockton Street. Twenty KMT thugs attacked them with wooden ples and canes. Many protestors were hurt. They sued the KMT. Photo at F371-2
June 2: At a speech on the political work of the PLAm Deng emphasizes “seeking truth from facts”. H729
September 20: China Youth, organ of the YCL, publishes article lauding the April 5, 1976 Qingming demonstrations. MM 94
November 26: Deng tells Robert Novack that Democracy Wall is “a good thing.” Democracy Movement and Democracy Wall are wildly popular. XV 383
December 15: Jimmy Carter announces US-China Communique establishing diplomatic relations with China and strongly reasserts one China policy. MM 104, XV 442, 864 Taiwan government bitterly denounces the move and organizes its influential Congressional supporters to act against China, leasing to the Taiwan Relations Act of March 1979. XV865 China announces end of bombardment of offshore islands. XV867
December 18-22: Third Plenary of 11th CC. XV v15, p883. Deng is helped by announcement of diplomatic relations with USA. Defeat of Hua. “The historic shift to socialist modernization.” MM 205 Verdict reversed on 1976 Tiananmen incident. Peng Dehuai, Tao Zhu, Bo Yibo, Yang Shangkun, rehabilitated. Liu Shaoqi case taken up for investigation. Dazhai rejected--decollectivization announced. Deng ally Chen YUN restored and made CCP vice Chairman and head of Discipline Inspection Committee. Other purged Deng allies: Hu Yaobang, Wang Chen, and Deng Yinchao (Zhou’s widow) are appointed to Politburo. XV 380. Deng firmly in power. Dazhai rejected. New regulations for the Communes. “responsibility system.” PM 25 Hua’s Group (Wang Dong Xiang) fought back with a campaign against “empiricism.” PM 26 CC Communiqué calls for an end to mass campaigns and proclaims that “the large-scale turbulent class struggles of a mass character have in the main come to an end.” MM 100 Hua remains “Chairman”, but power is now in the hands of Hu Yaobang, the new “Secretary-General”. H738
December 19: Coca Cola announces it will enter the PRC market. K271
December 25: Politburo meeting appoints Hu Yaobang head of new Secretariat. Dong Wang Dongxing is kicked out of CC General Office, but retains Politburo seat. XV381. Peng Dehuai is officially rehabilitated. MM 92


China Institutes the One Child Policy. Aird 17, 18
January: Landlords and rich peasants rehabilitated. H746 KMT prisoners at or below the rank of KMT regimental commander are released. H746
January: Hu Yaobang Secretary General (Chairman abolished) of CCP. Wang Ruoshui labels GPCR “a great catastrophe” and blames Mao.
January 1: U.S. – China Diplomatic Relations established January 29: Deng visits USA
January 1: Maurice Chuck organizes Protsmouth Square rally to celebrate UC-China relations. One thousand pro-KMT demonstrators march along Grant Avenue, tearing down and burning the “Celebrate US-China Diplomatic Relations” banner. The KMT then attempted to break through a police line of 140 cops to reach the rally, but were driven back. F271-2
January 28 - February 4: Deng visits the USA XV 384, F273 (diffrent dates
February 17: China invades Vietnam in the “defensive counterattack”, but withdraws in two weeks (March 5). MM 108 , XV15 xii Map at XV 446. The war failure is a political defeat for Deng. MM 109 China withdraws on March 5. XV Maps, H750 The war severely strained he PRC budget. XV 449
February: By February 1979, all the “Whateverists” (“The Little Gang of Four”) had been removed from office. PM 27
March: At the Forum on the Party’s Theoretical Work, Deng announces the Four Cardinal Principles. H740-1, XV 385
March: U.S. Congress passes the Taiwan Relations Act which pledges defensive weapons to Taiwan and o maintain the US capacity to resist any force or coercion that China might employ to liberate Taiwan. China protests, but does not break relations with USA. XV866
Spring: Deng increases state prices for grain by 20% for mandatory deliveries and 50% for above quota deliveries--a big boost for the peasants that narrowed the scissors gap. MM221 The “accumulation rate was cut form 36% under Hua to 30% by 1980, with the aim of reducing it to 24%. This greatly improved living standards. Private plots were increased from 5% to 15% of the cultivated land. MM 222
March 5: Chinese troops leave Vietnam. XV15 xii
March: US Congress passes the “Taiwan Relations Act.” MM 105
March 28: Democracy Movement Suppressed. MM 114
March 29: Wei Jingsheng, leader of the democracy movement is arrested and charged with passing military secrets to Vietnam. MM 109, 166n
March 30: Deng’s “Uphold the Four Basic Principles” speech. “Uphold the socialist road, DoP, leadership of CCP, MLMTT PM 42, MM 113
April: Deng meets with a delegation form the U.S. Senate and offers the US security cooperation with the USA: naval visits, purchase of US weapons, and permission for a spy base to monitor Soviet compliance with SALT treaties. XV 452
April: 10 Carter signs the Taiwn Relations Act, promising to safeguard Taiwn’s security. XV 449 Republican opposion to normalization forced Carter’s hand. F275
June 18: Fifth NPC affirmed agricultural reform, revised down Four Modernization targets, and called for a legal system. PM 27
July: First SEZ’s set up in Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, and Xiamen. H759
October 1: Ye Jianying’s speech on National Day, is the first open criticism of Mao. H742
Summer: Tito is the first foreign leader to visit the Mao Memorial. MM 107
August: Tawan independence activists bomb KMT offices in Washington DC and New York. F276
September 25-28: 4th Plenum of 11th CC. XV v15, p883. Ye Jianying’s October 1 speech criticizing Mao is endorsed by CC. H742 Peng Chen (#2 GPCR victim) is rehabilitated and returns to Politburo. Zhao Ziyang appointed to Politburo. XV 386
October: San Francisco Consulate opens. F278
October: Democracy activist Wei Qingsheng’s trial ends with a 15 year senence. XV 385
November 5: Greensboro masscare of the CWP 5. RP322
November: Of 860,000 small traders, peddlers, handicraftsman, industrialists and businessman, 700,000 are rehabilitated as “laborers”. H747
November: Work begins on “Resolution on Certain Historical Questions of the Party Since the Founding of the PRC”. Deng Xiaoping is in charge of the project. H742
December 10: Kaohsiung Incident in Taiwan. Big demo planned in 2nd largest city to honor the anniversary of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Closed by authorities. Ten thousand protestors clashed with the police. The Martial Law authorities shut down all critical publications. Many organizers were tried by military courts and given sentences of 12 years to life. Independence activists in the USA struck back, burning the World Journal office in NYC and KMT HQ in San Francisco, bombing China Airlines in LA and Chicago. The KMT retaliated in SF, using the Wah Ching gang to attack Tawan activists demonstrating in fron of the CCNAA office. F277
December: Democracy Wall is closed. MM 122
December: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. XV 454


The Marx, Engels, Stalin, Lenin portraits were removed from Tiananmen this year. MM 148
Liu Shaoqi and 10 million citizens were rehabilitated this year as “class labels” are abolished. MM 128
January 16: Speech by Deng reigns in Democracy Movement M 445 Deng demands the abolition of the Four Great Freedoms. MM 123 Soviet Union is rehabilitated! In this same speech Deng refers to the Soviet Union as a country that has practiced socialism for sixty-three years. MM 156
February 23-29: 5th Plenum of 11th CC. XV v15, p883. Liu Shaoqi rehabilitated. Wong Dongxing, former head of Unit 8341, Chen Yonggui, purged from CC. Replaced by Chen Yun and Bo Yibo. Deng calls for eliminating the Four Great Freedoms. MM 139. Hua’s allies, Wang Dongxing, Zhi Dengqui, Wu De Chen Xilien (the “little Gang of four”) are relieved of all Party and State posts. XV 386 Hua remains Party “chairman”, but the new post of “Secretary General” is created and filled by HU Yaobang who is the new party leader. MM 140 Liu Shaoqi rehabilitated. H745
March 17: Rittenberg returns to U.S. M 446
August: The giant portraits of Max, Engels, Lenin and Stalin are removed from Tainanmen. F291
August 18: At enlarged Politburo meeting, Deng calls for “the democratization of the life of society as a whole.” MM 138 The leaders decide that ZHAO Ziyang will replace Hua as Premier. Veterans Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun, and Li Xinien resign as vice-premiers. XV 387
August 30: Fifth NPC: The “four great freedoms” are eliminated from article 45 of the state constitution. Right to Strike eliminated. MM 123, XV 385 Hua resigns as Premier in favor of Zhao Ziyang. MM 124
September: “Production (Household) Responsibility System” established in Agriculture MM 227 98% of agriculture is decollectivized by the end of 1983.
September 25: Open Letter from CCP CC calls for limiting births, and holding the population to 1.2 billion by end of century. Relaxed the harsh policy of 1979. AIRD, Exhibit 39.
November 4: Reagan beats Carter and begins first term. RP322
November – December: Hua Guofeng’s record is attacked at a Politburo meeting. He “lacks the political and organizational ability o be the chairman of the party.” Hua asks to be removed from all posts. XV 387-8
November 20 – January 25: Trial of “the Lin Biao and Jiang Qing counterrevolutionary clique” begins in Beijing. NE 297, MM 148 Ten defendants brought before a panel of 35 judges, including Chen Boda. Two people were tried posthumously: Kang Shen and Xie Fuzhi—secret police chiefs. A separate panel tried eight PLA generals implicated in Lin Biao’s 1971 power grab. The trial was a disaster for Hua Guofeng, who resigned as Chairman at the next CC meeting. MM 148-150
December: At a party work conference Deng announces a return to a command economy to fight the inflation, slowdown, and economic crisis building in China. MM 268
December 25: The Politburo distributes the secret directive, “Document No. 9”, which instruct local officials to suppress all unofficial organizations and publications by June 1, 1981. MM 135.


March: President Ford visits China. XV 460 China downgrades relations with the Netherlands because of the sale of two submarines to Taiwan. XV866
April: Short lived “bourgeois liberalism” campaign.
April 21: Wang Xixhe arrested in Guangzhou and sentenced to fourteen years for his democracy activities. MM 127 Wang Xixhe was the author of “Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution.” MM 125
June 26: HUA Guofeng resigns as Chairman. MM 152
June 27-29: 6th Plenum of 11th CC. XV v15, p883. Secretary-General Hu Yaobang appointed Chairman. MM 141. 6th Plenum approves Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Establishment of PRC on July 1, the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Party. XV 391, MM 152 Retreat by Deng because attacks on Mao watered down. The term “primary stage of socialism” is used in this report. MM 377n17, H744
July 1:


“Household Contact Responsibility System” approved by CCP
March: “Patriotic” religious organizations are permitted to resume their activities. H747
August 6: 7th Plenum of 11th CC. XV v15, p883.
August 17: Joint U.S. – China Communique on arms sales to Taiwan. XV 465 Under pressure form China, Ronald Reagan promises to reduce arms sales to Taiwan, and would not exceed quantity or quality of past sales. XV867, F324
September 1-11: CCP 12th Party Congress. XV v15, p883. This is the “Socialism With Chinese Characteristics” Congress. H761. The “Party Chairman” post is abolished. MM 140 Hua Guofeng is dropped from the Politburo, but remains in the 348 person CC. MM 141 Wong Dongxing is reduced to the position as the last alternate CC member. XV 389 The left is purged: 75% of incumbent Provincial Party Secretaries were dismissed, as were 90% of ministers and vice ministers in the Central Government. The new Politburo Standing Committee was Hu Yaobang, Deng Xiaoping, Ye Jianying, Zhao Ziyang, and Chen Yun. MM 169 The new Party Constitution prohibited the “personality cult”, and that’s why the “Chairmanship” was dropped. MM 170 New Cadre policy announced: “more revolutionary, younger, better educated, more professional.” H763 Chen Yun emphasizes economic readjustment. Radicals Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang call for radical intellectuals to prepare a new theory to expand reforms into urban industrial economy.New State Constitution transferred government functions of Communes to township and village governments. MM 234
September 12-13: 1st Plenum of 12th CC. XV v15, p883. Hu Yobang elected General Secretary. H764
November: Fifth Session of 5th NPC. Revisions to State Constitution. H764
December 6: One Child Policy begins enforcing IUDs, sterilizations and abortions. “Circular on Carrying Out the Nationwide Family Planning Propaganda Month Activities”, State Family Planning Commission Document. AIRD. P21, Exhibit 1.


Deng establishes the Peoples Armed Police, that is trained in the latest anti-riot and crowd control techniques. MM455
March: Centenary of Marx’s death, Zhou Yang addresses problems of bureaucratism, authoritarianism, political corruption in terms of “alienation”.
June: Deng criticizes “spiritual pollution” of theoretical attacks on party and socialism.
October: Second Plenum of 12th CC: This is when the Party purge of the left was officially launched: “Discipline Inspection Commission’s Report”, 10/12/82. MM 169n “The crucial task was to clear out three kinds of people: rebels who climbed to relatively high positions by following the Lin Biao and Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary cliques, persons with serious factionalist ideas, and those who had engaged in reckless beating, smashing, and looting.” H776 Deng begins short-lived “spiritual pollution” campaign. H777
October 23: US invasion of Grenada to “rescue” medical students. RP322 On the same day 220 Marines and 21 other service members were killed when their barracks was blown up by a terrorist in Beirut.
November: Spiritual Pollution campaign ended. The Party History blames Hu Yaobang for sabotaging the campaign. H778


Government encourages 15 year leases of land, later extended to 50 year leases. MM 230 Leased land may be rented, bought, sold and mortgaged. MM231
January: Hu Qiaomu’s speech at Party School. “Fixed” Soviet economic model v. “dynamic” Yugoslav and Chinese model.
Januauy: Zhao Ziyang vists the USA for 1o days in San Francisco and Washington. Taiwan students are paid $100-150 to demonstrate in front of his SF hotel. F346-7
February 22: Deng’s speech on this date offers “one country, two systems” to Taiwan. H831
March 3: Wang Li writes a letter to Chen Yun, Deng Xiaoping, and Hu Yaobang, abjectly admitting his mistakes, and begging for readmission to the Party is at CC354.
March: Suppression of demonstrations in Tibet. MM 455
April: Hainan Island is declared a SEZ. Fourteen port cities are opened to trade. H772
April 24-30: President Reagan visited China. CD95 While in Xian, the Chinese restored the Big Four (Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin) portraits on Changan Avenue. His limosine passed by them upon his return to Beijing. CD99
October 1984: Third Plenary of 12th CC. Emphasis on alleged socialist character of combining planning with a commodity economy. H768 Resolution on Economic Structural Reform: “planned commodity economy” and “separation between state ownership and management.” Start of “contract responsibility system” and “lease systems” in industry.
October 15: Journalist Henry Liu is murdered in SF for writing a biography critical of Jiang Ching-Kuo, Jiang’s son and President of Taiwan. The FBI later arrests and convicts top leaders of the Bamboo Gang and KMT intelligence agents. CP188, F1
Late 1984: Price controls removed on many key foods: meat, fish, vegetables and eggs. MM 289


September: Criticism of disparities answered by radicals: “antagonistic contradictions” have now been overcome in society. “Social struggle” has replaced “class struggle” as a motivating force. Culture Fever--attacks on Chinese traditions and culture.
September 23: Deng Xiaoping is Time Magazine’s “man of the year.” MM 356
October: Two tier wage system implemented in State Enterprises. All new hires are treated as “contract” workers for specific terms and few benefits. Earlier workers are continued on old system. MM 292
December 15-January 5: SEZ failure is hotly debated a national work conference. It was decided that the political costs of abandoning them was too high, so they were saved, but government funds to Shenshen were cut 50%. MM 282


April: 30 year anniversary of Hundred Flowers. Radicals demand that political reforms accompany economic reforms. Yan Jiaqi, Hu Haocheng demand freedom of expression, checks/balances, rule of law. Su Shaozhi and Wang Yizhou compare DoP with feudal despotism.
September: Sixth Plenary of 12th CC. This was the “bourgeois liberalization” campaign to suppress student and public demands for more “democracy”. The document was the “Resolution on the Guiding Principles for Building a Socialist Society with an Advanced Culture and Ideology.” H778 “A handful of Party members who openly advocated bourgeois liberalization were expelled from expelled from the Party.” This occurred shortly after the meeting. H780
October: Student demonstrations for free press, independent student unions and human rights begin in Keda, Anhui Province. Soon spread to Xian, Tianjin, Nanjing, Shanghai and Beijing. Fang Lizhi attacks ML and the party leadership on university campuses.
October 11: Queen Elizabeth arrived in Beijing and stayed at the Diaoyutai Guesthouse. CD105
October 17: The Duke of Edinburgh asks a British student in Xian how he enjoyed working with people with “slitty eyes”. This statement was published in an official British press release and offended the Chinese. CD95
December 5: 3000 students demonstrate at the University of Science and Technology in the city of Hefei, Anhui province to protest the lack of choice in University elections. “No democracy, no modernization” is their slogan. They are supported by the dissident astrophysicist Feng Lizhi, who was the University’s vice president. MM 360
December 9: On this anniversary of the 1935 “resist Japan” movement, there is a bigger demo at Hefei and it spreads to other schools. MM 361
December: First bankruptcy law passed. MM 290


January 16: Enlarged meeting of Politburo dismisses Party leader Hu Yaobang for toleration of dissent and demonstrations. Hu retains his place on the six member Politburo. MM 349 Zhao Ziyang Replaces HU as General-Secretary. MM 364, NE 431, H780 Deng rejects “bourgeois liberalization”. Fang Lizhi, Wang Ruowang, Su Shaozhi, Li Honglin criticized for advocating Western values and political institutions. LI Peng is appointed to the vacant premiership to create a conservative balance. MM 364 The “gang of old” (Deng Xiaoping, Peng Zhen, Li Xinnian, Yang Shangkun, Wang Zhen, Chen Yun, Song Renqiong, and Bo Yibo), without any formal party position, now effectively control the CCP. MM365n20
April 17: In remarks to Czechoslovak premier, Deng announces that “only in the middle of the next century” would it be possible to say that “we are really building socialism.” MM378n18
May 6: Black Dragon Forrest Fire destroys 1/3 of China’s lumber. NE 410 LI
July: Martial Law ends on Taiwan. F477
October: Seventh Plenary of 12th CC approves the decisions taken at the January 16 meeting to dump Hu Yaobang. H780.
October 25-November 1: 13th Party Congress, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang announces “primary stage of socialism” as theoretical basis for bold, unorthodox economic policies. Deng “retires” and joins the “gang of old”. MM 172, H786 “The system of exploitation and exploiting classes have been eliminated…” H783 All limits on hiring wage labor are removed. MM232 Hainan Island becomes a province and the “coastal policy” of economic development is announced. MM 373 “Primary stage of socialism” theory announced in Zhao’s speech. Zhao also said, “There have been two major historic leaps” in Marxist practice in China since the 1920s. The first was the Revolutionary victory led by Mao. The second took place at the Third Plenum in 1978 when thru CCP found a way to build socialism with Chinese characteristics. Report p.70, MM380. 13th CC Politburo: ZHAO Ziyang, LI Peng, HU Qili, and YAO Yilin. MM 381 The Congress summed up the general line as “one central task and two basic points.” The central task is economic construction. While the two basic points refer to persisting in the four Cardinal principles and the reform and opening up. H784
November 2: First Plenary of 13th CC H786 The Politburo passes a resolution that they would seek the counsel of Deng Xiaoping and the Elders on all important matters. The resolution also gave Yang Shangkun and Bo Yibo the right to attend Politburo meetings. TM102n1
November 7: New CC elects ZHAO Ziyang Secretary General of CCP. He resigns as Premier and LI Peng is appointed Premier the same day.


January 13: Chiang Hing-kuo dies and is replaced by Lee Teng-hui. F490
Reforms spark a 19% official inflation rate, triple the 1987 rate. Inflation is actually 25% - 30% and higher in the cities. MM386 The crime rate increased by 50% over 1987. Massive corruption led cadres to illegally tax the public for every government task. The government lost control of the more autonomous coastal provinces, where local cadres ignored the law. MM 389.
April: 7th National Peoples Congress, PR 9
Stalin’s portrait was removed from Tiananmen this year. NE 136
Widespread public discontent over inequality and cadre corruption. Zhao identifies “monopoly of state ownership” and bureaucratic manipulation of the private economy. Zhao’s advisors propose “enlightened despotism” for transition to full market economy. Zhao’s theory of Neo-authoritarianism MM 392 is opposed by Hu Jiwei, Su Shaozhi, Yan Jiaqi and others who demand full democratization to avoid reform/crisis/reform cycle of Chinese politics. WU Jiaxiang is the leading proponent of the new authoritarianism. MM 392n42


January 6: Dissident (expelled Cfrom CCP) professor FANG Lizhi wrote a personal letter to Deng urging freedom for all political prisoners, including WEI Jingsheng, the best known leader of the Democracy Movement. MM 397, TM14
February 13: Thirty-three intellectuals, Marxist theoreticians and others, write an open letter to the NPC and Party CC supporting the demand to release political prisoners. TM14
February 26:Forty two writers and scientists follow up with an open letter to Zhao Ziyang, Li Peng calling for the release of all young people serving political sentences in labor reform camps. MM397, TM14 All of these dissidents were arrested or fled after June 4. MM 398
Inflation soars to 25% (30% in Beijing) in early 1989, provoking the political crisis. MM 295
March: President George Bush visited China. CD 139
March 5-7: Large Tibetan nationalist demonstration at the Barkhor in Lhasa is fired on by PLA, several killed. CD 167
March 14: Forty three intellectuals sign yet another letter to the NPC urging the release of political prisoners. TM14
April 8: HU Yaobang has a heart attack during Politburo meeting in Great Hall. He is expected to recover. TM20
April 15: Hu Yaobang’s death sparks Student Demonstrations for freedom, democracy, human rights. H791
April 16: Department of Party History students from People’s University began the Democracy Protests. At 3:00 am, they bicycled to Tiananmen and laid wreaths at the Monument to the Heroes of the Revolution. MM 404,
April 17: 500 Students from Beida arrive in Tiananmen Square with 4,000 other students arriving later singing the Internationale. MM405
April 18: Sit-in of 1,000 students at Great Hall of the People, refusing to leave until NPC Reps receive their petition. Crowd grows to 10,000 MM405 The had seven demands: 1) affirm Hu Yaobang’s views of democracy and freedom, 2) reject the earlier spiritual pollution and bourgeois liberalization campaigns, 3) publish information on the incomes of state leaders and their families, 4) end the ban of provate newspapers and permit freedom of speech, 5) increase education funding and increase intellectuals salaries, 6) end restrictions on demonstrations in Beijing, 7) hold democratic elections to replace the bad offcials. TM26
That night several thousand split off to march on Zhongnanhai. Some tried to storm the gate leading to Deng’s and Li Peng’s homes. D405 First reports that autonomous Student Unions had been formed replacing the official government controlled groups. MM405 The students demand that the government publish a list of the salaries and other sources of income for Party and Government leaders and their children. This demand won wide public approval.
April 19: Demonstrators clash with police at Xinhua Gate, Zhongnanhai. TMxxxv Sit in begins at Zhongnanhai the night of 4/19. TM19
April 20-21: Autonomous student organizations are formed. TMxxxv
April 21: People’s Daily publishes an editorial and articles decrying the demonstrations. Stundents smash small bottles “Xiaoping” in the square around noon. Government announces that the public would be barred from the Square for Hu Yaobang’s 4/22 memorial service.
April 22: HU Yaobang’s Memorial Service. When police show up at 6:00am to block entry to Tiananmen, they find 10,000 students encamped at he gate of Heavenly Peace. MM406 As word spreads of the student stunt, 90,000 more sympathizers join the students. The memorial meeting is held in the Great Hall with 10,000 invited guests, while 100,000 people stood outside in the Square. Zhao Ziyang’s speech fails to explain Hu’s fall in 1987. As Deng and the leaders leave the Hall, they see the 100,000 gathered in defiance of the order from the Public Security Bureau to disperse. More than 1,000,000 line the motorcade route to Babaoshan Cemetery for Hu’s internment. MM407
April 23: Student leaders announce the formation of a Provisional Autonomous Federation of Beijing University Students. MM408
April 24: The new Student Federation, representing 21 universities, declares a student strike in support of the seven demand of April 18 in the form of a boycott of all classes. MM408 The students urge workers and people throughout China to join them i.e. a GENERAL STRIKE call. Student propaganda teams fan out throughout Beijing. Deng is compared to the dowager Cixi and people smash small bottles i.e. “Xiaoping” in the streets. Deng is incensed. MM409
April 24: Li Peng chairs a PB Sc meeting, while Zhao is in Korea. The PB “believed that China was confronted with a planned, organized political upheaval which was against the Party and Sociailsm.” H 792
April 25: Deng gives a speech backing the conclusion of the Politburo. H792
April 26: Renmin Ribao publishes an editorial denouncing the “few troublemakers” inciting the students and promises that the government will stop illegal organizations and demonstrations. MM410 The police and militia move into position at the universities to block the gates so that demonstrators cannot leave the campuses. MM 411 The editorial reignites the fading student movement in the square. TM76
April 27: The Elders, meeting at Deng’s house, select Jiang Zemin to be the next General Secretary and also pick the new PBSC: LI Peng, QIAO Shi, YAO Yilin, SONG Ping and LI Ruihuan. TM312 80,000 students, arms linked, crash through the gates at all the universities. The police offer no resistance, and the students form a four-mile long marching column in Beijing. Tens of thousands of citizens join the march with them. MM411 After arriving at Tiananmen Square they broke into smaller groups and fanned out throughout Beijing, organizing popular support everywhere. MM411 Under great pressure, the government agreed to the student demand for a meeting. Conciliatory mid level leaders promised to fight corruption, would stop doing business at the Beidahai luxury resort, and would pass a measure prohibiting government officials from importing luxury limousines for official use. MM 413.
April 28: Bowing to another student demand, the government announces that press censorship of the demonstration coverage is lifted. MM 412.
April 29: First meeting between the government and 40 students is videotaped and played on TV. MM413 Yuan Mu (State Council) and He Dongchang SEC vice minister, are the spokesmen. TM95-6
April 30: Second government meeting with students: The Party refuses to recognize the new student organizations. MM 413 ZHAO Ziyang returns to Beijing from his North Korean trip. MM 414, TM97 ZHAO begins a bitter leadership struggle against DENG. MM414
May 3: Zhao’s speech commemorating May 4th praised the role of youth and affirmed the patriotism of the student demonstrators. TM110 A press conference by Yuan Mu that morning rejected the students “twelve preconditions” for dialogue. There is widespread student anger at this response. TM111
May 4: ZHAO’s gives a speech to the governors of the Asian Development Bank, wherein he described the student demands as “reasonable.” MM 415
May 4: 60,000 Beijing students, from 30 Universities, with others from around China and Hong Kong, march up Changan to Tiananmen Square. MM418 These were about 80% of all the students in Beijing! TM62 The police lines set up to stop them melt away. 500 Journalists joined the march. They are joined by 240,000 Beijing residents. MM418 Demonstrations break out in 51 cities. TM114
May 5 – May 17: During this period Zhao held the upper hand and probably could have made some concessions to the students three main demand: 1) Direct talks with Party and State leaders, 2) Freedom to establish their own organizations, and 3) Retraction of the April 26 Renmin Ribao Editorial. But Zhao hesitated and Deng Xiaoping was resolute in demanding that force be used to break up the demonstrations. MM 422
Two Lines among the students: The older and more sophisticated students see Zhao as the victor and want to compromise to protect their gains. The younger, more radical students, led by WUER Kaixi of Beijing Normal University, and WANG Dan, of Beida, demanded immediate and substantive reforms. The launched the hunger strike on May 13. MM 424
May 11: Students a Beida post a notice porposing a hunger strike and occupy Tiananmen Square to greet Gorbachev when he arrives on May 15. TM144
May 13: Chai Ling, a graduate student in psychology, and a Gandhi follower, convinces the leaders to call the hunger strike. At 10:30am about 160 students wearing white headbands gathered at Beida Building 29 to the Beida hunger strike oath. TM156 500 students march into Tiananmen to begin the hunger strike. MM 425 They are prompted by the Gorbachev visit, seeing him as a reform leader. TMxxxvii As the time of Gorbachev’s visit approaches, Zhao and others urge the students to leave the square.
May 14: Members of the State Council go to the square to ask the students to leave. The Public Security Bureau demands that the students leave by the Morning of May 15. They refuse. MM 426
May 15: Gorbachev arrives at Beijing airport at noon. The welcoming ceremony is held there because the students control Tiananmen. TM171 The students establish “Tiananmen Square Hunger Strike Headquarters” with Chai Ling as general commander. TM171
May 16: Deng meets with Gorbachev inside the Great Hall of the people and normalizes relations with the USSR. Tens of thousands demonstrate outside. TM173 Gorby met with Zhao Ziyang at Diaoyutai. It was at this meeting that Zhao told Gorbachev of the secret protocol at the 13th Congress, First Plenary establishing Deng’s continuing leadership despite a PB post. TM177, 187
May 17: The Politburo Standing Committee splits 2-2-1 (Qiao Shi abstaining) on whether to call martial law. Li Peng and Yao Yilin for martial law, Zhao Ziyang and Hu Qili against. Qiao Shi abstained. TM193 The Politburo agrees to meet the next mornig at Deng’s house to turn the matter over to the eight elders. TM193 The Hunger Strike is a big success. Chai Ling was known as the “Commander in Chief” of the student occupation during the hunger strike. MM448 Over one million people arrive at Tiananmen Square to show their support for the students. Changan is clogged with protestors for eight miles. MM427 TM194 says 1.2 million. Party Cadres, teachers form the Central Party School, government office workers, teachers, peasants, many industrial workers of Beijing, uniformed police and 1000 PLA Cadets now join the students. MM 428 Rock Stars CUI Jian and the Taiwanese HOU Dejian, join the demonstrators. Western press proclaims a “Chinese Woodstock”, MM 429 MASSES OF WORKERS JOIN THE DEMONSTRATION. MM447. The participation of many workers and the formation of the “Capital Worker’s Autonomous Federation, with HQ right in Tiananmen Square, raises the “Polish Fear” and allows Deng to argue that the movement IS a rebellion. MM431
May 17: PB Standing Committee decides to impose martial law. H794
May 18: At 11:00am, Li Peng, Li Tieying, Li Ximing, Yan Mingfu, Chen Xitong and others met at the Great Hall of the People with Wang Dan, Wuerkaixi, and other student leaders. TM202 LI Deng looks awkward on TV. Deng Xiaoping summons ZHAO Ziyang and other party leaders to his home to demand marital law. Zhao casts the only dissenting vote, after which he resigned as Party Secretary General. MM 432 Military personnel and police cadets arrive in uniform and in formation to support the students.. Peasants and members from the Central Party School also join the demonstration.
May 19: At 4:00 am, Zhao wanders disconsolately among the students. “I have come too late.”, he tearfully admits. This performance raises Zhao’s prestige among the masses after he is sacked and the massacre occurs. This is the last time Zhao is seen in public. MM 432-434 LI Peng gives a TV speech announcing the declaration Martial Law effective tomorrow at 10:00 am. MM435 It was the entry of the workers into the demonstration, on May 17-18, that caused the Party to declare martial law. MM 451 At 10:00pm the PBSC and State Council convene a large meeting in Beijing wherein Li Peng annuoced that martial law woul begin on 10:00am the next morning. TM224
May 20: Li Peng signs the martial law order in the early hours of 5/20. TM233 Troops from 22 divisions and 13 armies arrive in Beijing. TM239 XU Quinxian, the dissenting commander of the 38th Army is stripped of command and hospitalized. TM239 Martial Law prohibits demos, strikes, marches. Leaflets and “incitement to unrest.” MM 436 The public responds with widespread defiance of martial law. Students, who had just called off the hunger strike, now resumed it. Factories go out, transportation workers go out, and the masses begin building barricades. 300 young motorcyclists join Flying Tiger Brigade to provide intelligence on troop movements. MM436 The “Beijing Workers’ Autonomous Union” calls for a general strike and for the people to block the arm’s advance into the City. There were scattered work stoppages, but no general strike. MM 451 Eight PLA Generals signed a one sentence protest opposing martial law for Beijing. TM265
May 21: Over one million gather in Tiananmen Square to protest Martial Law and reaffirm support for the students. Seven prestigious retired PLA leaders wrote an open letter to Deng Xiaoping saying that the “The Peoples Army belongs to the people.” And that, “It cannot stand in opposition to the people.” MM 437 600,000 demonstrate in HK. TM266
May 22: Journalists and literary figures join a 100,000 strong illegal march through Beijing. MM 436 Tearful students read the PLA open letter over loudspeakers. MM 437
May 23: The Commander of the 38th Army, XU Qinxian, refuses the order to to enter Beijing to carry out martial law. TM213 A million people again demonstrate in the center of Beijing. MM426 The NPC Standing Committee endorses the students, calls for an end to Martial Law, and plans to remove LI Peng as Premier! MM 436 Most army units have now withdrawn from the city. City police vanish from the streets. MM452 Workers cut off power to the subway so that troops cannot enter via the Qianmen station. MM453
May 23: At 3:00pm, YU Zhijian, TU Dongyue and Lu Decheng empty eggshells and fill them with black ink, white, yellow, and red oil paint. They hurl them at Mao’s portrait on Tiananmen Gate. They are seized by the students and turned over to the police as suspected provocateurs. They were sentenced in September as follows: Life, 20 years and 16 years. RC156, TM284
May 24: The PLA soldiers in Beijing begin to fraternize with the students. The government responds by withdrawing most of the troops. The MM 437 Units of the secret police now begin to participate in the demonstration. 500,000 demonstrate in Canton. A million demonstrate in Hong Kong. Deng orders the more reliable 27th Army into Beijing. MM 438
May 25: Demonstrations break out all across China. It is expected that Deng will have to dump LI Peng for declaring martial law. MM438
May 26: The seven military region of China are ordered to declare support for LI Peng and martial law. The Beijing Military Region is the last to do so, on May 26. MM 438 Wuer Kaixi, Chairman of the Beijing Students Federation advises the students to leave the Square. Many students return to their campus, but Chai Ling and a hardcore remain. MM 440
May 27: The elders meet at Deng’s house and secretly elect Jiang Zemin the new general secretary. They elect a new PBSC: JIANG, LI Peng, QIAO Shi, YAO Yilin, SONG Ping, and LI Ruihuan. TM312 Chai Ling joins Wuer Kaixi and Wang Dan in announcing that the students will evacuate the Square on May 30. MM 440 NPC Chairman Wan Li returns from Canada. He capitulates to Deng. MM 439
May 29, 1989 ZHAO Ziyang replaced by JIANG Zemin as Party Secretary. Students erect the “Goddess of Democracy” statue on the night of May 29, in a ceremony where skits are performed by theater students and the Internationale and East is Red is sung in unison. MM441 The newly arriving non-Beijing students decide to stay until June 20, when the NPC will meet. The Beijing students oppose this, but agree to stay to maintain unity. MM 442
May 30: The secret police reappear at Tiananmen and arrest three leaders of the Capital Workers’ Autonomous Union, whose HQ is on the square. MM454
June 1: Students at Tananmen are exhausted and demoralized. There is an attempt to kidnaop Chai Ling. Their demands now focus on avoiding retaliation. TM353
June 2: Deng orders Tiananmen cleared. Singer Hou Dejian and three intellectuals—LIU Xiaobo, Zhou Duo, and GAO Xin, announce the start of their hunger strike. TM362 11:00 pm Jeep accident at Muxidi in which Beijingers discover plainclothes soldier sparks a battle involving thousands. Students are alerted and converge at major intersections to block the martial law troops advance. TM366
June 3: At 5:00pm the Autonomous Federation of Workers “command center” at Tiananmen distributes cleavers, clubs, chains and sharpened bamboo sticks to student and citizens. TM367
At 6:30pm, Government radio and TV stations broadcast emergency announcements warning residents to keep off the streets, warning that the Army would no longer tolerate disorder and would crush all resistance to martial law. Student loadspeakers in Tiananmen call the people to arms and instruct them to block the intersections to the city. TM371 Tens of thousands rush to fortify barricades in the suburbs and move into the square to protect the students. Two miles west of the Square, at the Military Museum. This is where the bloodiest battles were fought and where most were killed. TM371, MM 457
10:30pm, Tens of thousands form a human wall at Beifengwo Street to block the PLA approach. Under a baragge of rocks the PLA opened fire. Under fire the rioters retreated to the Muxidi Bridge for another stand. TM373 The 27th Army, with tanks and APCs opens fire on civilians in the Muxidi and Xidan Districts near the Military Museum. MM 457 Fighting was most intense on East Changan Avenue, where people attempted to stop the PLA’s advance into Tiananmen. MM458 Pitched battles at the Minzu Hotel. MM459 People throw missles at the soldiers from the highrises along Fuxingmenwei. The soldiers fire back and the son-in–law of the NPC Law Committee vice chairman, Song Rufen, is killed in the Minister’s Building at Muxidi. TM375, 437
11:30pm As the first armoured car arrives in Tiananmen it is hit with Molotov cocktails but escapes.
June 4, 1989:
1:00 am The martial law troops arrive in Tiananmen at the scheduled time. And order the Square cleared over loudspeakers TM377-8 The troops arrive at the Gate of Heavenly Peace in the first minutes of June 4.
2:00 am Students with gasoline cans try to torch the PLA tucks on the North end of the square. They are arrested. TM379
At 3:00am, Three thousand students are sitting around the Monumnet to the Peoples Hereos. Hou Dejian, the singer and Liu Xiaobo the literary critic, Zhou Duo, and Gao Xin, urge the students to leave peacefully. They then left the Square in a minvan to confer with the PLA. TM380 Chai Ling encourages people to stay. TM379
4:00am The PLA turned off the floodlights in the Square in preparation for the assault and announce that the clearing is beginning. Chai Ling calls on the students to sacrifice their lives and they begin singing The Internationale over and over. The soldiers advance on the Monument to the Peoples Heroes from North to Soouth in two columns. TM 381, MM461
At 5:00am the students file out of the square denouncing the army. MM461
Zhao Ziyang’s secretary, Bao Tong, is later jailed for revealing the contents of Zhao’s May 4th speech. MM 415 Bao got nine years. MM475n11 About 40,000 people were arrested in June and July, nearly all workers. Only workers were executed. MM463 Students were treated more leniently. MM464 All Beijing citizens are required to write lengthy self-criticisms and meet to praise the PLA. MM464, 474. The official estimate is 300 killed. Observers (including William Hinton) say 2,000 to 7,000 were killed. MM465
June 5: President George Bush I announces sanctions against China. The US announces that the 45,000 Chinese students in the country wouod be permitted to stay after their visas expired. TM417 Taiwan offers passports for Chinese students abroad. TM418
June 5-10: Demonstrations erupt in 181 cities but conditions start to calm by June 8. TM398 2,000 students marched in Guilin. TM402 Han Suyin p[rotests the crackdown and William Hinton calls upon the world to cease grain sales to China. TM416
June 6: Elder BO Yibo’s driver is killed by machinegun fire at 8:00pm when he fails to stop his car on command. TM437
June 9: Deng appears on national TV to congratulate the army on suppressing the rebellion and to promise that the Reform and Opening Up will continue. MM464 10,000 cadres, in Beijing alone, were purged. MM474
June: Deng steps down from Military Commission in favor of Jiang Zemin. Deng Liqun’s propaganda apparatus repudiates both liberal-democratic intellectuals and “new authoritarianism.”
June 23-24: 4th Plenary of 13th CC: TMxli. Zhao defends his actions but loses. TMxxxviii, TM441 Zhao Ziyang is charged with supporting the turmoil. Zhao is dismissed from all his leading posts. Hu Qili, Rui Xingwen and YAN Minfu are removed from the Politburo SC. TM438 Jiang, Song Ping,and Li Ruihuan are appointed to the PBSC. TM737 Jiang Zemin elected General Secretary. H798
November 9: 5th Plenary of 13th CC endorses Deng Xiaoping’s resignation as Chair of the Central Military Commission. H801, TM456


March: 6th Plenary of 12th CC H805
Neoconservatives Xia Gongqin and Wang Huning criticize romanticism of liberal democrats and call for “visible hand” of elite to guide modernization.
June: A nationwide shuffle of military district commanders and political commissars takes place as fall out from June 4th. TM456


May 14: Jiang Qing’s suicide by hanging per Anchee Min (Radio interview 4/22/01)
June 4: Jiang Qing’s suicide and note denouncing Deng. NE 223
Chen Yuan’s “Realistic Responses and Strategic Choices for China After the Soviet Upheaval”. Rely on nationalism (not ML) to rally within an ideological framework combining Western rationalism w/ traditional Chinese Culture.
December 25: Russian Tricolor replaces the Soviet Flag atop the Kremlin as the USSR ends. TM456


January: Deng’s Southern Tour shores up Economic Reforms. “.. as long as it makes money, its good for China” MM318
August 22, 1992: During a severe drought, and a fight over water rights, peasants blew up two portions of the Red Flag Canal where the walls were eight meters high, destroying houses, fields and livestock below. RC51
October 12-18 14th Party Congress. Deng did not attend the Congress. The “socialist market economic system” is hailed as Deng’s “great theoretical breakthrough in Marxism Leninism.” Market Economy is incorporated in the Party Constitution. Jiang Zemin stresses, “deepening of reform.” Economic development is stressed as the Party’s central task and, therefore, class struggle is no longer a “principal contradiction.” Nearly half of the 189 CC members were newly elected—all Deng supporters. MM481 ZHU Rongyi is elevated to the Politburo Standing Committee. MM483


Summer: Deng Rong, publishes the biography of her father, Deng Xiaoping. MM477
July: Zhu Rongyi is appointed governor of the central People’s Bank of China. MM483
October: Deng’s Volume III touted as major political event. “Seeking truth from Facts” Third Plenum, 14th CC: “market to play a fundamental role in allocating resources under the state’s macroeconomic regulation and control.


February 3: Preisdent Clinton lifts trade embargo on Vietnam. RP323
March: Popular book, “Looking at China Through a Third Eye” focuses attention on destabilizing consequences of reform, class conflict, polarization and declining morality.

January 1: The government announces new travel restrictions to stem the massive peasant flow to the cities. Peasants must produce a special permit to board a train. RC57
January: Jiang Zemin criticizes Party corruption and indiscipline. Need to maintain “progressiveness and purity.”
July 11: US diplomatic recognition of Vietnam. RP323
October: Deng’s theory of building “socialism with Chinese Characteristics” touted as second historical leap, after Mao, combining ML with Chinese conditions.


July: Renmin Ribao article cautions against “Confucian Craze”, but urges the integration of Confucian ethics with Marxism: self cultivation, humanistic ideology, virtue, education.

“10,000 character statement” by Deng Liqun addresses problem of shrinking public sector and emergence of a “nongovernmental bourgeois class and a petty bourgeoisie.”


February 20: Deng Xiaoping dies at age 92. CD229
July 1: Hong Kong returned to China. CD229, H829
November: Jiang Zemin’s visit to USA CD231


Spring: ZHU Rongji replaces LI Peng as Premier at NPC Congress. CD230
Disastrous summer floods, I was in Guilin when the city was covered in June. P
June: Clinton-Jiang debate was broadcast on Chinese Television. I was in China and watched the broadcast from Guilin.
December: Arrest of political dissidents seeking to register a new bourgeois “democratic” party. CD17


March 25: BAO Tong circulated a letter urging the CCP to reverse the verdict on June 4, 1989. TMxxxix
April 25: 10,000 Falun Gong demonstrators converge on Zhongnanhai to protest arrests in Tianjin. The demo lasts fro 4:00pm to 11:00pm. CQ 2001p637
July 22: PRC denounces Falun Gong in official broadcast and begins arrests. P
December 20: Macao returns to China


October 13: Gus Hall dies. P
November: Population Census done the first two weeks of this month. AIRD


April 1: American Spy Plane collides with Wang Wei’s fighter and makes an emergency landing on Hainan Island. Wang is lost. I was in Guilin, China that day. P
July 1: In his Party Day speech, Jiang Zemin announces that capitalists may now join the CCP. P
September 14-26: CCP CC Plenary defeats Jiang Zemin’s proposal to admit capitalists to party. Asia Times, HK 10/23/01
December 11: China joins the WTO, China Quarterly, 3/02 p254


January: First reports of “Lightning From the East”, a dynamic new apocalyptic Christian cult by a woman who is the returned Jesus.
November: 16th Party Congress
Decenber 5: Hu Jintao’s speech at Xibaipo


March 15: NPC appoints HU Jintao President. Chronicle, 3/16/03
March 15: Jiang Zemin re-appointed Chairman of the State Central Military Commission (SCMC). Chronicle, 3/16/03 It was reported that 220 NPC delgates either voted voted against him or abstained, which is a suprising show of opposition from the NPC.
March 16: NPC appoints WEN Jiabao (age 60) Premier. The vote was 2,906 for, 3 against and 16 abstentions. WEN replaces ZHU Rongji. Chronicle, 3/16/03
April 10: Katrina LEUNG, code named “Luo”, arrested 4/9/03 in LA. Age 49. Charged with being a double agent for obtaining documents from her FBI controller and lover, James “JJ” Smith, age 59. She also had an affair with FBI agent William Cleveland, who supervisewd the Chinese intelligence squad in San Francisco. Cleveland retired in 1993 and went to work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the manager of “security awareness for employees.” He resumed his affair with Leung in 1997-1999. Cleveland quit after Smith and Leung were arrested. Leung and her husband contributed $27,000 to the GOP. Agent Smith was also the handler for Johnny Chung, the businessman central to the Clinton era Democratic Party fundraising scandal. Chung’s lawyer is representing Agent Smith. The FBI paid her $1.7 million and she earned $1.2 million from Nortel Communications for brokering a deal in the PRC. Chronicle, p. A9, 4/10/03, 4/17 A21.


Sol ADLER: State Department Communist fled to PRC. W 8 Former Brit., naturalized American, helped on Mao’s Works translation project in 1960. M 251
AI Qing: 1919- ?, Leading leftwing poet before liberation. He was a target of Mao’s Yanan talks on literature and art. XV747 He was targeted as a rightisit in 1957. XV748
Rewi ALLEY: 1897 – 1987 New Zealand sheepherder served as Shanghai factory inspector in 1920s. Joined Mao and wrote many books about China. NE 470 Had a large and valuable collection of Chinese antiques W 101 Lived in apartment above Strong in 1960s. W 101 Some of his adopted children were targeted in the Anti-Rightist Campaign. M 209
BAO Tong: Bao was Zhao Ziming’s top Secretary, and was the leader of the political reform movement in the Party. On May 17, 1989 he leaked the martial law plan to Li Peng’s adversaries at the Office for Research on Reform of the Political System. Li Peng ordered Bao’s arrest for this on May 27, but Bao was not told of the reason for his arrest. TM313 He was sentenced to seven years in prison. TM307-8 On March 25, 1999 BAO circulated a letter urging the CCP to reverse the verdict on June 4, 1989. TMxxxix
Norman BETHUNE, 1890-1939 Canadian surgeon who worked for CCP in Yanan, Died of septicemia from transfusing his own blood to a wounded soldier. “In Memory of Norman Bethune” was one of the “Three Constantly Read Articles.” CC373
Sir Edmund BLACKHOUSE: Oxford oreintalist who wrote a history based on the the faked “Jing Shan Diary”, supposedly reporting on the inner workings of the Qing Court during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Hugh Trevor-Roper’s 1976 biography of Blackhouse, Hermit of Peking, tells the story. TM462
V.K. BLUCHER (1889-1938) “Galen”: Soviet military advisor to Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou and to Guangzhou KMT Government 1924-1927. Commander of USSR’s Far Eastern Special Army, August 1929 – 1938. MO 126 Arrested in 1937 and executed in Moscow in 1938. T 654
BO Gu: 1908-1946 CCP Secretary - Party leader in China, subordinate to Wang Ming in Moscow. Russia in 1926, four years at Sun Yatsen University. Returned in 1930 as one of the 28 Bolsheviks. Allied with Zhou Enlai and LI De against Mao until defeat at Zunyi Conference on LM. Died in a plane crash in 1946. RS 495
BO Yibo: 2/17/08 - ??, Joined CCP in 1925. vice premier 1966, purged in GPCR, as one of the “Sixty-One Renegades.” CC373 Rehabilitated after 1978. Student leader in Beijing in 1930. Arrested by KMT in 1936 with 60 others. Released after writing a “statement of repentance.” Mao used this against him during his purge. He was one of the first to go among the 61 Renegades. His wife committed suicide with sleeping pills in 1970. Refused to bow to Mao’s portrait. Held in Qincheng prison for seven years. Rehabilitated in 1978. PR 176 Author of “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party” in 1981. PR 176
Michael BORODIN: (July 9, 1884-1951) Latvian revolutinalry expelled from Russia in 1906 and spent 11 years in USA. Returned to Russia in 1918. Knew Lenin and translated one of his works. IKKI rep assigned to Spain and Mexico. Arested and imprisoned in England while assisting British CP. Returned to Moscow and assigned to China. XII533 IKKI Rep in China 9/23 to 7/27. Became editor of the English Language Moscow Daily News in 1930. MO 126, T 655 Snow says he was jailed and died in Siberia. RS424. His wife was an American, Fanny ????? P Arrested in 1949 with many other Jewish intellectuals, and sent to a prison camp, where he died in 1951 at age 67. XII672. Rehabilitated by Krushchev. RS424
Otto BRAUN (LI De) 1900 - 1974 “Bleak House” nickname among the Chinese Leadership. (LM 9) German IKKI military adviser on Long March. Arrived in Harbin in 1932, Soviet area in 1933. Died in East Berlin. Arrested in Germany in 1920 as a Communist leader; escaped in 1928, received military training at Frunze Academy. Agnes Smedley introduced him to Snows. LM 39 “Campaign wife” Xiao Yuehua bore him a son in Yanan. LM 82 Fearing purges in Moscow, he joined CCP, married a beautiful Shanghai actress, and tried to stay in China. But he couldn’t stand it, gave up and returned to Moscow in 1939 without his wife. Probably imprisoned, but ended up in East Berlin where he wrote his anti-Mao autobiography during Sino-Soviet dispute. LM 335, H177
Heywood BROUN: NLG leader and CPUSA operative. Kept Red Star Over China from being a Book of the Month Club Selection, under CPUSA orders. MC 310 This cost the Snow’s $75,000.00.
Earl BROWDER: CPUSA Chairman 1934 – 1946. Browder was a Bukharin-Lozovsky appointee who had been political secretary of the Comintern’s Far Eastern Bureau in Shanghai since 1927. Began to falter in 1929. Browder certainly lost power when Pavel Mif arrived in May 1930. Gerhard Eisler and Paul Ruegg (Hilaire Noulens), both Stalin appointees, replaced Browder. Li Lisan probably began to develop his own left line partly because of Browder’s dismissal. MO 126 Browder lead the Pan Pacific Trade Union (RILU). He met Smedley in Shanghai in 1929. SM 142. See CP History.
BOSSHARD: A Swiss missionary captured by Ho Lung and convicted in Red Army Court of espionage. Sentenced to 18 months. He was being held when the Long March began, but was released along the route. RS80
Nikolai BUKHARIN: (1887-1938) Joined Bolsheviks in 1906. Was spokesman for “Left Communists” in 1918. Became leading Rightist after Lenin’s death. President of IKKI 1926 – 1929. Formed Right opposition in 1928. Capitulated in 1929. Defendant in March 1938 Moscow trial. Confessed and was shot in 1938. T 655 Stalin’s China expert for a time. Set up Sun Yat Sen University in Moscow.
Smedley BUTLER: U.S. Marine Commander in Beijing in 1928 as KMT army approached the city. XII707
CAI Yuanpei : Progressive president of Beida in 1917. He hired Chen Duxiu to run the Liberal Arts College there. H9
William James CALHOUN: President Taft’s Minister to China, 1909-1913. XII 156
CAO Yu (Siao Yu): Author of “Mao Zedong and I Were Beggars”. KMT appointed him custodian of the Beijing Palace Museum. He stole some of the best pieces, sold them, and absconded with the money in 1934. Mao told this story to Snow. RS 146
Evans CARLSON: Marine Captain and Naval Attache to China. A friend of Stillwell’s. Personal friend of FDR. ST175 Died May 1947 of a heart attack. Former FDR bodyguard. SM 239. “Gung Ho” Marine Captain who came to Zhu De’s HQ in December 1937 to study CCP military methods. SM 199. Carlson’s Raiders won the first U.S. victory against Japan, at Guadalcanal, August 1942. SM 281 Close friend of Smedley’s. Carlson wrote two books on China, The Chinese Army and Twin Stars of China, both published in 1940. ST544
Whittaker CHAMBERS: Turned FBI informant in 1942. SM 250 Worked as an editor for Henry Luce.
CHAI Ling: June 1989 Hunger Strike Leader. A graduate student in psychology, and a Gandhi follower, convinced the student leaders to call the hunger strike. MM425 Chai Ling was known as the “Commander in Chief” of the student occupation during the hunger strike. MM448 She was the diehard who would not leave the Square. Led students in a dramatic oath on May 24. TM288, She turned the students against leaving on May 25. TM294 MA student at Princeton, she went into business in Boston. TM478
CHEN Boda: 1904 –1989 Alternate member of Politburo. Mao’s chief political secretary and ghost writer from 1937 (Yanan) - 1949. RS 454. Red Flag editor. Strongly defended Great Leap. GPCR leftist. Edited Mao’s Selected Works (with Hu Qiaomu and Tian Jiaying) NE 195 Rose to prominence at 11th Plenary, 8th CC in 1966, when he was suddenly promoted to the Politburo. Went to Moscow with Mao on both trips and may have interpreted. Appointed director of the Central Cultural Revolution Group in May 1966. CC373 He coordinated all of the GPCR campaigns. Worked closely with Jiang Qing. RS454-456 Member of Politburo Standing Committee, purged 8/25/70 at Second Plenum of 9th CC as Lin Biao supporter for writing article about Mao’s genius, aimed at helping Lin. S 529 Personally ordered torture of Liu Shaoqi. Labeled “China’s Trotsky”, a “left Russian” because he picked USA as main enemy. W 347 Tried w/ Go4 in 1977 as Lin Biaoist. Imprisoned until 1988. CC374
CHEN Duxiu: (1879 - May 1942) TR269. Dean of the College of Letters at BeiDa in 1915. In 1917 he pioneered the reform of the Chinese language. XII406ff Leader of the May 4th Movement, jailed for three months. Went to Shanghai in 1920 to organize the first ML study groups. RS456 First General Secretary of CCP 1921-1927. Laid down foundations of Chinese Marxism with LI Dachao. CCP history blames him for the failure to break with the KMT in 1926. H73 Trotskyist leader.
CHEN Eugene: (Chen Yu-jen) KMT Foreign Minister, appointed after March 1926 coup. Chen was a leftist, and his appointment was a sop to Borodin. XII575 Served Jiang Kaisheck at the time of the 1927 Massacre. TR205 Later joined rebel Fujian government against Jiang in 1933. When the KMT beat the Fujian government, he faded into obscurity and died in 1944. TR208
CHEN Lining: “The Revolutionary Madman” and “Madman of the New Age”, was a mental patient incarcerated for writing a detailed criticism of Liu Shaoqi’s works in several notebooks. To Chinese he was a metaphor for Lu Xun’s “Diary of a Madman”. Liberated by Red Guards and declared a political genius, he was a celebrity at mass rallies denouncing Liu Shaoqi in mid-1967, where he sometimes appeared with Sidney Rittenberg. Later it was discovered that his notebooks also denounced Mao. Declared a fraud and a counterrevolutionary linked to the May 16th Organization. One of the biggest embarrassments of the GPCR W 234
CHEN Xiaomin: 1902-1977 The only member of the 8th CC 12th Plenum who did NOT vote to expel LIU Shaoqi from the Party. She was not reelected at the 9th CC. CC374
CHEN Xitong: 1930 - The only PB member imprisoned for corruption. Former Mayor of Beijing, promoted to PB in 1992. Sentenced to 16 year prison term for corruption in 1996. TM478 Chen was mayor of Beijing in 1989 and was activein supressingf the demonstrations. He was a political enemy of Jiang Zemin, and was angling for the Party Secretary job. In April 1995, vice mayor Wang Baosen (1935-1995) commited suicide during a corruption scandal. The case implicated Chen and the whole Beijiing leadership in bribes and commissions. Chen, his son, and allies were detained. Held until 1998 and then sentenced to sixteen years in prison. MD58
CHEN Yi: 1901 – 1972 Red Army general, left behind to command guerrillas at start of LM. Nearly executed as KMT renegade when he walked into a CCP camp in 1936. LM 219 Many of Mao’s supporters were deliberately left behind. LM 10. Learned basketball at Chengdu YMCA under John Service’s father. Savagely infected leg wound. LM 215 Joined CP group in France, and KMT and CCP in 1923. Huangpu political instructor under Zhou. Elected to CC at 7th Congress in 1945. Commanded the Red Army forces that decisively defeated KMT in eastern China. Elected to PB in 1956. As Minister of Foreign Affairs after 1958, he came under intense Red Guard pressure. RS 458-459 As China’s Foreign minister, he was the surrogate for attacks on Zhou Enlai. At one struggle session he begged Red Guards to allow him to remove his dunce cap so he could attend a meeting with the French ambassador. On another occasion he taunted the Red Guards by wearing his dunce cap in the student dining room, saying he had come to like it. W 227 Died 1/8/72. Mao, wearing pajamas, attended Chen’s funereal LM 336 Leader of “February Reverse Current”, Chen’s Foreign Ministry was attacked in 8/67 at instigation of GPCR Small Group. Died 1/6/72, S 544. Mao rehabilitated him at his funeral. S 546 Mao also reportedly said at the funereal that Deng Xiaoping’s case merely represented “a contradiction among the people”, signaling Deng’s rehabilitation. PR 273
CHEN Yizi: Zhao ally at the Reform institutes. Escaped arrest and fled to France and then the USA. TM478
CHEN Yonggui: 1914-1986, CC374 buried at Dazhai, Xiyang County, Shanxi. Commune leader and GPCR politburo member until Mao’s death. Important to Mao as the living metaphor of “the foolish old man who removed the mountain.” W 74 “In agriculture learn from Dazhai” Jiang Qinq’s first visit was in September 1975, days before the start of the first “National Learn From Dazhai” Conference. 2nd Conference was in September 1976, days before Mao’s death. NE 260 ff Visitors supposedly stopped coming in 1977. (But I was taken there in September 1978) Immediately targeted by Deng when he got control of the Party in October 1978. CD 61 Retired in 1980 CC374 Chen’s son was accused of committing rapes. CD91 A heavy smoker; vistor’s to his grave are said to leave burning cigarettes instead of incense. P
CHEN Yun: 1900 - 1995 Said to be a Bukharinite in 1957. XIV300 Party conservative. Labor organizer in 1930s. J485 Delegate to 7th ICCI July 1935 where his report on the Zunyi Conference led to Mao’s elevation by the Comintern. He processed Jiang Qing’s arrival at Yanan. J485 Joined Politburo at 7th Congress in 1945. RS 458 PR 126. One of the top five leaders in the 1950s. TM478 Responsible for Party Org Department. Important Party economist until his purge and after rehabilitation. PR 145. Party vice chairman in 1962 supported rightists. Chen opposed coercion and exhortations to motivate the peasants. He supported state investment in the light industrial sector to raise sate funds and encourage peasant production with goods they could buy. XIV 300 His proposal to dissolve the communes to increase production was sharply attacked by Mao. S 392. Chen “retired” immediately and did not come back to power until 1978, when he became vice chairman of CCP CC. Later emerged as go slow resister to Deng’s policies. NE 384 Author of the “bird cage” theory calling for restrictions on the market. PR 146. He opposed the June 4th crackdown and gave a 1991 speech calling for a reversal of the verdict on June 4th. PR 144. Chen led the pro central planning, “conservative” wing of the party. With Deng’s support, Chen purged many of HU Yaobang’s “radical reformers” in 1985 when inflation took off and the economy faltered. MM 356
CHEN Yuan: 1945 - Economist son of CHEN Yun. In 1987 developed the “tight operation theory” of the “primary stage” of socialist economics. PR 135 The “basic contradiction” in a socialist economy is between the growing social demands and limited resources, which causes “shortages.” PR 136 This theory defended planning as the primary lever v. market forces, and was a leftist attack on Deng Xiaoping’s “reform” line. PR 138
CHEN Wen-chen: Taiwan mathematician at Carnegie-Mellon in Pittsburg. Murdered by KMT security service while on a trip home on June 29, 1981. The University put pressure on the US and this caused a big scandal in Congress, damaging relations with Taiwan. This incident was a very big deal in the Chinese community because it suggested Chinese in Amnerica could be murdered by the KMT. F307-8
CHEN Zaidao: 1909-1993 General in command of Wuhan Military Region at time of the Wuhan Incident is Summer 1967 when conservative members of a mass organization kidnapped emissaries from the Center. Improsone, but released in 1971 after the Lin Biao Incident. CC 374
General Claire CHENNAULT: Commanded Flying Tigers. Supported Jiang Kaishek against Stillwell. Smedley said “he owned an interest in every wine shop and restaurant in Kunming.” SM 313 In a letter to FDR he claimed that if the hump supplies were dedicated to him, he would defeat Japan with 105 fighter planes, 30 medium bombers, and 12 heavy bombers in only six to twelve months. This wild claim was dismissed by the War Department, but FDR tended to believe it. ST337
CHIANG Ching-kuo: 1910 – 1/13/88. Chiang Kaishek’s son and successor. F490 One of the first students at Sun Yatsen University in Moscow. Denounced his father for the 1927 Massacre. Stayed in USSR until the 2nd UF permitted his return to Nanjing in 1937 with his blonde, blue eyed wife, Faina and their two children. They later had another son and a daughter. His father rehabilitated him and he served the KMT in the Anti-Japanese War. Appointed to head the KMT intelligence services in August 1949. Probably killed and tortured 10,000 people in 1949 alone. F55-57, 361 Alan Chiang (Chiang Hsiao-wen, oldest son), Alex Chiang (Chiang Hsiao-wu, #2) and Eddie Chiang (Chiang Hsiao-yung, #3), Daughter, Amy Chian, moved to Northern California. F361
CHIANG Kai-shek: (10/11/1887 – 1975) (Jiang Kaishi F511) Joined SunYatsen’s group in Japan in 1913. Chief of Staff at Sun’s Guangzhou HQ in 1923. KMT first Congress in 1924 assigned him to head Whampoa Military Academy. Assumed command of KMT military when Sun died in March 1925. In March 1926 took power in coup in Guangzhou and imposed strict conditions for CCP to remain in KMT. During Northern Expedition, massacred workers and Communists in Shanghai on 4/12/27. Fled to Taiwan in December 1949. T 656 JIANG Kaishi: (Chiang Kai-shek) Son of a Zhejiang merchant, he was at military school in Japan when the 1911 revolution broke out. Returned to Shanghai. Stockbroker for a time. Moved to Guangzhou and joined Sun’s staff and was assigned to Moscow for military study, leaving China in 1923 for six months. Commanded Whampoa Military Academy when it was set up in 1924. Borodin did everything possible to promote Jiang and maneoverd him into the KMT leadership. TR81-84 At the Cairo Conference Montbatten told Jiang that it would be impossible to supply the KMT with arms over the hump and retake Madalay at the same time, because of the coming monsoon. Grossly ignorant of geography, Jiang had no idea what Montbatten was talking about because he did not know about the monsoon. ST404
Maurice CHUCK: A Cantonese. Co-editor, with John Ong, of the Chinese Voice, the first pro-PRC paper started in 1969. It went to a circulation of 5,000 in 1971. F157 KMT operatives called the paper’s advertisers, threatening them. F158 Later edited the San Francisco Journal, another openly pro-PRC paper. It became a daily in the early 1980’s as interest in China was burgeoning. In 1983, he hired Henry Liu to write a daily column, which was immensely popular. The first article appeared on September 4, 1983.
Ray CLINE: CIA staion chief on Taiwan from 1958 to 1962. F84
Frank COE: State Department Communist fled to China. W 8 Helped on team w/ Rittenberg to translate Mao’s works into English in 1960. M 251
Confucious: “Confucious and the other philosophers entered history as presumend political advisors on how to retore the resumed social order of earlier times.” The Confucian classics were products of the era before reunification in 221BC. By expressing the poignant craving for order in an age of disorder, the classics perpetuated for all later ages the ideal of unity. XIV19
Edward Hurd CONGER: US Minister to China, 1898 – 1905. XII 156
David CROOK: British Spanish Civil War vet. Wife Isabelle. Taught at First Foreign Languages Institute. “Arrested” by Red Guards as a British Spy in late 1967. Turned over to Public Security Police and imprisoned for five years. Released in 1973 with an apology from Zhou Enlai. W 301. Lin Baobing says Cook was arrested because he was photographing the big character posters.
Sergei DALIN: A Russian YCL leader sent briefly to China in 4/22 by Communist Youth International to urge collaboration between CCP and KMT. T 658
DENG Fa: Head of Security Bureau in 1934 Red Zone. LM41
DENG Pufang: Deng Xiaoping’s son, called “Fatso Deng” in school. PR 29. Pufang was a Jinggangshan supporter at Beida. He was an excellent physics student. TS215 In an attempt to capture him, New Beida stormed the Jinggangshan building. He tried to escape by jumping from a window that faced Haidan Avenue and was paralyzed from the waist down by the fall. TS215 PR says Red Guards locked him in a radioactive lab and he fell from a window while escaping the lethal danger down a drainspout. PR 30 Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau arranged for spinal surgery for him in Canada in 1980. PR 36 Pufang used donations to the Disability Fund he administered to launch a huge business empire, Kang Hua Industrial Corporation, Ltd., based on state trade permits to import foreign goods. He shook down Chinese businesses for fund donations. Eventually he controlled CITIC, the biggest company in China. Popular hatred of Pufang led to a demand of the 1989 demonstrators to destroy CITIC and Pufang, which had monopolized much of China’s industry. PR 59 Supposedly, Pufang sent a car to Tiananmen Square to pick up student leaders Wu’er Kaixi and Cheng Zhen. He warned them that the Party leaders were bringing in soldiers. PR 71 On May 18, 1989 his handicapped association donated 100,000 RMB to the students in Tiananmen Square. TM213
DENG Xiaoping: August 22, 1904 – 1997 Autoworker and locomotive fireman in Paris 1920. Joined CP in 1924. Returned to China via USSR in 1925. First major assignment was Guangxi in 1929 where he established the Lungchow Soviet and worked with the Vietnamese CP just across the border. Attacked by French and KMT forces, his army fled to Jinggangshan and joined Mao. RS499 Ended AB purge when he returned to Party Base area in 1931, saving “hundreds”. LM 139. Married Jin Weiying in 1932 but she divorced him when he was attacked in 1933 as a rightist “Lo Ming Line” Maoist. PR 25 Jin developed mental problems in 1938 and disappeared into the Soviet mental system. Deng voted for Mao at Zunyi Conference in 1935. Deng Married Zhou Lin in 1940. T At 1945 7th Congress he became Secretary of CC and PB. In 1955 led purge of Gao Gang and Jao Xushi, and elected to politburo that year. J490 At 8th CC elected “general secretary” RS 499 GPCR “Number two Capitalist Roader”, he disappeared in 9/66. Returned to power in April 1973 as Deputy Premier (J490) to help Mao after Zhou Enlai’s cancer diagnosis. Purged after Tiananmen Incident in 4/76 (Zhou’s Death). Deng’s last public appearance was his eulogy at Zhou’s funeral. TS343 Returned again in 10/78 after Go4 arrest. LM 342ff.
DENG Yingchao: 1903- 1992. Zhou Enlai’s wife. May 4th teen age student leader arrested in 1919. J490 Went to France with Zhou, marries in 1923 (J490) and returned in 1924. Led CCP’s Womens’ Movement for 50 years. J490 Elected to KMT CC in 1926. The only woman leader in the Nanching Uprising, 8/1/27. Snow helped her escape from Japanese in Beijing, 1937. RS 500 Foster mother of LI Peng. Elder in 1989. TM479
Eugene DENNIS: Comintern Agent, Pan Pacific TU, assigned to Shanghai just after LI De’s departure. LM 40. Later CPUSA Secretart. P
DING Guangren: Head of CCP Propaganda Department. A Jiang Zemin protégé. He suppressed the opposition to Jiang Zemin’s attempt to admit capitalists to the party in mid 2001 by closing down opposition party journals. P
DONG Jianwu: Protestant minister and CCP cadre who carried the KMT’s message to Bo Gu in Wayaobu that the KMT would negotiate with CCP. H200
Felix DZERZHINSKY: (1877-1926) A founder of RSDLP of Poland and Lithuania. CC of RSDLP in 1906. CHEKA founder/leader. T 658
Alexander Ilich EGOROV: USSR Cival War hero. Military attaché to Beijing Embassy in late 1925. XII567n75
Gerhart EISLER: Shanghai IKKI Rep. SM 142 Wife Elli SM 142
Israel EPSTEIN: (wife Elsie) American citizen. Born in Poland, brought to China as an infant and raised in American schools in Tianjin. During WWII Chiang Kai-shek acceded to reporters demands to visit Yanan. After delaying as long as possible, a pool of three reporters went in May 1944. Isreal Epstein for the New York Times, Harrison Forman for the UPI, London Times, and NY Herald Tribune, and Guenther Stein for AP, Time Life, etc. ST462 Epstein later served as editorial assistant to Anna Louise Strong. W101. Senior Editor of China Reconstructs in 1960.
Arthur EWERTS: Bureau Chief of Comintern in Shanghai when LI De arrived in 1932. LM 40. Later arrested with wife, Szabo, in Brazil and tortured to death. CA 2. or, wife was “Elsie”, who died in a concentration camp about 1936. SM 142 Brazilians tortured Arthur into a permanent state of insanity. SM 142
John Kenneth Fairbank: Leading American China Scholar. Editor of the fifteen volume Cambridge History of China. Testified at the Congressional Loyalty Hearings, 81st Congress. ST584 A blowhard and self promoter. P
John FANG: Former editor of the pro-KMT Young China Daily in SF, said the paper was getting $20,000/year subsidy from the KMT. F157
FANG Lizhi: dissident astrophysicist at the national Observatory in Beijing. Feng Lizhi was the vice president and supporter of December 1986 student demonstrations at the Chinese University of Science and Technology at Hefei, Anhui Province. MM 360 He is a rightist who was rehabilitated in 1979. He was the main target of the campaign against bourgeois liberalization. Fired by the university and expelled from the Party in 1997 for supporting the 1986 student demonstartions. TM480, MM 363 Dissident astrophysicist who was the University’s vice president. MM 360 He and his wife, LI Shuxian, were active in the democracy “salons” at Beida in Spring 1988, and around June 4, 1989. TM57n1 Escaped arrest in 1989 by hiding in the US Embassy. Went to the USA in 1991 and became a professor at the University of Arizona. TM480
David FOOT: American in Beijing from at least 1949 on. NE 61. Lin Baobing says he worked with Foot at FFLI during 1960s.
FU Lianzhang: Nelson FU, 1894 – 1968 Mao’s Doctor on LM. And best Army Doctor. Invited Dr. Li Zhisui to return to China. S 39 Say Mao saved his life when he was accused of being an AB. He ate a whole chicken every day on LM and later! S 72 Tortured to death in GPCR S 656, NE 285
GUAN Feng: GPCR Small Group. Arrested after 8/67 attack on Chen Yi’s foreign ministry and burning of British charge d’affaires office. S 492
Harry GAINES: Comintern Rep in Shanghai, later edited Daily Worker in NYC.
GAO Gang: 1905 - 1954 LM vet. Odd figure in charge of Manchuria in 1949. Arrested in 1953, after Stalin’s death, charged with attempting to set up an “independent kingdom” He was probably a KGB agent. Committed suicide soon after arrest. LM fn 12 p.388 Mao told Dr. LI that that Gao was working for Stalin to create an independent Manchuria. S 118 He may have represented the influence of the army vs. Party, representing army commanders [“the army-party theory”] who felt they did not receive high enough political posts after liberation. He represented the resentments of the army commanders in the Red Bases against underground leaders like Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai, who operated in the white areas, and won the key posts in the new regime. XIV101 Gao’s associate was Rao Shushi, who was purged with him. H467, XV 310 Gao committed suicide in 8/54 (XIV102) during his trial. J487 RAO Shushi: Gao Gang’s co-conspirator. Purged with him in 1955. H466 Gao was a Politburo member and head of the State Planning Commision. Rao was director of the CC organization department, which controlled high-level appointments. XIV97 The essence of their conspiracy was their attempt to oust Liu Shaoxi and Zhou Enlai. Liu was the main target. XIV98 Peng Dehuai and Lin Biao had expressed agreement with Gao’s views (XIV101), so when Peng was criticized, Liu joined in the attack to punish Peng. XIV102n39
C. Patrick GIVENS: Chief of Red Squad British Police in Shanghai’s International Settlement where many Communists were hiding in 1930s. RS38
Frank GLASS: South African Trotskyite with a Chinese following in Shanghai in 1930s. Friend and collaborator of Smedley’s. SM 156
GONG Xiaoji 1950 - Student in the middle school attached to Beida and cofounder of the conservative Red Guard United Action Committee. CC375
Shirley GRAHAM: W.E.B. du Bois’s widow and Rittenberg’s friend. Zhou told her in September of 1967 that the Chinese Revolution was about to fail. M 381
Grace and Manny GRANICH: Grace was Browder’s secretary in NYC. In 1935 Smedley convinced him to assign her to Shanghai to edit a new journal, Voice of China, backed by Madam SUN, to replace the Trotskyisit China Forum. SM 168
GU Shunzhang: Shanghai CCP TU leader, escaped in 1927. Later Secret Police leader for CCP. Lived as Hangzhou street juggler. Arrested in winter of 1930-1931 in Wuhan and collaborated with KMT, leading to deaths of hundreds of Communists. He proposed a plan for the KMT to arrest the CCP leadership in one sweep. But a CCP agent working in the Investigation Section of the KMT’s Central Organization Department, Qian Zhuangfei, tipped the CCP and saved Zhou and the leadership. T?, H155
GUAN Feng: Member of the Central Cultural Revolution Group. He was arrested with Wang Li in August 1967. Guan is said to have been behind the calls to “Drag out a small handful in the army!” CC367
GUO Moruo: 1892 – 1978: Scholar and writer friendly to Mao. Chairman of the All China Federation of Literary and Art Circles until his death. XV744
HAN Aijing 1946- Originally a student at the Beijing Aeronautical Institute, Han rose to fame as the founder-leader of the Beihang Red Flag Combat team that had close links to the Central Cultural Revolution Group. Arrested in 1968, now in Shenzhen. CC375, S501 The Heaven faction in all Beijing was called “Xin Beida” and led by HAN Aijing with the support of NIE Yuanzi. TS201
HAN Dongfang: Railway worker who led the Beijing Workers Autonomous Union before his arrest in 1989. PR 163 Moved to Hong Kong where he reports on Chinee labor issues. TM480
Silas HARDOON: Rich Jewish Shanghai merchant who fled China leaving an opulent mansion. Mao stayed there once. S 205
George HATEM: 1910- 1988 Lebanese (or Syrian) American S 566 Born in Buffalo NY, MD in Geneva. Went to China in 1933. Came with Edgar Snow on his and Snow’s first trip to Shaanxi and stayed as an army medic. He was at the historic reunion of Mao’ First Army and Zhang Guotao’s 4th Front Army on October 2, 1936, when Zhang finally gave up opposing Mao. The armies had been split since end of LM. LM 321 KANG Sheng thought Hatem was a spy, but WANG Jiaxiang, who was close to Mao, saved him. LM 328 Li DE was his roommate in Pao An! CA 190
HE Long: 1896-1969 PLA Marshal, Politburo, vice premier, vice chair of Central Military Commission. Dumped by Mao at start of GPCR. Framed in alleged plot to assassinate Mao. Killed by intentionally botched medical treatment. CC375
Bob HODES: He and wife Jane Sachs Hodes (Goldman Sachs) were McCarthyite refugees in 1950s Beijing. M 205.
Joshua HORN: Lived north of old “Peace Gate” was a British surgeon. Wife Miriam Horn. M 206
HE Zizhen: 1909 – 1984 Mao’s 3d wife. Married in Jinggangshan, 1928. Mother of Li Min. Pregnant at start of LM, child left with peasants. Her sister, HE Yi, married Mao’s brother, Zetan. HE Yi died in an auto accident while searching for Mao’s lost son, Xiao Mao. LM 85 HE moved to Moscow in 1937. LM 173. Returned to China in 1948, died in Shanghai, 8/19/84, LM 174-5.
William HINTON: In Beijing on June 4, 1989. NE 477. In March 2003, his daughter Carmen told me he was confined to a nursing home and near death. P
HO Long: 1886 - 1969 LM vet. Joined KMT in 1922. A leader of 8/1/27 Nanchang uprising. T 659. One of “10 Marshals” A diabetic, he was executed during GPCR by repeated glucose injections because he was considered too stubborn to confess. 331. After Lin Biao’s death in 1971, Zhou Enlai got Ho’s wife released. Go4 was charged with his murder at their trial. He’s wife testified against the Gang.
HO Luting: Composer of “The East is Red.” Criticzed and persecuted in GPCR. XV601
Erich HONECKER: Aug. 25 1912 - May 29 1994 Last DDR leader.
HONG Xiuquan: 18XX – 18XX The younger brother of Jesus, Hong led the Taiping Rebellion that nearly defeated the Qing’s in 1860s.
Ozaki HOTSUMI: Sorge’s assistant. Met Sorge through Smedley in 1931. SM 148 Executed in Tokyo.
HOU Dejian: Popular Taiwan singer who was active at 1989 Tiananmen protests. Promissed to Join the hunger strike on June 1. TM353
HU Feng: LU Xun’s disciple, who was targeted in the 1954-55 thought reform campaign. Organized by Mao, the campaign condemned the interference of intellectuals in politics. Hu Feng’s group was charged with “Counter revolutionary” activities in June 1955. Hu’s disciple, Lu Ling, was put in a mental institution. XIV241-2
HU Hai: Famous Henan peasant jailed for three years in the No 17 Reform Through Labor Brigade, in December 1991, for organizing ten thousand peasants to sign petitions protesting illegal taxation. He was released after one year. As the protests built he was several times arrested, bound with rope, and paraded through the village. RC28 His son is a law school grad and has fearlessly defended his father. CD 205
HU Hua: Leading Party Historian. Died 1987
HU Jintao: Vice Chairman and Leader of the Central Party Secretariat, Jiang Zemin’s heir apparent. P
HU Qiaomu: 1912 – 1992, Deputy Director, department of propaganda 1950 –1966. Edited Mao’s Selected Works. One of Mao’s ghostwriters. Semiretirement for poor health at start of GPCR. Returned to influence in 1975. CC 375 Became Party’s conservative ideological leader after 1991 NE 468
HU Yaobang: (1915 - 1989) Died April 15, 1989. CCP General Secretary February 1980 - 1987, Dismissed January 1987 for failure to oppose bourgeooise liberalization, but retained Politburo post. MM 349 His death in 1989 sparked Tiananmen demonstrations. YCL leader in 1934 and during LM 156. During GPCR attacked as “one of three Hu’s” (Hu Keshi, Hu Qili, and Hu Yaobang) Isolated from 1967 to 1974, when Deng intervened to help him. Born in Hunan in 1915. Joined CCP in 1933. Long time Deng supporter, purged twice and rehabilitated twice, with Deng. Former YCL First Secretary. TM481 Elevated to Politburo at Third Plenum, 1978. MM 140, MM 350 Party Leader form 1981 to early 1987. MM 296
HUA Guofeng: 1921 - “Pumpkin Head” NE 350 First Party Secretary from prefecture for Shaoshan, Hunan--Mao’s home. He first came to prominence at the Lushun Conference where he helped Mao by directly, and falsely, contradicting Peng Dehuai on the actual conditions at Shaoshan. Peng was backed by Hua’s superior, Hunan First Secretary Zhou Xiaozhou. Mao won. XIV317 He later “seized power” in Hunan as part of a mass organization. XV 167 Elected to CC at 9th Congress. Politburo in 1973. CC376 Replaced Zhou as “acting premier” in 1/76 S 4. Appointed “first vice chairman” of CCP in 4/76 after Deng’s purge. His house is in Shijia Hutong, behind the Beijing Hotel. It was a cheap tourist hotel in 1990. Semiretirement in 1981. CC376 There was a rumor in late 2001 that he had quit the CCP to protest Jiang Zemin’s 7/01 plan to admit capitalists. P
HUANG Hua: died in 1976. Beijing student leader in 1930’s. Edgar Snow’s interpreter in 1937. Zhou ally. China’s first UN Representative and later, foreign minister in 1971. NE 468, J487
HUANG Yongsheng : 1910-1983 PLA general. Alternate member of CC at 8th CC. PLA Chief of Staff in 1968. Politburo at first Plenum of 9th CC. Member of the Central Case Examination Group. Arrested after Lin Biao Affair and imprisoned till death. CC376
Harold ISAACS: Wealthy NYC activist in Shanghai. Friend of Smedley’s. Converted to Trotskyism by his friend Frank Glass. Isaacs funded progressive journalism in Shanghai with Glass, Smedley and Sun’s widow: The China Forum founded in 1932. SM 156 Smedley attacked The China Forum, in 1935, for its Trotskyite line. SM 165 Author of the influential “The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution”, NY 1936, preface by Trotsky. The 1954 second edition is an anti-communist rewrite. SM 365 n4.
JIANG Qing: “River” Jiang, “Green” Qing. The name comes from a Tang poem referring to the Xiang River in Hunan. WB160 (LI Chongchin, family name) “blue apple”, 1913 – 1991. Mao’s 4th wife. From Taian, Shandong. Joined CCP underground in 1933. RS 461 Joined CCP in February 1933. WB 44 Arrested in Shanghai in 1934 and gave a written confession to KMT. WB61 Shanghai actress, stage name Lan Ping (Blue Apple), Good bridge player and cook. RS 461 who married Mao in Yanan, November 1938. Met Mao through YU Chiwei (David Yu), underground propaganda secretary in Qingdao—and later Beijing. RS459 Mother of Li Na and another child. Suddenly prominent at 8/66 CC meeting that launched GPCR where she was declared “first deputy leader” under Chen Boda. Promoted to Politburo at 9th CC. Member of Central Case Examination Group. CC376 Worked closely with Lin Biao’s wife, YE Chun, for years. WB304Purged w/ Go4 in 1976. She was a severe hypochondriac. S 255 ZHANG Yufeng was her rival as Mao was dying. S 7-8. She watched movies all day. Her personal doctor, Xu Tao had to screen them for her. When she didn’t like his selections, she accused Xu of “mental torture” S 143 Treated for cervical cancer in USSR in 1956. S 188. Six toes on her right foot S 175. Her poem “On Self” is at S 382 Committed suicide in Qincheng Prison. She was a talented amateur photographer and used the pen name “Li Jin” on her work. She took the famous photo of Lin Biao in his study. TS322 Her 1960’s pet monkey, dressed in silk, and eating the finest foods, was a constant irritant to her associates and a litmus test of personal loyaty to those around her. WB319 Jiang and Zhou Enlai had been close for decades. But after Lin Biao’s death they became bitter rivals for power. WB358 Mao bitterly denounced her for the Roxanne Wittke interviews. He accused her of wanting to become empress and divulging state secrets. Mao was especially upset that she signed her photos to Wittke in red ink—the practice of the Qing emperor. WB322 Jiang lied to Wittke telling her that the Mao poem she gave Witke had been dedicated to her. WB327 JQ’s odd personal habits: fear of sun, wind, water, etc., are at WB337 At the funeral for Zhou Enlai, she snubbed him on nation-wide TV by refusing to remove her cap as she approached the funeral bier. WB358 She was illegally held, for over four years, before being charged with a crime. WB375 She was arraigned because she “misbehaved.” WB379
JIANG Zemin: Party Secretary. Son of martyr Jiang Shanqing, killed in 1939 in KMT ambush. PR 9. Studied in USSR. PR 11. Former Shanghai Mayor, Deng appointed him Party Secretary on 5/29/89 to replace the disgraced Zhao Ziyang. Chairman of CMC in 1993, and state president. TM481
JIAO Yulu: Martyr. Heroic Lankao County Party Secretary of Henan Province, who died at his post serving the people. H621
Adolf Abramovich JOFFE: (1883-1927) Trotsky supporter before 1917. Joined Bolsheviks with him. First Soviet Ambassador to China 1922-23. Negotiated the deal with Sun Yatsen to have CCP join KMT. Supported Trotsky in split. Committed suicide when refused foreign visa for medical treatment.
KANG Sheng: 1898 – December 16, 1975. From Shandong. Oldest associate of Jiang Qing. An ugly rumor by Rewi Alley says she was sold as a concubine into Kang’s family as a child. NE 65. Helped Stalin in CCP Trotskyite purge in Moscow and arrested Li Lisan there. NE 220 Introduced Mao to Jiang Qing in Yanan. After 10th Plenum in 1962, Mao put Kang in charge of “investigating” Xi Zhongxun’s “anti party plot.” Kang had been inactive since 1949, possibly a schizophrenic S 397. He immediately deposed 300 cadres. Joined PB in 8/66 at 11th Plenum of 8th CC. Secret Police Chief allied w/ left—Lin Biao or Jiang Qing. Member of GPCR Small Group. S 577 he directed most of the GPCR purges. Started the Red Guard movement w/ hundreds of agents sent out to campuses in June/July 1966. NE 237. Head of the Central Case Examination Group. CC376 In 1972 Mao refused to permit treatment of his bladder cancer because Mao thought cancer was incurable. His house is now the Bamboo Gardens Hotel. Said to contain a cave in the rear garden where Kang tortured prisoners for amusement. NE 75 On his deathbed he called Wang Hairong and Nancy Tang to his side. He told them to report to Mao that Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao were “traitors to the Communist Party”, and gave the names of two witnesses against them. Qiao Guanhua, Wang and Tang’s boss in the Foreign Ministry, persuaded the two not to report Kang’s words to Mao. Kang, believing Jiang Qing would lose the power contest, apparently wanted to protect his posthumous reputation. WB356-7 Kang Sheng was posthumously expelled from the CCP in 1980. NE 220 The biography of Kang Sheng, The Claws of the Dragon, John Byron and Robert Pack, 1992 is based on a Chinese manuscript that an anonomous Chinese handed to a Western diplomat on a dark Beijing street in 1993. John Byron is the pseudonym for the diplomat. The book is very likely a fake. TM468
KISSINGER, Henry: Sent Mao a Respirator in 1971. S 9.
Roman KARMEN: Stalin’s photographer, sent to China to film the revolution. Arrived in Yanan in May 1939. Took the famous photo of Jiang Qing on horseback behind Mao. J171 Arrived in Wuhan in November 1938. Reached Mao’s base are in May 1939 and did a film, In China, that was released in 1941. J499
Dennis KEARNEY: Leader of the anti-Chinese Workingmen’s Party of California in the 1870. His famous sloga was, “The Chinese must go! They are stealing our jobs!” F108
Jim KELLEY: CIA station Chief in Taiwan in the 1970s, who learned that the IBMND was smuggling heroin to the USA in diplomatic pouches. F243-4
Ione KRAMER: Wisconsin native married to an American-Chinese chemist. Lived in Beijing in 1950s and 1960s. Now lives in Bay Area and member of USCPFA. Mentioned in either Rittenberg’s or Milton’s book.
KUAI Dafu: 1945- Student at Qinghua. Founder/leader of the Qinghua Jingganshan Red Guards (Heaven Faction TS231) with close links to Cultural Revolution Group. Arrested in 1968. Now an engineer with a joint-venture firm in Shenzhen. CC 377, S 501.
LAO She: Important writer, GPCR victim, committed suicide. NE 469
LEE Denghui: Mayor of Taibei and then President of Taiwan in 1988. Assumed leadership of KMT after Jiang Qingguo’s 1988 death. XV874 Ph.D. from Cornell. XV 837
LEE Tenghui: Lee is a native Taiwanese. Ph.D. from Cornell. Chiang Chin-kuo appointed him VP in March 1984 when he reellected himself to the presidency. This was part of CCK’s reform program. LEE was selected president when CCK died in 1988. F477, XV837
LEI Feng: 1940-1962 PLA soldier hero died in a car accident. China’s most famous hero. His good deeds and thoughts, from his diary, made him famous in death via 1963 “Learn From Lei Feng” campaign. CC377, CD206, H621 The “movement to learn from Lei Feng” lastefrom 1963-1964. XIV426 The Diary of Lei Feng, a semi fictional book written by a committee, was seen as one of the new post 10th Plenum attacks on conventional lieterary forms and novels.
LEI Yu: The corrupt governor of Hainan Island who used the PLA navy and airforce to smuggle about 75,000 cars from overseas. Sacked in 1985, but soon rose to prominence again as vice governor of Guangxi in 1992. CD 199, RC 213, 239-240 Then went back to Hainan. P
LEUNG Katrina: Code named “Luo”, arrested 4/9/03 in LA. Age 49. Charged with being a double agent for obtaining documents from her FBI contoller and lover, James JJ Smith, age 59. Leung and her husband contributed $27,000 to the GOP. Agent Smith was also the handler for Johnny Chung, the businessman central to the Clinton era Democratic Party fundraising scandal. Chung’s lawyer is representing Agent Smith. Chronicle, p. A9, 4/10/03
LI Dachao: 1888-1927. One of two principal founders of CCP (with Chen Duxiu) Lead CCP work in North China. Arrested in Chang Tsolin’s 4/6/27 raid on Soviet Embassy in Beijing. Executed three weeks later. T 662 Early Marxist pioneer at Beijing National University. Hired Mao as a librarian and trained him in Marxism. Strangled to death by KMT in 1927. See Meisner’s Li Dachao and the Origins of Chinese Marxism. H says that he was the first to “hold aloft the banner of the October Revolution in China. H14 The first major Chinese Marxist theorist and Mao’s early teacher. XII404
LI De: Otto Braun
LI Dunbai: Sidney RITTENBERG’s Chinese name.
Li Lilian: Otto Braun’s wife, an actress and acquaintance of Jiang Qing’s who traveled with her to Yanan and was abandoned by Le De when he returned to Moscow. Photo at WB118, 125
Li Lisan: 1896 - ?, (Li Lungchi) Joined CCP student group in France 1920. Returned to China in 1922. Whampoa KMT political instructor in 1925. RS478 Joined Politburo at 5th Congress, Wuhan April-May 1927. Participated in Nanchang uprising 8/1/27. Attended CCP 6th Congress, Moscow June-July 1928, where Qiu Qiupai was removed. Followed the colorless Hsiang Chungfa as defacto CCP leader. Recalled to Moscow 11/30 and subjected to a “trial” in the Comintern--blamed for Stalin’s line of seizing cities. Formally deposed at 4th Party Plenum, Shanghai 1931. Exiled to Moscow. Arrested in Moscow as a Trotskyist in 1936, released in 1938. RS 478. At Stalin’s suggestion he was rehabilitated in 1945 and elected to CC at 7th party Congress as #16 in rank. RS 478 Self-criticism at 8th Party Congress 1956. Attacked in GPCR and reportedly committed suicide. T 661
LI Lu: Nanjing student who was commander in chief of the non-Beijing students at Tiananmen Square. Fled to USA. TM482
LI Min: 1936 -- , (“Jiao Jiao” WB416) Mao’s daughter by He Zizhen. Joined mom in USSR in 1940. Returned to China in 1945. WB163 Lived in Zhongnanhai after 1949. Adopted by Jiang Qing. J488 She and her husband, were declared counter-revolutionaries and jialied in GPCR. Jiang and Mao did not help them. WB346
LI Na: 1940 - (“Mao Mao” WB416) Mao’s daughter by Jiang Qing. Born in Yanan. Dismissed from job as a deputy party secretary in Beijing when mom arrested. Later given a job with the Board of Secretaries in the General Office. Briefly editor of the Peoples Liberation Army Daily in 1967. WB276, 348 Diagnosed as a schizophrenic. WB3498 In the late 1990s she was reported homeless, “a shopping bag lady”, in Beijing. She had been elected to NPC but the government refused to let her assume her seat. P
Rose PAK: Chinatown SF power-broker. Runs the Chinatown Chamber of Commerce. P
LI Peng: 10/28- Born in Shanghai. Son of martyr Li Shuoxun, leader of Nanching Uprising., who was decapitated by KMT on Hainan Island in 1931. His mother, Zhao Juntao, was the younger sister of Zhao Shiyun, the founder of CCP YCL group in France, who was executed by the KMT in 1927. PR 289 Raised by Zhou Enlai. Studied hydropower generation in the Soviet Union beginning in 1948. He was chair of the CCP student branch. PR 9. Joined CCP in 1945. PR 293 NE 434 Youngest of current leaders. Joined politburo and Party Secretariat in 1985, and Standing Committee of the Politburo in 1987. PR 296. Premier in 1987, replaced by ZHU Rongji. Tiananmen hardliner. NE 469 Held minor positions before 1987. Chaiman of NPC in 1998. TM482 In 2000, near retirement, he was saying that Deng ordered the massacre and he is not responsible. He signed the Martial Law Order on May 21, 1989. The Chinese people blame him for the massacre. PR 301
LI Pius: Chinatown SF powerbroker. Co-Chair of Chinatown Neighborhood Association. Sponsors Night Market in Portsmouth Square. P
LI Rui: China’s top Mao scholar. Served as Mao’s private secretary in 1950’s. When Peng Dehui was condemned at Lushan meeting in 1959, Li Rui was fired by Mao and spent 20 years at hard labor, exile and prison, including eight years at Qincheng Prison in Beijing, where Jiang Qing did time. Wrote a book on Mao’s youth. Rehabilitated in 1979 and led CCP Orgburo. LM fn 11, p.368
LI Shuxian: Wife of physicist Fang Lizhi. Hid in US Embassy with Fang and fled to USA. TM482
LI Tieying: 1935 - Attended Yanan “Los Angeles Nursery” and the October 1st Middle School in Beijing after Liberation. Joined CC in 1985. Joined Politburo in November 1987 at 13th Congress. Son of Li Weihan. Leftist ally of Li Peng and enemy of Zhao Ziyang. In July and August 1989, he made repeated TV appearances with children singing feeble revolutionary songs to try to overcome anger at 1989 killings. PR 285ff
LI Weihan: 1896-1980? Started working with Mao in 1917. Founding leader of CCP in France in 1921. Zhou Enlai was head of Propaganda. His wife, Jin Weiying had divorced Deng Xiaoping in 1933 when he was attacked as a rightist. She disappeared in 1941 during the evacuation of Moscow and never was heard from again. Holds the Party record for the most left-right vacillations: Five left deviations and five right deviations. Helped Mao persecute many during Anti-Rightists Campaign. Self criticism in 1964. Struggled against more than 40 times during GPCR. Exiled to Xinning, Hubei Province, in 1975. Returned to Beijing in 1977. Rehabilitated in March 1979. His son, Li Tieying, was appointed to the Politburo in 1987. PR 279 ff
LI Xiaoqing: A granddaughter of Mao’s. She was living in Sydney, Australia in 1989 and renounced her Red Gurad days. She was studying English, dating a “handsome” Australian, and supported the students, as reported in Britain’s Sunday Telegraph. TM316
LI Xinnian: One of the Elders. PBSC member and Chairman of CPPCC in 1989. Former state president. One of the few senior leaders who was NOT purged in GPCR. Died in 1992 TM483
Li Yizhe: Three Cantonese dissidents: Li Zhengtian, Chen Yiyang, and Wang Xizhe. Famous for their November 1974 100 yard wall poster in Canton, “On Socialist Democracy and the Legal System.” MM 112 The were arrested and sent to a labor camp in March 1975. They were rehabilitated on February 6, 1979, after the Third Plenum. MM 113 I think they were jailed again by Deng. P
LI Zehou: Regarded as atop Chinese philosopher. Came to USA in 1993 and later defected. TM483
LI Zhisui: 1919 – 1995, Author of “The Private Life of Chairman Mao”, served as Mao’s physician from 1954 until Mao’s death. Defected to U.S. on health pretext in 1988.
LI Zongren: Leader of the Guangxi KMT Faction, LI Zongren, was elected vice president of the KMT during civil war KMT Constitutional Congress in Nanjing, with strong American support. Li was seen as a potential American replacement for the failing Jiang. H365
LIANG Heng: Published his Red Guard autobiography with Judith Shapiro, “Son of the Revolution” in 1983. He became George Soros’s “personal representative” in Beijing in 1988 for the “Foundation for Chinese Reform and Opening”, which include four American CIA operatives. TM342
LIN Biao: October 7, 1907 – September 13, 1971, Considered best student of Blyukher at Whampoa. Stayed isolated from his soldiers (LI De says he was imitating Mao). LM 191, 242 Allied w/ LI De and Bo Gu. Demanded Mao’s removal, in favor of PENG Dehuai, after LM reverses and concern about exhaustion of 1st Army from Mao’s continuous circular marches. LM 193 His wife, YE Qun, was hated by many. Weird eyes and uniform, phobias re wind, water and light. Would not drink. Bowel movements only in bed. S 453-4 Appointed Mao’s successor at 11th Plenum, 8th CC. Officially designated Mao’s successor in the Party Constitution adopted at 9th Congress. CC378 Died September 13, 1971 in early morning plane crash after fleeing Beijing. Dr. Li’s version is S 533ff. Address: 3 Crooked Hair Family Lane (Yu mansion) with tunnel to Zhongnanhai. NE 75 Zhou’s rapprochement with the USA ruined Lin’s chances to succeed Mao NE 291 One story is that Lu Min was to kill Mao on his train with a bomb, but was frightened and overwhelmed by the idea. He went to his sister, an eye doctor and got drops to blur his vision, then checked into a hospital. Lin Biao panicked. His daughter, Lin Lihen, a student at Beida, called Mao’s office on the red telephone and exposed the plan and Lin’s intent to flee to Guangzhou. As Lin’s plane fled toward Mongolia, Zhou Enlai was afraid to shoot it down over China lest he be blamed, so he waited until it crossed into Mongolian airspace to order the shoot-down. A helicopter with three co-conspirators followed the plane. Each held a pistol to his head. Two pulled the trigger, but one hesitated, was captured alive, and spilled the beans. TS 306-307 Feared light, wind, and cold, and hated to sweat. Did not take baths or eat fruit. Insisted on 21 Celsius temperature at all times. He would not read any documents. He gave his secretaries thirty minutes each day to summarize the incoming documents!! XV 315n35 Lin Biao apparently opposed the anti-soviet “opening to America”, perhaps seing it as an Asian “Nazi-Soviet” pact. XV321 Mao told Nixon that Lin had been against the deal. XV 322 Lin’s fall helped Zhou Enlai, not Jiang Qing. WB308 An important book on the Lin Biao incident is now believed to be a fake. “The Conspiracy and Death of Lin Biao” (1983) was challenged in 2000 by Jin Qiu, the daughter of General Wu Faxian, who was the COC of the PLA air force in the 1970. TM466
Lin Biao Clique: Lin Biao, Chen Boda, Huang Yongsheng, Wu Faxian, Ye Qun, Li Zuopeng. All were Politburo members! H668
LIN Zhao: A Beida Rightist. In the spring of 1957 she wrote a poem protesting the privilege and stratification of the Party. She was too ill to be sent to the countryside for reform, so she was assigned to the People’s University in Beijing. While there she secretly translated the manifesto of the Yugoslav Communist Party, believing it was superior to the CCP version. With two others, she made copies and distributed it with two leaflets she wrote. She was caught and jailed. In jail, she asserted that Mao’s policies went wrong beginning with the Anti-Rightist Campaign. She was shot in 1975. TS107
LIN Liguo: 1945-1971 Lin Biao’s son, alleged to have planned Mao’s assassination in 1971. Died with Lin Biao. CC378 At age twenty-four he had been appointed head of the Operations Department of the Air Force. TS308
LIN Lihen: Lin Biao’s daughter. Allegedly divulged the plot to kill Mao. TS307
LIN Mu: Former Xian official. Reform advocate expelled from CCP for supporting the students in 1989. In May 1998 he joined with eleven other critics in a letter to the NPC seeking the release of former General Secretary ZHAO Ziyang, who was replaced by JIANG Zemin. He was under house arrest during the Clinton visit in June 1998. CD 254-255
Charles LINDBERG: Assisted KMT and Nazis in 1932 “4th Annihilation Campaign” against CCP. CA 19
Perry LINK: American Director of the Beijing office of the US-based “Committee on Scholarly Communication with the PRC” in 1989. The Chinese believe he was a spy instigating student unrest. TM345
LIU Binyan: Dissident and rehabilitated rightist expelled from CCP with Fang Lizhi. MM 363 A Peoples Daily reporter famous for exposing abuses of power. Expelled from CCP in 1/87 by Deng for support of 1986 student movement. Fled to USA in 1988.
LIU Bocheng: 1982-?, “The one-eyed dragon.” Trained at Frunze Academy, spoke good Russian. Early vocal opponent of LI De. LM 44 First elected to CC in 1945, PB in 1956. RS482
Henry LIU (Liu Yi-liang): 1932-1984 Taiwanese journalist, US citizen, murdered in Daly City in 1984 for his critical biography of Chiang Ching-kuo. Liu was active in San Francisco, a frequent PRC Consulate guest and opinion maker. The IBMND paid him $8,000 to tone down his biography of Chiang Ching-kuo, and paid him $1,000/month for information. Henry also provided information to the FBI and the PRC. F342-3, 494 Henry’s Fisherman’s wharf store was at 2800 Leavenworth Street, #53, SF 94133. F346 In reaction to the murder, the US expelled all IBMND agents in 1985. F467 His mrder was ordered by CCK’s son, Alex Chang. F468
LIU Jenching (Neil Shih) 1899 - ?, Joined ML study group led by Li Tachao in 1920. Attended founding of CCP in 7/21. Spent mid-1920s in Moscow and supported Trotsky. Met Trotsky in Prinkipo, Turkey in 1929. Led a Troskyist faction and attended Chinese Trotskyist Unity Conference in May 1931. Split with Trotsky in 1937. Joined KMT and became anticommunist propagandist. Recanted after 1949 and was given minor CCP post. T 662
LIU Shaoqi: 1898 – November 1969. Born six miles from Mao. Moscow in 1919, joined party in 1921. Organized Anyuan Coal Strike w/ Mao. LM vet and Zunyi delegate. LM 160. Liu was resoonsible for all underground work in the white areas. The leaders who aided him were generally purged with him in the GPCR. XIV58 Main target of GPCR. He was purged at the 12th Plenum of the 8th Party Congress in 1969, S 183 Died 11/12/69. “LIU Shaoqi is a renegade traitor and scab hiding in the Party and is a lackey of imperialism, modern revisionism, and the Guomindang reactionaries, who has committed innumerable crimes.” Central Committee “Communiqué Announcing the Expulsion of Liu Shaoqi from the Chinese Communist Party.” Rehabilitated in 1980. Third son: Yuan Yuan. NE 267 Married six times. PR 206ff First wife, died of illness in 1930. Second wife, He Baozhen, executed in Nanjing in 1934 for resisting KMT prison regime. Married Party Central Security Bureau agent Xie Fei in 1935, divorced six years later. Jiang Qing arrested her during GPCR to get dirt on Liu. She refused to cooperate and spent six years in prison. Fourth wife, Wang Qian, was 16. Short marriage. She turned on Liu in GPCR. She was disgraced, after Mao’s death, for this. Fifth wife, Wang Jian, mentally unstable, divorced in six months. Married sixth wife, Wang Guangmei in 1948. Now lauded for her support of Liu. She lived in the “widows building.” One of his daughters, Liu Aiqin, married Delores Ibarruri’s nephew in Moscow. The marriage was broken when Liu ordered his daughter’s return to China, with him, in 1949. PR 214 She became a Russian teacher at the National Police Academy. Replaced Mao as head of government when Mao “retired” in 1958. In 1961 Mao announced that Liu would succeed him. RS483 Denounced in 1967 as “No. 1 among those in the Party in authority who are taking the capitalist road.” Red Guard posters accused him of involvement in a February 1966 coup aimed at Mao’s overthrow. RS484 Liu’s daughter, Liu Tao, who viciously attacked him during the GPCR was arrested in Yunan Province in 1976, attempting to flee to Vietnam on foot. She was carrying documents she hoped to sell in the west. She was imprisoned for two years in Qincheng. PR 220 Hao Miao, Liu’s cook, was sentenced to six years in prison. WB283
LIU Xiaobo: literary critic, supported 1989 movement and self-determination for
Tibet. Released from prison in 1999.
LIU Yingjun: 1945-1966. PLA hero. Died in a car accident while trying to avoid hitting six small children. CC
LIU Zhijian: 1912- Lieutenant General and deputy director of PLA General political Department when GPCR started. Appointed seputy director of the Central Cultural Revolution Group in May 1966. Purged at beginning of 1967. CC379
LO Fu: 1900 - ? Son of a Manchu scholar-official who prospered in business. He studied at Cal Berkeley in 1921. Returned to China, recruited by Chen Yun. Studied at Sun Yatsen University (Moscow) 1926-1930. Joined CC at CCP 6th Congress (Moscow 1928). Pavel Mif operator in CCP. Returned to Shanghai and became Politburo member heading Orgburo. Opposed Mao’s “peasant line”. Nominal General Secretary of CCP 1935 to 1945. One of the 28 Bolsheviks, he went into decline with 1942 Rectification Movement. Reelected to PB in 1945. First ambassador to Soviet Union 1949-55. Rapidly lost influence after Sino-Soviet split. Dropped from PB in 1966. Attacked in 1967 as ally of Peng Dehuai and Liu Shaoqi. RS 484
LO Inung: 1901-1928 Joined Socialist Youth League at inception, 8/20. Student in USSR 1921-1925. Returned as labor organizer in Guangzhou. Leader of Shanghai General Strike 3/21/27. Autumn Harvest uprising participant. Arrested in Shanghai International Settlement 1928 and turned over to KMT for execution. T 662
LO Juiqing: 1906-?? PLA Chief of Staff purged in 1966. He advocated a conventional military buildup in response to the Vietnam War threat from the USA. Opposed by Lin Biao’s “peoples war” line, which won Mao’s support. The showdown came in contending articles published in September 1965, the 20th anniversary of Japan’s defeat. Lo lost and wrote a self-criticism. He attempted suicide when his self-criticism was deemed inadequate. XV125-6 From gentry family in Szechuan. Graduate of Whampoa Military Academy and joined CCP in 1926. Studied Secret Police methods in Moscow and studied at a Comintern school in Paris around 1932 to 1934. Director of security forces during Long March. Minister of Public Security 1949-1959. Joined CC in 1945. State Council in 1959. Attacked by Red Guards in 1966 as part of conspiracy with Peng Dehuai. RS 485
LO Junghuan: 1902-1963. Named one of the Ten Marshals of the PLA in 1955. Headed PLA General Political Department at his death in 1963. RS 485
V.V. Lominadze: 1898-1934 Joined Bolsheviks in 3/17. Leader of various
Comintern youth organizations. Georgian. ICCI Rep in China in 7/27-12/27. Dominated 8/7/27 Emergency Conference of CCP that removed Chen Duxiu. Tried to stop Nanchang Uprising, 8/1/27, on Stalin’s Order but ZHOU went ahead anyway. With Heinz Neumann, directed Canton Uprising in 1927. Opposed Stalin’s forced collectivization. Stripped of all posts in 1930. Expelled from Party in 1934. Committed suicide after Kirov assassination in December 1934. T 662, LM 21 Reportedly called for “uninterrupted revolution” after failures of 1927, and fed the left errors. H120
LU Dingyi: 1906-1966 CC379 From Hongshan, Hunan. Graduated from Chiatung University, Shanghai, and joined YCL in 1922. Studied in Russia 1924-1928 but did not join 28 Bolsheviks. High ranking politburo member in 1966. RS 485 CC Propaganda Director. LM vet. Saved Rittenberg in 1960 by stopping struggle session against him in Anti-Rightist Campaign. M 250 LU Dingyi is implicated in the arrest of his wife on charges of slandering Lin Biao’s wife in April 1966. CC362 Denounced by Mao as the “king of hell” and purged in May 1966 for opposing Chen Boda—Mao’s deputy. NE 232 Part of the “Peng-Luo-Lu-Yang Clique” CC379 Victim of innovative Red Guard torture: ropes tied to each limb and swung through the air. Spine broken and paralyzed from neck down. NE 233
LU Xun: (Chou Shu-jen) 1881-1936 The most influential radical writer of the 1930s, allied with CCP but not a member, and resisted the wild line swings imposed by the Party. Established the Party dominated League of Left-Wing Writes in March 1930, as an anti-imperialist front that won over most of China’s writers. LU opposed Wang Ming’s new United Front line of 1935, and the Party disbanded the League without consulting LU. Lu and coworkers set up a new group, the Chinese Literary Workers, with a more left orientation suggesting continued struggle against the KMT. XIV221-2 A brief review of his major wiritngs is at XII483–489 InYenan in the 1940s, Mao and the leadership repudiated Lu Xun’s Western literary style, and sarcasm, and argued that writers should embrace “national” populist forms such as simple peasant songs and dramas aimed at involving and mobilizing the masses of peasants. This split theYanan intellectuals into contending groups. Ting Ling initially opposed Mao but was broken and eventully criticized herself. Wang Shiwei was denounced as a Trotskyite because he opposed Stalin’s purges and was sent to work in a match factory for rehabilitation. He was executed in the spring of 1947 when the Red Army evacuated Yanan. XIV229-30
Henry LUCE: Time-Life publisher. Led “China Lobby” with wife Claire Boothe Luce SM 309
LUO Fu: Red Army general initially supported LI De but was won to Mao’s Guerilla line against LI De, WANG Ming and ZHOU Enlai. Former Chinese language newspaper editor in San Francisco. Former librarian at UC Berkeley. LM 44 Purged one month after Lushan Meeting, targeted in GPCR, died 7/1/76. Rehabilitated in 1978. LM 328
LUO Ming: 1931 acting Party Secretary in Fujian. H176 See Luo Ming Line.
LUO Ruiqing: 1906 – 1978. Deng ally. First leadership victim of GPCR. WB255 Minister of public security in 1949. Removed as PLA Chief of Staff in November 1965. CC 361 Purged at an enlarged Politiburo meeting in Shanghai, December 1965, chaired by Mao. CC361 Jumped or pushed out of 4th story widow and broke his leg 3/18/66. Carted about in leg cast and beaten. NE 232 Accused of opposing “giving prominence to Mao Zedong Thought.” Returned to influence after Mao’s death in 1976. CC 279 Rehabilitated in 1975. S 659
MA Haida: See George Hatem
MAI Xiande: 1945- PLA soldier severely wounded in the head during engagement with KMT Navy. Described as a hero and “outstanding activist in the Study of Mao’s Works.” CC379
MAO Anqing : 1923 – 1950. Mao’s second son by Yang Kaihui, born in Changsha. J489 Hidden by friends in Shanghai when his mother was arrested and executed by KMT in Changsha. Educated in USSR as an engineer. Worked as a Russian translator in China. RS 486 Diagnosed with schizophrenia. Severely beaten by Shanghai policeman in 1930s. Married sister of Mao Anying’s widow. S 659
MAO Anying: 1922 -- 1950 Mao’s eldest son by Yang Kaihui. Arrested with his mother, and released by KMT after her execution. Sent to Shanghai after mom’s death. Sent to Russia in 1936, returning to China in 1944, worked for a time and then sent to a higher Pary School. Killed in Korea serving as Russian translator for Peng Dehuai in a freak US air attack on October 25, 1950. J504, RS 486 Or, died when his plane was shot down. XIV308
MAO Yuanxin: 1941 - Mao’s nephew, son of Zemin, born in KMT jail. Raised at Zhongnanhai after 1949. Political ally of Jiang Qing in GPCR. Political Commissar for Shenyang Military Region. Party Secretary for Liaoning province in 1973. At Jiang’s direction promoted Zhang Tiesheng, the blank exam paper heroe. After Mao’s illness in 1975 served as a liaison for Mao. He was a powerful figure at the time of Mao’s death and was arrested with the Gang and sentenced to 17 years in prison. S 12, S 659 He shot two security policemen in a gunfight at the military airport, trying to escape arrest. NE 374 Today he is not permitted to live in Beijing. PR 116
MAO Zedong: December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976. Attended CCP founding Congress 7/1/21. Elected to CC in 1923. Head of KMT Propaganda Dept. 11/25 – 5/26. Elected as alternate Politburo member at 8/7/27 Emergency Conference that deposed Chen Duxiu. T 663. Stalin’s “turnip” S 116. Favorite breakfast: American oatmeal with condensed milk and two eggs beaten in. LM 84. Favorite dish: The Moon and Four Stars: layers of lamb, fish, chicken, vegetables and taro. LM 129 3 sons by YANG Kaihui: Mao Anying 1922 (killed in Korea in 1950), Mao Anqing, 1923, (Dr. LI says there were only these two sons by Kaihui S 56) Anqing was a schizophrenic, S 57. Mao Anlang, 1927. Kaihui was tortured and shot by KMT 1/14/30. LM 84 or beheaded. J 164 Girl born to HE Zizhen in 1/35, and another child (J504n22) left with peasants on LM and lost. LM 151 Li Min, second daughter by HE born in Yanan, Mao Limin; son born in Moscow, died of pneumonia. Li Na was his daughter by Jiang Qing. Li Na was spoiled and a problem for Dr. Li S 424. She was later “sent down.” J165 LI Min was also raised by Jiang Qing. J165 Mao did not take Chinese medicine-only western medicine. S 84 Mao died of Lu Gehrig’s Disease on 9/9/76, diagnosed in 1974. S 9. There is a “wax Mao” replica for the real body. S 18-25 His name for prescriptions was “LI Desheng” S 112 Smedley disliked Mao and her comments about his “femininity” are at GR226
MAO Zemin: 1896 – 1943 Mao’s younger brother. Joined CCP about 1922 J504 Studied under Mao in KMT Peasant Institute in 1925. Arrested in 1927 and escaped to Shanghai. J504. Participated ion Northern Expedition and joined Mao in Jinggangshan and Long March. Joined Long March in 1934. J504 Deputy Director of finance in Yanan. Assigned as financial advsor to KMT sympathizer, General Sheng Shizi. Executed (or poisoned) by General Sheng in 1943 along with thousands of other Communist prisoners. J504n24, J489) when the general switched back to the KMT. RS 486
MAO Zetan: died 1935. Labor organizer in 1925. Mao’s brother, army commander, left behind at start of LM, entrusted with the “state treasure.” Married HE Yi, sister of Mao’s 2nd wife, HE Zizhen. Killed by KMT in March 1935 fleeing Jinggangshan base area—betrayed by sentry. LM 210 Executed with Qiu Qiupai MO 259
MARING: Nom de Guerre of Henricus Sneevliet. Dutch Social Democrat immigrated to Indonesia (Java) where he founded the Indonesian Social Democratic Union in 1914. Elected to ECCI in 1920. The first Comintern Rep in China 1921-1923. Proposed CCP entry into KMT in August 1922. Returned to Holland in 1924. Supported Trotsky in split. Broke with Trotsky and refused to join 4th International in 1938. Arrested and executed by Nazis. T 668. TR58-9
Alexander Samoylovich MARTYNOV: 1865-1935. Joined RSDLP in 1899. Extreme right-wing Menshevik after 1905. Principal theorist of “two stage” revolution. Opposed Bolshevik Revolution. Joined Russian CP in 1923 and was assigned to the Comintern. Authored the “bloc of four classes” line on China. T 663.
Frank MERRIL: American Major in WWII China. He was originally a Japanese Langyage Officer. ST272
Pavel MIF: (1899-1938) Joined Bolsheviks after Revolution. Comintern agent to China in 1926. Replaced Karl Radek as head of Sun Yatsen University in 1928. In 1929 he ousted Earl Browder as chief of the Comintern Eastern Bureau and assumed this position. RS 493 Returned to China in 1930 with his “28 Bolsheviks” to depose Li Lisan in January 1931. Bo Gu was his protégé MO 128 Arrested in 1937. Probably executed in 1938. T 664 His book is, Heroic China: fifteen years of the Communist Party of China, New York, Workers Library Publisher, 1937.
David MILTON: Early USA Maoist. His son, Chris Milton, was number 3 in RCP at split in 1977. P Author of The Wind Will Not Subside, with his wife.
Eugene MOY: McCarthyite victim of FBI. He was the editor of the NYC China Daily News. In 1954 he was Convicted of violating the Trading With the Enemy Act and imprisoned for one to two years. His newspaper had accepted advertising from two Hong Kong bams, which encouraged Americans to send money home to China. F113
Steve NELSON: Berkeley Communist. In 1933 he and wife served as couriers between WANG Ming in Moscow, and the Shanghai leadership. He, documents. She, money. LM 40
Heinz NEUMANN: (1902 – 1937?) Joined German CP in 1921. Assigned to Comintern staff in 1925. He had experience in Hamburg Insurrection in 1923-1924. After the KDP shot Horst Wessel in Berlin, Neuman led the damage control, with the line that Wessel’s death was caused by a fight between pimps. To Die For German, Baird, p.80. Stalin’s Rep in China in winter 1927-1928. His only job was apparently to organize a CCP insurrection in time for the AUCP 15th Congress to demonstrate the correctness of Stalin’s line. MO 132 Chief organizer of Guangzhou Commune, December 1927. Prominent in German CP until 1932. Arrested in Moscow in 1937 and disappeared. MO 278 and TR283 say he was shot.
NIE Rongzhen: 1899 – 1992 Recruited by ZHOU in 1921-1922. Studied at Frunze Military Academy. Worked at Whampoa under Zhou. Later headed China’s nuclear weapons program in 1955. One of Ten Marshals. Political Commissar of Lin Biao’s First Army on LM. LM 100, NE 469
NIE Yuanzi: 1921- CCP general branch secretary in the Department of Philosophy at Beida. Put up first Big Character poster on 6/1/66 (TS147 says the date was 5/25/66) attacking school president—possibly at Jiang Qing’s instigation. This was the “seven-person wall poster”, because six others signed it. TS 147 Widely publicized by Kang Shang and Chen Boda via radio. Liu Shaoqi and Deng sent “work teams” into the universities that she defeated. Alternate CC member at 9th Congress, then quickly jailed. She is now a consultant to the China Tian Lun Economic Development Corporation. CC380 She was in her fifties and wore thick glasses. “Chairman Mao has said that I am the first red banner, so anyone who opposes me opposes Chairman Mao himself.” TS155 She was a leader of the Heaven faction, so-called because she was able to “touch heaven” i.e. the Central Leadership. TS201 When Mao sent the worker’s propaganda team into Beida on July 28, 1968, NIE Yuanze was taken into custody and confined to her room. Later, when she was sent to the Beida May 7 Cadre School in Liyuzhou, Jiangxi Province, she was punished by assignment to the worst job: emptying the heavy buckets of urine collected each night in the dormitories. TS 259
Paul NOULENS-RUEGG: Comintern agent (leader of the Far Eastern Bureau) arrested by KMT in Shanghai in 1931. His office, full of sensitive documents, was ransacked. CCP bribed judge to prevent his execution. CA 2 Song Qingling (Sun’s widow) led his political defense campaign. H168
Susumu OKANO: Japanese Communist leader assigned to Yanan in 194 to direct anti-Japanese agitprop. GR388
OUYANG Hai: Martyr who sacrificed his life to prevent a train-wreck. XV779
PENG Dehuai: 1898 – 1974 Hunanese. Early Mao stalwart. Army commander since 1927. Commanded Chinese troops in Korea after Lin Biao became “ill” in 1950. LM 191 Defense Minister 1954 – 1959. S 660 Purged at Lushan Meeting in 1959 after criticizing Great Leap in private 10,000 character letter to Mao. “Putting politics in command is no substitiute for economic principles.” J490 Imprisoned in 1966. Interrogated 130 times during GPCR. Never confessed. Died 11/29/74. LM 327
PENG Shu-Chih (in France, Peng Shu-tse): (1896-19??) A founding member of the Socialist Youth League in 1920, served on CCP Politburo as an editor of the Guide Weekly (internal CCP Bulletin) and New Youth, 1925-27. Expelled in 1929 with Chen Duxiu. His reasseement is in his 67 page introduction to Leon Trotsky on China (1976). XII851 Attended Toilers of the East University in Moscow, 1921-1923. Elected to Politburo Standing Committee at the Fourth Congress 1/25. T 665 Recruited Liu Shaoqi, returned to China in 1924 as CC member at 4th CC. Politburo at 5th CC in 1925. Led CCP Propaganda Department 1925-27 and clashed with Mao who led KMT Propaganda Department at the same time! Expelled in 11/29. Captured by KMT, served 5 years in prison. Moved to Europe and worked in 4th Int. HQ. T 27-28 The Stalinust view is in Pavel Mif’s, Heroic China: fifteen years of the Communist Party of China. XII852
PENG Xiaomeng: 1948- Student Red Guard in middle school attached to BeiDa. Singled out for praise by Mao in his “Letter to the Red Guards of Qinghua University Middle School” in August 1966. CC380
PENG Zhen: 1899 - 1997 May 4th student radical. Helped organize RR workers in 1922. Joined CCP in 1926. Student organizer in Beijing and Tianjin under Liu Shaoqi, with whom he had a long association. Emerged as CCP spokesman abroad when he attacked Krushchev at 1960 meeting of Communist Parties in Bucharist, for K’s attacks on Mao and peaceful coexistence line. Former mayor of Beijing and First Deputy to Deng Xiaoping when GPCR started. He was denounced with Liu and Deng and suffered great abuse without capitulating. A foreigner spotted him strolling the Imperial Palace grounds in April 1967, right next to Zhongnanhai. RS494 May 4th student, joined CCP in 1926. Worked for LIU Shaoqi. Mayor and Party leader of Beijing from 1951 -1966 TS393 until purged on May 16, 1966 as a member of the Peng-Luo-Lu-Yang Clique. Author of the February Outline. A bold critic of Mao, in response to Hai Jui dismissed from office he said, “everyone is equal before the truth.” XV127, CC380 12 years prison and exile. Returned to power and prominence on December 12, 1978. NE 470 Chair of NPC SC. One of the eight Elders. TM484
Richard PERLE: A neo-consrvative leader of the anti-China "Blue Team." In 1999 Perle joined with Gaffney and 15 other anti-China hawks from the Project for the New American Century in calling for unequivocal support for Taiwan in the event of a Chinese attack. Frank Gaffney of the Center for Security Policy (CSP), has been screaming about the dangers posed by the Hong Kong-based company Hutchison Whampoa to US national security ever since Panama awarded it a 25-year renewable contract to lease and operate the ports at both ends of the Panama Canal Zone in 1997. Gaffney began working for Perle way back in the 1970s when they were both on the staff of Washington state senator Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson, the "Senator from Boeing", devoted to derailing detente with the Soviet Union. Their bureaucratic machinations with then defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld and another Perle protege, Paul Wolfowitz, to frustrate a new arms-control agreement negotiated with Moscow by secretary of state Henry Kissinger earned Perle his famous nickname, the Prince of Darkness.
PU Yi: 1906-1967. Last Qing Emperor abdicated in 1911. Fled in 1915 to Japanese held Tianjin. Installed as Machukuo Emperor in occupied Manchuria, 1934. Captured by Soviet troops in 1945 and turned over to China in 1950. A gardener in the Beijing Botannical Institue when Snow met him in 1960. A member of the Academy of History and seat on the Peoples Consultative Conference by 1965. Divorced his seven Imperial Brides and married a nurse. Died of cancer in 1967. RS 496 In 1964 Mao commented that his salary of 120RMB/m was too small, XV80
QI Benyu: 1931- Staff member of CCP General Office. Replaced Tian Jiaying as Mao’s Secretary in May 1966. Junior member of the Central Cultural Revolution Group and the Central Case Examination Group. CC380 GPCR Small Group. Arrested in 1/68 for “ultra leftism”. S 493 Accused of conspiring with Wang Li and Guan Feng in the May 16 Conspiracy. CC368
QIAN Haoliang: Star of The Red Lantern. A Jiang Qing stalwart. J486
QIAN Xuesen (Tsien Hsue-shen): China’s missile expert. Ph.d in aviation and mathematics from Cal Tech in 1939, taught at MIT. He created the USA’s first designs for military missiles. Accused of being a Communist. F113 Returned to PRC in 1955 where he led China’s missile development to deliver nuclear weapons. TM306
QIN Benli: Prominent dissident figure in 1989. Editor in Chief of the Shanghai World Economic Herald. Fired and subject to punishment after June 4th. TM484
QIU Qiubai: (1899-1935) aka “Strakov”, supposedly “Fear” in Chinese and Russian. T638 Chosen by Lominadze to replace Chen Duxiu as acting head of CCP at Emergency Conference on 8/7/27. Scapegoated for putschist course and deposed at CCP 6th Congress held in Moscow, June-July 1928. In early 1930s worked in Shanghai as leader of League of Left-wing writers. Left behind on Long March and captured by KMT. T 657 Captured & executed by KMT 6/18/35. LM 209. MO 259 says he was killed in March 1935. GR says he was beheaded in 1935 along with several women CCP leaders. GR309
RAO Shushi: Gao Gang’s co-conspirator. Purged with him in 1955. H466
Paul Samuel REINSCH: Woodrow Wilson’s Minster to China, XII 156
Sidney RITTENBERG: Joined CPUSA in 1940. M 41. Studied Chinese in Army at Stanford in 1942. His patron was Wang Li, who fell in late August 1967. Rittenberg was the inspiring leader of the foreign community in Beijing in 1960s. “The finest Chinese-English interpreter in the world.” W 101 Jiang Qing ally. W 195. Sat on stage with Jiang Qing at famous 1967 Xinghua mass struggle session against Wang Guangmei—Liu’s wife. W 225 Rittenberg, Michael Shapiro and Israel Epstein all participated in the “Tianjin Plot” meeting in August to set up a “counterrevolutionary black meeting” and promote the new play “ Madman of the Modern Age”. W 281 Rittenberg was arrested in 2/68 as an “American Spy.” He was a key player in Wang Li’s attempt to oust Zhou Enlai and take control of the Foreign Ministry. Denounced by Zhou as “a very bad person” in 1973. W 304. Days after Rittenberg’s arrest, Israel Epstein, Michael Shapiro were arrested with their wives and held for five years—released with David Crook. W 305. In January 1968, the CCP “removed” foreigners from participation in GPCR. W 302 He acquired a collection of “priceless” Ming furniture. M 295 & photo pages. His salary was 750% of his associates. M 257. Rittenberg was at the August 1963 Zhongnanhai meeting when Mao read a statement he had been summoned to correct in English. Mao identified him as “an internationalist fighter for Communism.” This was splashed all over the Chinese media, making Rittenberg a celebrity. He says he was betrayed by Wang Li, who used him against the Cultural Revolution Group. M 369-370 Rittenberg was an expert speaker on Liu’s “revisionist” “How to be a Good Communist”, speaking at immense rallies. M 371 His attack on the Vietnamese Party M 378 The first posters attacking Rittenberg were put up at the Friendship Hotel—by foreigners. M 383 The warring factions at Radio were uniting and blaming Rittenberg and Wang Li. 384 Jiang Qing and Kang Sheng denounced him as a spy. M 366 His detention order was signed by Mao, Zhou and the whole Politburo. M 391. Rittenberg answers Milton’s criticism and denies trip to Tianjin. M 443 Says Zhou’s public criticism of him was actually a defense! M 443.
William Woodville ROCKHILL: US Minter to China, 1905-1909 XII 156
M.N. ROY (1887-1954): Indian Nationalist recruited by Borodin in Mexico in 1919. Borodin told Lenin Roy was the guy best able to start the Mexican CP. MO 128 Mexican delegate to Second Comintern Congress (1920), he led the discussion on Nationalism with Lenin. Elected to ECCI In 1921. Later assigned to form the Indian CP, he organized it through the Indian Bureau in Berlin where he clashed with Agnes Smedley’s lover, Virindranath Chattopadhyaya. MO 129. Replaced Borodin in China in 1927 probably because the rival Indian faction had maneuvered him out of power! MO 128 He and Trotsky had both opposed the KMT-CCP UF. MO 128 It was Roy’s enemies who probably got Agnes Smedley assigned to China as a German reporter! MO 130. Criticized for Right Deviation at 6th Comintern Congress (1928). Expelled with Bukharin at Tenth Plenum of ECCI, July 1929. MO 130 Rejoined Congress Party in 1936. T667
SAI Jinhua: (1874-1936) Boxer era beauty who became the mistress of a Prusian General, who has sometimes been portrayed as a patriotic feminist in Chinese films and literature. J103 Born in Suzhou, moved to Germany in late 1880s and became mistres of Count Alfred con Walderasee. During Boxer Rebellion, Waldersee was appointed commander of all the Western armies in China. When he took Beijing she tried to prevent his retaliatory destruction of the city and the massacre of many Chinese. She failed. She ended her life in poverty in Shanghai but told her story to LIU Panning whose published story made her famous. A 1936 play by Jiang Qing’s enemy, Xia Yan, made Sai famous. In 1936, and GPCR, Jiang Qing constantly denounced Sai and Xia Yan as traitors. J498-9, WB103
Boris SAVINKOV: SR leader, lead the counterrevolutionary TRUST (Union for the Defense of the Motherland and Freedom) exile group after 1917. Had 5,000 members in Russia. FD 94
Julian SCHUMAN: American writer, wife Donna, attended Anna Louise Strong’s 80th Birthday Party sponsored by “The China Peace Committee”. M 287
John “Jack” SERVICE: In Kunming in 1935 during LM. His father ran YMCA in Chengdu. He was Stilwell’s political advisor at headquarters in Chongqing . ST458
Michael SHAPIRO: British CP, foreign expert for Xinhua, helped on Mao’s Works English translation in 1960. M 2521.
Hans SHIPPE: Rarely mentioned German Comintern official assigned to Yanan. He wrote under the name Asiaticus. Wife was Trudy Rosenberg. SM 168. Helen Snow told this story to Salisbury: Shippe urged Mao to suppress Red Star Over China, arguing that the Snows were Trotskyites and the book had an anti-Soviet Trotskyite line. Mao told him to shut up and get out of Yanan. Shippe died in combat while serving with New Fourth Army in 1941, in Northern Anhui Province. SM 228. In 1990, Huanh Hua initiated a propaganda campaign depicting Shippe as a “foreign correspondent” friend of China. A statue of Shippe was erected where he fell. NE 505 Smedley’s biographers confirm this story. She argued with Shippe, defending Snow and the CCP. SM 216
Agnes SMEDLEY: ZHU De’s biographer and possible lover. Spent 1937 in Yanan. LM 312 Reputation for wacky stunts. Not trusted by Comintern or CPUSA. Ex husband, Chatto, was a famous Indian Nationalist leader who was arrested in Moscow purges in 1938 and died in a labor camp in 1940. SM 290, 302 Smedley is buried in Babaoshan Cemetery. W 360. At Yanan she was hated by Dr. George Hatem and Otto Braun. MC 262
Henricus SNEEVLIET (1883-1942) aka MARING.
Edgar SNOW: Visited Northern Shaanxi in 1936 and interviewed Mao for Red Star. Trip authorized by Liu Shaoqi LM 318. Mao believed he was a CIA agent. S 106, 532 Snow’s father owned The Kansas City Star. MC 30. Divorced Nym Wales (Helen Foster Snow) in 1944. Married Lois Wheeler in 1949, in NY. SM 337
Helen SNOW: (Nym Wales was her pen name MC 292) Arrived in Yanan Summer of 1937 w/ Agnes Smedley and many books. LI De says she was a “Trotskyite” because she idealized Mao and was critical of Soviet policy. CA 254
SONG Binbin: The female Red Guard leader who pinned the armband on Mao at the first Tiananmen Rally, 8/16/66. Photo CC186 She was from the Beijing Normal University Girl’s Middle School, a center of Red Guard activities in 1966. Song is married to a Chinese computer manufacturer and lives in the USA now. P
SONG Liying: Leader of Dazhai’s Women’s Branch, often photographed with Chen Yonggui. John Gittings visited her in 1987 and she still defended Dazhai’s achievements. CD 91
SONG Meiling: Americanized Song family. The mother’s side had been Chritians for 300 years! ST115 Chiang Kaisheck’s wife. She backed the pro-American-pro British wing of the KMT that wanted to fight Japan, and argued for cessation of hostilities against CCP after December 19th movement and Xian Incident threatened KMT power. P On her 1942 trip to Washington she complined that she was called “Madam”, instead of “Madame”, saying that prostitutes were “Madams.” The quick thinking Colonel Dor tole her that the Queen of Englan was addressed as “Madam”, and her face lighted up, putting this issue to rest. ST351
SONG Qingling: 1893 – 1991. The second of three sisters of the americanized Song family from Hainan Island. Older sister of Meiling. Married SunYat-sen in 1914. Graduate of Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia. RS 497 Supported CCP and became vice chair in 1949. S 660 Died May 28, 1991. NE 470 T 668 Chairman of CCP and chief of State after Liu Shaoqi was eliminated. RS 497
Richard SORGE: Soviet espionage agent in China later posing as a Nazi in Tokyo. He had an affair with Agnes Smedley in Shanghai when he arrived there in 1930. SM 146 Smedley introduced him to many of the Asian contacts he later utilized. SM 146 Arrested in Tokyo in 1941 and executed by the Japanese in 1944 SM 146
Josepf STALIN: He has been 70% Marxist, and 30% not a Marxist. MSW 5.397-7, XV45 , 5.304, XV59
Manfred “Fred” STERN: LI De’s military superior in Shanghai. Called for wildly optimistic attacks against superior KMT forces in Red Zone. Insisted on attacking rather than allying with rebel 19th Route KMT Army in Guangdong. 19th Army fought and was annihilated by KMT in 1934. CA 26 LI De says he opposed this advice but carried out orders. Recalled to Moscow in Spring of 1934 and immediately assigned to Spain as chief Soviet advisor, under the name “General Kleber.” Executed in 1938.
Joseph STILWELL: Died October 12, 1946. SM 315 U.S. Commander in China. Persistently fought Jiang Kaishek’s corruption and tried to force him to use his army against the Japanese instead of the CCP. Until the German defeat at Stalingrad, many KMT factions believed the fascist would win WWII, and that the KMT was therefore on the wrong side. GR397 Stilwell’s humorous anti-Jiang Kaishek poem is at ST494
Anna Louise STRONG: PhD from University of Chicago at age 19. Seattle General Strike 1919. W 98 Considered too eccentric to be admitted to CCP, CPUSA or CPSU. NE 86 Edited Moscow Daily News (English daily). Arrested in Moscow in 1949 for spouting Mao’s line on civil war in her book “Tomorrow’s China” 1948, seen as a challenge to Stalin. NE 86 On her way back to Russia for her arrest, in 1946, she stopped in New York and argued with Smedley about Smedley’s criticism of Stalin. SM 302 Expelled from USSR in January 1949. SM 336 Borodin, the China specialists, and the staff of Moscow News were arrested with her. NE 87 Held only five days, she was kicked across the Polish border and returned to USA . CPUSA declared her an enemy. Rehabilitated by Krushchev in 1955 W. Lived in the old Italian Embassy building in Beijing. W9 9 Wrote several important books supporting China. Corresponded with Michael Klonsky in Los Angeles (October League) when he was young. P
Frank SU: Philadelphian married to an Austrian Jewish refugee. M 206
SU Xiaokang: Coauthor of the controversial “River Elegy” TV program. Mpoved to USA after June 4th. TM485
SUN Fo: Sun Yatsen’s son. An ally of Jiang Kaisheck. ST322 Served on KMT CC while father lived and was mayor ofGuangzhou after Sun Yatsen recaptured the city in January 1923. XII530
SUN Yat-Sen (SUN Zhongshan): 1866 – 1925. MD and founder of KMT. Led 1911 revolution that overthrew Qing Dynasty. Born at Hsiang Shan, forty miles from Guangzhou. MC 77 Joined anti-Manchu underground in 1893. Organized Revive China Society in Honolulu in 1894. Lived in exile in Japan after failure of Canton revolt in 1895. “Three People’s Principles” are nationalism, democracy, and the people’s livelihood. Formed KMT in Beijing in August 1912. Japanese exile 1913-1916. Established military government in Canton in 1917. Forced to resign by militarists in 1919. Declared his Canton regime the sole legitimate government of China in April 1921. Lost power to Chiung Ming in 1922. Returned to Canton in alliance with USSR and CCP in February 1923. Died in Beijing in March 1925 during fruitless negotiations with Northern warlords. T 669 His SF HQ is in alley behind QL’s store. P After the Emperor’s fall, succeeding warlords ruled Beijing from 1916-1928. The need for the KMT to respond with an army of its own led Sun into his alliance with Moscow, and the start of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924. XV 309 A good criticism of Sun’s bourgeois prejudices is at RT56-57
Manfred STERN: See FRED
John Leighton STEWART: Last U.S. Ambassador to KMT and staunch reactionary. OW 18
TAN Houlan: 1940-1982 Originally a student at Beijing Teacher’s University, she rose to national fame as the founder-leader of the Jinggangshan Commune Red Guards, with close links to the Cenetral Cuturla Revolution Group. Arrested in 1968. Died of cancer in prison. CC381 GPCR leader at Beijing Normal University, S 501
TANG Shengchih (1890-19??) Hunanese militarist joined KMT in June 1926. Participated in Northern Expedition leading six Hunanese Divisions. Helped capture Wuhan in August-October 1926. Became chief of “Left” KMT Government after April 1927 massacre. Went over to Chiang Kaisheck in July 1927 and suppressed CCP in Wuhan. Later led military revolts against Chiang. Minor post in CCP government after 1949. T 670
TANG Wensheng: (Nancy Tang), 1940 - Born in Brooklyn. Father ran a Chinese newspaper. Radcliffe grad. NE 331 Attended Foreign Languages Institute before GPCR. Deputy Head of American and Oceanic Affairs. Mao’s influential English interpreter. S 530 She was a Zhou Enlai operative. S 588 But Salisbury says she was a Jiang Qing Operative NE 342. Elected to CCP Central Committee in 1974. Purged after Mao’s death. MC 171
TAO Zhu: The only Politburo member to oppose the GPCR. NE 269.
TIAN Jiaying: 1922-1966 Mao’s personal secretary. Accused of “tampering with Mao’s works” CC381 A political secretary to Mao for 18 years. Assisted in editing Mao’s SW. Committed suicide at start of GPCR, 5/23/66, when accused of rightism. NE 470
TING Ling: 1907 - ?? Best known revolutionary woman writer. Joined CP in 1931. Arrested with husband and jailed by KMT in 1933. Husband executed. Released from Nanjing prison in 1936. She was a target of Mao’s Yanan talks in 1942. XV747 Wrote the outstanding work of land reform fiction: “The Sun Shines Over the Sangkan River”, 1948. Stalin Prize in 1951. Deemed a rightist in 1957; “Ting Ling Faction” XV748. Sent to a thought reform labor camp, she refused to recant her views and was expelled from CCP. Supposedly expelled because of poor conduct in KMT prison. RS501 Boldly criticized Mao’s line at his Yanan Forum talks. J188 Arrest as a Rightist after the Hundred Flowers ended. Disappeared, but rumored to be alive in mid 1970’s. J188-9 Her most celebrated story is “The Diary of Miss Sophie”, a story of a woman in love with two men. It was a May 4th period exploration of the theme of women’s independence. XII479
Leon TROTSKY: Official CCP criticism of Trotsky’s “liquidationism” after 1927 is at H145. Essentially, it says Trotsky’s call for a Constituent Assembly and legal work after the failure of the Great Revolution was a “liquidationist” error because the formation of the Red Army permitted the CCP to confront and, eventually, defeat the KMT. They were angry about Trotsky’s minimization of the accomplishment of the Red Army. This is the justification for purging the Trotskyists. H145
TUNG Piwu: 1886 - ??. Party founder. Passed the imperial exam at age 16. KMT leader under Sun Yatsen in 1911. Fled to Japan with Sun. Joined CCP at funding conference in 1921. Four years at Sun Yatsen U in Moscow, but remained loyal to Mao. Did not join 28 Bolsheviks. One of ten CCP members on delegation to found the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. Demoted in 1966. RS502
VON FALKENHAUSEN: Nazi general attached to KMT as military advisor. Planned 5th Annihilation Campaign that destroyed 90% of the Red Army, forcing it into the Long March retreat. RS187
VON SEECKT: Chiang Kaisheck’s Nazi advisor for 5th Annihilation Campaign
Grigori VOITINSKY (1893-1953): Joined RCP(B) in 1918. Assigned to the Comintern Far Eastern Bureau in 1920. Established Comintern’s first CP group in Shanghai in May 1920 meeting with Chen Duxiu and Li Dachao. Returned to China in 1924-25 and 1927 as Comintern Representative. T 32, 672
Peter VLADIMIROV: Soviet journalist assigned to Yanan from 1942-45. His diary was held for thirty years and then published after the Sino-Soviet split. Published in English in 1975. Vladimirov’s diary depicts Mao as scornful of Western science and learning, interested only in ancient novels and philosophy. He disliked Jiang Qing too. J172
WAN Li: 1916- Deputy Mayor of Beijing. Purged in October 1966. CC381 Jailed for 2 ½ years during GPCR. Rehabilitated in 1973. CC 381 Introduced the “household contract responsibility” system allowing peasant to sell all their surplus. NE 385 This system was formally adopted by CCP in 1982, “Document No. 75” N
WAN Runnan: Geneal Manager of the Stone Group that supported the students in 1989. Fled and later served as chairman of the Federation for Democracy in China. TM485
WANG Dabin: 1946- Student leader at the Beida Geological Institute. Leader of the Diyuan “East is Red” Commune. Top leader of the Beijing Earth faction, “Jinggangshan.” TS201 Arrested in 1969. Said to be working in Shenzhen now. CC381, S 501
WANG Dan: Prominent 1989 student leader. Beida freshman and leader of Autonomous Federation of Students. Arrested after June 4th and imprisoned. Released in 1998 on medical parole and fled to USA. TM485
WANG Dongxing: 1916 - Joined CCP guerillas in mid 1920s. Longtime head of Mao’s bodyguards. Replaced Yang Shangkun as Director of CC General Office in Novemver 1965. Member of the Central Case Examination Group. CC381 With Mao at Yanan and until his death. Mao’s closest surviving associate in 1976. Fired by Mao in October 1956 over fallout from 8th Congress’s purported “disloyalty” to Mao. Returned to Zhongnanhai in 1960 S 337 Banished again in 1963, returned again in 1965. S 436 Wang Dongxing (with Lin Biao’s help) replaced Yang Shangkun as director of the Central Committee General office in 11/65—at the very beginning of the GPCR. CC 361 The CCP’s General Office, under Yang Shungkun was initially responsible for the security of the leadership. But Yang was puirged in 1966 for planting listening devices in Mao’s quarters. Mao’s personal bodyguard, the 8341 unit , led by Wang Dongxong replaced Yang and thereafter protected the leadership—and detained them in the GPCR. XIV358 Wang was Dr. Li’s protector. Wang was a Lin Biao supporter, forced to give up quest to join Politburo when Zhou aligned w/ Jiang Qing in 1969 at 9th Party Congress. S 511. But he was elected as an alternate PB member. CC381. Head of Mao’s Bodyguard, he arranged the arrest of the Go4. He was among the first targeted by Deng when he came to power in October 1978. CD 60 Purged in 1980. S 661
WANG Guangmei: 1921 - ???, Born in the USA, returned to China to attend Catholic University and served as English translator in Yanan. J333 Liu Shaoqi’s 3d wife in 1948. (Or 5th or 6th wife. J333) Staff member of CCP CC General Office. BeiDa grad and former physics teacher. English interpreter for CCP in Yanan in 1936. RS503 Perceived rival, and therefore personal enemy, of Jiang Qing. Liu Shaoqi sent her to Xinghua University to lead the work team were she battled KWAI Dafu. Imprisoned during GPCR. She invented “the jet” torture. Harassed and interrogated countless times without breaking. Accused of wearing jewelry and fashionable clothes. Released and rehabilitated after 3d Plenum in 1978 CC381 and became vice-president of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. S 661 Her interrogation record at Qinghua University, from April 10, 1967, is at CC101, and more detailas at WB279-283. At another session Zhongnanhai, LI Na supervised two hours of the jet for Wang, but her husband only got twenty minutes. WB281 Liu Shaoxi and Wang were denounced by Wang’s her stepdaughter, LIU Tao, in 1967. WB281 A translation of the denunciation is in Harold. C. Hinton’s, The Peoples Republic of China, A Documentary Survey, 1949-1979 at pp 1639-53, See CC107 n6. Jiang Qing peraonnlay ordered Wang’s arrest. Mao approved the arrest but prevented a death sentence. WB282
WANG Hairong: 1940 - Mao’s grand-niece, Director of Protocol in Foreign Ministry, S 530. Interpreter and Zhou operative working with Nancy Tang S 588 as Mao’s liaison to Politburo in 1970s S 661.
WANG Hongwen: 1935 – 1992, Go4, “The Helicopter.” Said to be tall, handsome, poorly educated and corrupt. S 10. A security official in Shanghai No. 17 Cotton Mill in 1966. S 661 Appointed to CC in 1969. CC382 Member of GPCR Small Group, S 577 After Lin Biao’s fall, Mao settled on Wang as his next successor. Helicoptered from Shanghai Municipal leadership to the Politburo in May 1973. At 10th Party Congress named Vice Chairman of CCP in August 1973 (No. 3 in CCP). XV 339 He presided at Mao’s funeral. S 25 Confessed and testified against Jiang Qing. Sentenced to life in prison in 1981. CC381
WANG Jiaxiang: Wounded general. Close ally of Wang Ming. Converted by Mao to his side during “litter conspiracy” on LM. Closest Mao ally on LM. Devoted to Mao. Carried message from Stalin authorizing Mao’s leadership of CCP in 1938. Arrested in GPCR in 1967. “Spat upon by Department of Foreign Liaison” and “struck in the face by a foreigner” LM 329. Was Sidney Rittenberg the “foreigner”? I think he ran this CCP Dept. in 1967! Died in 1974.
WANG Jie: 1942-1965 PLA martyr died in an explosion. GPCR “Learn from Wang Jie” campaign. CC383
WANG Jingwei: 1883-1994 Leader of the “Left KMT” and later Japaneese collaborator in Nanjing . A radical law student while in Tokyo, he came to prominence in 1910 when he attempted to assassinate the Manchu Prince Regent (Pu Yi’s father). Released from prison in the 1911 Revolution. An ally of Sun’s, he led the Left KMT in Wuhan, but eventully turned on the CCP and supported Chiang Kai-shek, with whom he remained a bitter rival. He led the pro-Japan wing of the KMT. Served as KMT foreign minster, but deserted to Japanese held Hanoi in October 1938, from where he sent Chiang a cable advising he surrender to Japan. Later headed a puppet government in Japanese occupied Nanjing. Died in Tokyo in 1944 while receiving medical treatment. MD458
WANG Jinxi: “Ironman Wang” Production hero of Daqing when oil was discovered there in 1959. Elevated to CC in 1966. Pre-revolutionary oil worker from Gansu. Denounced by Red Guards in 1968. Submerged in vat of human feces and urine, left for drowned, rescued by a friend. Jiang Qing is blamed today. Died 11/15/70 of stomach cancer. NE 250-255, H621
WANG Juntao: 1989 democracy activist. Deputy editor of the private Economics Weekly. Arrested after June 4th and sentenced to 13 years. Released to the USA on medical parole in 1994. TM485
WANG Li: 1922 -1996. Joined CCP in 1939. CD250 GPCR Small Group. Deputy Director of the CCP International Liaison Department. CC382 He was the sponsor of the “madman of the new age”- Chen Lining. Wang was arrested in 8/67 after Red Guard occupation of Chen Yi’s foreign ministry and burning of British charge d’affaires office. S 492 Rittenberg’s sponsor. After he was held by PLA mutineers in Wuhan, he called for attacking the “bad” PLA elements. “Drag out the handful in the army.” This is why Mao denounced him. M 380, CD 249 Other writers insist Wang Li was angling for Zhou Enlai’s job and was allied with Jiang Qing to get him. Wang served 15 years in prison and was released in 1982. On March 3, 1984 he wrote a letter (History Will Pronounce Me Innocent) to Chen Yun, Deng Xiaoping, and Hu Yaobang, abjectly admitting his mistakes, and begging for readmission to the Party. See CC354. He was not readmitted. Spent his last years in Shanghai and died in 1996. CD251
WANG Ming: 1904 – 1974. (Chen Shaoyu) Joined CCP in 1925. Educated in Moscow’s Sun Yat-Sen University. Returned to China in 1927 as interpreter for Pavel Mif at Fifth CCP Congress in Wuhan 7/27. RS 504 Returned to USSR with Mif after 1927 spilt with KMT. Mif’s translator at Comintern Sixth Congress and CCP 6th Congress, both held in Moscow in 1928. RS504 Returned to China in 1930 with Mif and helped him dump Browder as head of Comintern Far Eastern Bureau, and then unseat Li Lisan. Leader of Mif’s 28 Bolsheviks. Appointed CCP Chairman and the returned to USSR in 1931 where he served on the Central Executive Committee of the Comintern. His most famous work, The Two Lines (1932) was published under Mif’s guidance as an attack on Mao’s “peasant line”. RS 504 Pavel Mif selected him to lead the Party S 116 in struggle with Li Lisan 1930-31. CCP Rep to Comintern 1931-37. T 656 Operated from Moscow. His group was effectively supplanted by Mao at Zunyi Conference on Long March in 1935. Accused of leftism. Returned to Yanan in 1937 and warned LI De not to return to Moscow because of purges. His 1937 wor, “A Key to Solving the Present Situation” argued that the Red Army should simply merge with the KMT. Mao opposed this insisting on Communist independence. J506n13 In 1940 he republished The Two Lines (Bolshevization v reliance on an armed peasantry) to try to sway Mao to his views. Mao responded with the 1942 Rectification Campaign targeting Wang’s supporters. Seventh Congress in 1945 officially repudiated Wang Ming in Mao’s Resolution on Some Questions Concerning the History of Our Party. Reelected to CC in 1956, but slipped to number 97th among the 97 CC members! RS505 Went to USSR for medical treatment in 1956. Stayed and wrote polemics against CCP.
WANG Rui: Rightist Party philosopher and dissident rehabilitated and then rightist expelled from CCP with Fang Lizhi in 1986. MM 363
WANG Ruoshui: Died 1/10/02 in Boston. Author of the socialist “alienation” theory who came under attack by Deng in 1983. CD136 Honorary board member of the anti-communist “Human Rights in China”. Moved to Boston in 2001 while his wife, Feng Yuan, was a visiting scholar at Harvard University. Deputy editor-in-chief of the People's Daily in the 1980s, Wang wore exposes of GPCR atrocities. Born in Changde, a city in the southern province of Hunan, Wang studied at Peking University before joining the People's Daily as an editorial writer in 1950. During his 37 years at the paper, Wang was removed and reinstated many times, including during the Cultural Revolution. After leaving the paper permanently in 1987, he went to Boston as a visiting scholar at Harvard. He returned to China in the early 1990s, although he could not publish there. P
WANG Ruowang: Chinese Writers Association member expelled from CCP in 1987 after he supported the 1986 student demonstrations. Jailed and then house arrest after 1989. Fled to USA, TM486
WANG Shiwei: Author of Wild Lillies, during Yanan Rectification campaign in early 1940’s. The book criticized high living of Yanan leaders. Wang was executed as a “Trotskyite” S 205
WANG Zhen: Died in 1993. Hunan Railway worker joined Party in 1927. Military commander after 1929. Party hack and booster of Deng’s SEZ plan. PR 163 His sons, Wang Jun and Wang Zhi are associated with the biggest companies in China, CITIC and Great Wall Computers.
WANG Zujian: A Rightist who had served on a state farm in Guangxi, Wuxuan. Released to the Wuxuan Cutural Office, he informed Beijing of the cannibalism by having a letter forwarded from a relative. The CC responded with a surprise military visit by OU Zhifu, commander of the Guangxi Military District in July 1968. Ou stopped the carnage. The local authorities then sent Wang Zuijia to a labor camp where he stayed until Mao’s death. RC 201-202
WEI Guoqing: Party Secretary of Guangxi Province during the GPCR. He was the only provincial leader to stay in power during the GPCR. All war materials for Vietnam passed through Guangxi by train. WEI probably survived because he had good personal relations with the Vietnamese, so Mao blocked his removal. He formed his own Red Guard units and was a ruthless enemy of the rival faction, which he killed in great numbers. P
WEI Jingsheng: author of “Democracy--The Fifth Modernization”. Democracy Wall activist arrested March 29, 1979. Critic of the penal system. Wei was the leader of the democracy movement. He was charged with passing military secrets to Vietnam. Sentenced to 15 years. CD59, MM 109, 115 Demands for his release were the prologue to the 1989 protests. TM486
White WOLF: (died 1914) Southern Hunan bandit leader after the 1911 Revolution. He was anti-Republican and pro Qing. XII240
Robert F. WILLIAMS: 1925 – 1996. Black preacher from North Carolina.
Nationalist proponent of armed self-defense; leader of Monroe NC NAACP. Fled to Cuba, then PRC. He was in Beijing for the 1964 National Day Parade. WV says he arrived in China in 1966. Left China in 1969. New Book on Williams: Radio Free Dixie, by Timothy Tyson. WV 737, 6/2/00. W 7
Robert WINTERS: An American Scholar who taught English Literature at Beida for many years. TS130
WONG Doon: SF Chinatown powerbroker in 1978. He led the largest district asscociation (Ning Yuen Association), the largest family asscociation (Wong Family Association), and one of the biggest Tongs (Bing Kung Tong). Past president of the Chinese Six Companies (benevolent association). He was a mameber of the KMT National Assembly and a “National Political Advisor” to Chiang Kai-shek. F252
WU Faxian: 1915- Lieutenant General linked to Lin Biao. Commanded PLA Air Force at start of GPCR. Elevated to Politburo at 9th Congress. Arrested after Lin Biao Incident. CC382
WU Han: 1909-1969 Prominent historian and vice mayor of Beijing. The first target of the GPCR. CC383 Author of the satirical column, “Notes From a Three Family Village” in Frontline. XIV443 Author of the historical play, Hai Rui Dismissed from Office. J491 Attacked on 11/10/65 by article written by YAO Wenyuan and Jiang Qing. They said this was an implied criticism of Mao’s dismissal of Peng Dehuai. EC Died after 2 ½ years of struggle rallies, physical abuse and mistreatment in prison. CC383 In June 1966, students from the Beijing No. 1 Middle School for Girls went to his home. The criticized him and one girl pasted a strip of slogans on his forehead. CC330 Wu’s wife, Yuan, died from abuse and medical neglect after release from a labor camp. CC331
WU Lili: Agnes Smedley’s translator in Yanan. Mao’s interest in Lili caused a problem with Mao’s wife HE Zizhen in the Summer of 1937. CA 249, J161
WU De: Replaced Peng Chen as mayour of Beijing in 1966. Jiang Qing ally who suppressed the April 5th 1976 Tiananmen Incident. Abandoned Jiang Qing and just before her arrest. Dusgraced in 1977 for his GPCR activities. J491
WU Xiuquan Otto Braun’s translator on LM. 28 Bolshevik. Arrested in GPCR for “helping” LI De. 8 years in custody, 6 in prison. LM 335
WUER KAIXI: 1989 Tiananmen student leader from Beijing Normal University. AFS leader. Fled to Taiwan. TM487 He became a tool of the KMT and his KMT ties discredited the 1989 democracy organizations, which are all now primarily funded from Taiwan. F485
XIANG Zhongfa: Wuhan dockworker appointed CCP leader at the party’s 6th Congress in Moscow. He was not capable and Zhou Enlai led the party until Xiang was deposed. H122
XIE Fuzhi: 1909 – 1972, Minister of Public Security in 1959. Politburo member and vice-premier 1965 – 1972. Posthumously expelled from CCP in 1980 for GPCR role! S 662.
XIAO Yu: Wrote “Mao Zedong And I Were Beggars”
XU Jiatun: Director of Xinhua News agency in Hong Kong, which was, effectively, the PRC embassy there before reunification. After 1989 XU defected to the USA. TM487
YAN Jiaqi: Social historian who investigated GPCR and wrote an influential history. NE 249 Fled China after June 4th and was vice chairman the Federation for Democracy in China. TM487
YANG Baoyin: Forced Job Placement prisoner. Executed by firing squad in 1970 for writing “Overthrow Chairman Mao”. His brian was then eaten by a public security cadre. L25
YANG Chengwu: 1914 - Hero of Luding Bridge. Sharp rise to PLA Chief of Staff when his boss, Luo Ruiqing, was pushed out a 6th floor window in GPCR in 1966. ZHOU Enlai said he guaranteed Mao’s safety at start of GPCR. Member of Central Case Examination Group. Purged in 1968 with YU Lijin and FU Chongbi CC383 Became alternate Politburo member, but was purged by Lin Biao, accused of ordering someone to beat Jiang Qing. Served 7 years in prison.
Gladys YANG: English wife of Yang Xianyi a famous translator for the Foreign Languages Press in Beijing. Arrested around 1972 as “foreign spies”, they were imprisoned for four years and released in 1976. They blame Qiang Qing for their arrests. CD6
YANG Kaihui: Mao’s 2nd wife in 1920. (His fist, arranged marriage, was not consummated) Daughter of Professor Yang Chanji. Mao’s Marxist tutor in Changsha. 3 sons: Anying, Anqing, Anlong (died w/ mother?) Beheaded by KMT in 1930 at Changsha for refusing to denounce Mao. S 662. J164
YANG Shangkun: 1907 - 1998 The ½ Bolshevik of the 28 ½. S 662. Removed as Director of the Central Committee General Office in November 1965 at the very beginning of GPCR. The CCP’s General Office, under Yang Shungkun was initially responsible for the security of the leadership. But Yang was puirged in 1966 for planting listening devices in Mao’s quarters. Mao’s personal bodyguard, the 8341 unit, led by Wang Dongxong replaced Yang and thereafter protected the leadership. XIV358 Purged in May 1966 as part of the “Peng-Luo-Lu-Yang Clique”. CC384 Holds record for longest GPCR prison term served by any LM General. June 30, 1966 to December 1978. Set up “secret” tape recorder to record Mao’s meeting w/ foreign dignitaries. Sentenced for espionage as Soviet spy. NE 206 LM 334. Rehabilitated and served as vice chairman of the Military Affairs Commission and President of PRC in 1988 (at age 82). Personal aide to Deng Xiaoping. Freely attended Politburo meetings. TMxxix., TM488 Yang played a decisive role in 1989. xxxii Lost power at 14th Congress in 1992. TMxxv.
YANG Xianzhen: Director of party School in Beijing. Involved in the “one divided into two” controversy in 1963. He as defeated and severely criticized. He may have argued that since “everything” divides into two, Mao Zedong thought also does! I am unsure about this. This may have been during “the four cleanups.” XV77, P.
YAO Wenyuan: 1932 - (“The Stick” XIV456) Go4. Radical Shanghai literary critic. Worked at the Policy Research Institute of the Shanghai party committee. This theoretician came to prominence with his criticism of “ Hai Rui Dismissed from Office” 11/10/65. Member of the Central Cultural Revolution Small Group. Appointed to politburo in 1969 in charge of ideology. Jiang Qing’s closest follower. Sentenced to 20 years in prison. Now lives in Shanghai CC384
YE Jianying” April 26, 1897 – October 22, 1986, Politburo Standing Committee member 1973 – 1985. Joined KMT in 1922. Whampoa instructor in 1923. Suan Yatsen University in 1928. Studied in France and Germany in 1929. Returned to China in 1930 and was a Zhou loyalist. Survived all Mao’s purges. RS51 One of 10 Marshals. Long-time Zhou Enlai supporter. Leading conspirator in arrest of Go4. S 662 Marshal Ye suggested the creation of the wax Mao. S 27.
YE Qun: 1917 – 1971, Lin Biao’s 2d wife. Member of Cultural Revolution Small Group. Appointed to Politburo in 1969. S 662 Member of Central Case Examination Group. CC384 Widely reviled in CCP.
YE Ting 1897-1946: Served in Chen Qiongmin’s Guangdong Army in 1920s. Joined KMT in 1922. Studied warfare in Moscow 1924-1925. Joined Moscow CCP branch in 1925. Leader of 8/1/27 putsch in Nanchang. Retreated south with Ho Lung. Commanded CCP troops at Canton Commune December 1927. Scapegoated for Left Deviation and retired to Europe for five years. Appointed commander of New Fourth Army in 1937. Arrested when Chiang ambushed him in 1941 and imprisoned until 1946. Killed in plan crash while returning to Yanan and freedom.
YE Zilong: Mao’s private secretary and procurer at Zhongnanhai. Ye Zilong bugged Mao’s train and guest houses. The staff all knew, but Mao did not. S 146 Fell out of favor in late 1961 S 663, Arrested during GPCR, but was rehabilitated in 1980 and became vice mayor of Beijing S 149.
YING Ruocheng, the cast-down former deputy Minister of Culture, famous as Puyi’s jailer, staged Shaw’s Major Barbara Beijing in 1991. CD189
YU Yulan: 1941- Nationally famous peasant and labor hero from Shandong. Elected to CC at 9th Party Congress. CC379
YUAN Shikai: Chief of the northern warlords, who seized control of China after the 1911 Revolution and ousted Sun Yatsen. H5, H9
P.F. Yudin: Soviet Ambassador, actually a leading ML philosopher, supposedly assigned by Stalin to study Mao’s orthodoxy. Mao and Yudin met often and argued. Mao may have revised his work for publication (Selected Works) based on what he learned about ML from Yudin. XIV65 Yudin said “On Contradiction” and “On Practice”, Mao’s two favorite works, were “revisionist”. S 70
David YUI: Helen Snow’s contact in Beijing. MC 235 He was Jiang Qing’s “special boyfriend” and recruited her into the party in Shandong in 1933. He took her to Yanan in 1938. MC 167
ZENG Guofan: Qing general and statesman who crushed the Taipings and murdered the survivors ot the heavenly Army. GR24ff
ZENG Qihong: Appointed to PB SC at 16th Congress. Zeng Qinghong had risen from being an alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee to full member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau where he ranks fifth among the nine full members. At the same time, he is the first secretary of the Central Committee's Secretariat and is also the president of the Central Party School which holds the power on organizational and personnel issues. He has thus become the critical figure as CPC General Secretary Hu Jintao takes the helm of the government. The important role that he plays will gradually become more evident. Already, some speeches that he had made recently have already attracted much attention. According to Beijing news sources, a speech delivered by Zeng Qinghong on 29 November 2002 at the graduation ceremony for the 33rd provincial and ministerial level cadres' training course has, to a certain extent, reflected the assessment of the CPC's fourth generation of the 16th CPC National Congress; at the same time, it can be said to be the manifesto of the fourth generation. Based on the speech of Zeng Qinghong, it can be observed that the manifesto of the fourth generation is as follows: Abide by established rules and keep in pace with the times, underscored in particular by upholding the "Four Cardinal Principles," implementing the "Nine Everythings," and continuously promoting the innovation of theories.
ZHANG Chunqiao: 1917 - ??? Go4, Born in Shandong. Chief editor of Liberation Daily in Shanghai in 1951. Director of propaganda for Shanghai Party Committee in 1953, Secretary of Shanghai Party Committee in 1967. Deputy Head of Cultural Revolution Small Group in 1966. Politburo member in 1969. Politburo Standing Committee in 1973. Director of the General Political Department of the PLA and vice premier in 1975. S 663 First came to Mao’s attention in 1958, when he wrote an article suggesting a free food system. S 274. Death sentence commuted to life in prison in 1983. S 663 At his trial he remained silent. Only he and Jiang Qing got the death sentence. The other eight all got lighter punishments. XV 390, WB390
ZHANG Guotao: A Party founder with eleven others, and became Orgburo Secretary—one of three on the first “Central Bureau”. After Second Congress he was Secretary of the mass “Chinese Labor Organization” H44 Three years study in USSR. He was the leader of the right wing of the Party in the Comintern faction. Attended Sixth ICCI in 1928 and satyed three years to to study. Returned to Shanghai and PB in 1931. RS 452 Purged nearly all regimental commanders when he first took command of 4th Army; killed others in faction fight with Mao. Shot some as Trotskyites. Fourth Front Army, moved parallel to Mao’s first Front Army during LM. They were not in contact and neither was sure of the other’s position. ZHANG’s army was ten times bigger, better equipped and suffered less. LM 244 Had women’s combat regiment, LM 247, 248 Half of the 4th Army was destroyed in 1936 while crossing Yellow River to join Mao. LM 320. Zhang Guotao joined Chiang Kaishek in 1938, assigned to the fascist Blue Shirts command in Hangzhou, GR347, then moved to HK and finally Canada. LM 325.
ZHANG Guoxi: From Henan. China’s most famous peasant in 1994. He got rich first. Amassed a fortune of one hundred million RMB by using local labor to build furniture for export to Japan. RC54
ZHANG Tiesheng, of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, turned in a blank college entrance examination paper in the summer of 1973, with an open letter to the examiners written on the back, condemning the testing system and became a national hero promoted by GPCR. He toured campuses in 1975 urging students to “struggle against their teachers” as part of the Go4 campaign to oust Zhou Enlai. Rumor says he personally “struggled” against Zhou Enlai for an entire week in April 1975. Zhou died soon thereafter. Zhang was sponsored by Mao’s nephew from Liaoning, Mao Yuanxin, who was close to the Go4 and was purged with them. In December 1976 he was denounced as “a counterrevolutionary clown”, “an opportunist and a thug” used by the Gang of four. In 1982 he was sentenced to 15 years for counterrevolutionary activities. CD 56, NE 507 n 17 His blank paper was for an agricultural exam. TS313 In 1975 a movie about Zhang’s triumph was produced, called “Counterattack.” Teachers from Beida served as actors. The Go4 fell before it was released. TS314 Zhang’s “going against the tide” campaign was merged with the Anti-Lin Biao and Confucius Campaign. XV 574
ZHANG Yufeng: 1944 - ???? A dining car attendant Mao met in Changsha in 1962. S 406 His favorite girlfriend for a time. She became Mao’s immensely powerful “interpreter” in 1974-1976. She was his personal servant and former lover. She bore Mao “at least one” child. WB379 Only she could understand his slurred speech. Arrogant during Mao’s last days, she was appointed his private secretary in late 1974. S 589 She decided the fate of many and was feared. Purged w/ Go4 and Mao’s nephew Mao Yuanxin S 6. Zhang gave Jiang Qing many sensitive documents from Mao’s room the day he died. S 22. Mao set money aside for Jiang Qing in an account controlled by Zhang—this was a constant source of irritation for Jiang. Zhang often refusd to grant the large sums Jiang wanted. WB351
ZHANG Yaoci: 1915 - ???. LM veteran. Ally serving with Wang Dongxing on security team at Zhongnanhai. S 663
ZHANG Xueliang: (1897 - 2001) KMT left general (“the Young Marshal”) who Kidnapped Chiang Kaisheck in 1936 Xian incident. Inherited control of Manchuria from his warlord father in 1928. Joined KMT in 12/28. Held as Jiang’s “personal prisoner” after 1936. RS452 He was dubbed the ``Young Marshal'' after he inherited his father's 200,000-strong army and control of Manchuria and parts of northern China at the age of 27, after the Japanese assassinated his military strongman father, Chang Tso-lin. Jailed in Taiwan but given nominal amnesty in 1960 on condition he could not leave the island. T 655 Held under house arrest in China and then Taiwan for decades. S 630 Chang spent decades under house arrest in Taiwan but was rehabilitated after the island embraced democratic reforms in the late 1980s. In 1991 he was allowed to leave Taiwan for the first time to visit is children in the United States. He resettled in Hawaii in 1994. P
ZHANG Ying: Chiang Qing’s principal aide. Formerly a leader in the propaganda department. J151-2
ZHANG Zhixin: Heroic Liu Shaoqi loyalist from Liaoning Province. She refused to denounce Liu. Before her execution her windpipe was cut so that she could not shout out an oath of loyalty to the party as she was shot. CD7 Shot in 1976. PI Shuowang dedicated a famous poem to her, “Just Because.” XV807
ZHAO Jianmin: A member of the CCP Secretariat, arrested in Beijing and accused of being a KMT special agent in January 1968. Some 14,000 people associated with him are rounded up and executed in a nationwide purge. CC368
ZHAO Ziyang (1919 - ) Party Secretary replacing HU Yaobang in 1987. Removed on May 29, 1989 by Deng. Jiang Zemin replaced him. NE 471 Son of Hunan LL, joined CCP in 1938. Purged in GPCR and then restored with many others after fall of Lin Bio group. Headed party/government in Sichuan from 1975 until Deng promoted him to Beijing in 1980. Always tried to pattern himself on Zhou Enlai. MM 141 Around May 1998, Zhao sent a letter to the CCP CC calling on it to admit that the 1989 massacre was a “mistake”. CD256 Li Peng’s official criticism of Zhao, a summary of all his mistakes up tho June 4th, is at TM268 His defense, at the 4th Plenum of the 13th CC, is at TM441 Under de facto house arrest since 1989. TM489
ZHENG Yi: A novelist famous for “Old Well.” He is the author of “Scarlet Memorial.” He participated in the Beijing demonstrations in 1989 and was put on the wanted list after June 4th. He escaped to HK and later the USA. TM139n19
ZHOU Enlai: (party name “Shao Shan”, small mountain RS461) March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976 . Premier from 1954. RS463 Taught by John Hershey’s mother at missionary school in Tianjin. NE 471 Went to France in 1920. Founded CCP European Branch, in Paris, w/ Cai Hesen. (the first Chinese Communist) in 1922. LM 90 Zhou joined party in 1922 S 663 Political Director at Whampoa 1924-26. Arrested during Guangzhou Coup, on 3/20/26. Participated in Shanghai’s Workers Insurrection in 3/27. and barely escaped 4/12 bloodbath. Li Lisan’s chief lieutenant until 1/31. Then supported Wang Ming, and then Mao in 1935. Intervened in Xian incident in 12/36 to save Chiang Kaisheck. Premier from 1949 until death. T 657 Assigned to Red Base Area in 12/31. Replaced Mao as Commissar of First Front Army. Appointed Commissar of entire army in 5/33. LM 130. Jiang Qing broke his arm in Yanan in a riding accident and it was disfigured till the end of his life. 166 Comforted Anna Louise Strong when she died in Beijing; often ate noodles at Beijing Hotel, LM 133. Zhou’s role in GPCR was to appear above the factions, but he actually supported the conservative Red Guard factions which opposed Jiang Qing and the Central Cultural Revolution Group. XV 554 Allied w/ Jiang Qing against Lin Biao in 1969 S 510 In 1972 Mao refused treatment of his (and Kang Sheng’s) cancer S 572 Snow says that Malraux’s Man’s Fate, was based on Zhou Enlai. RS420n1 In September 1971 the KMT intelligence service planned to assassinate Zhou Enlai in Paris, using a trained dog carrying a bomb. But Zhou stayed in Beijing because of the Lin Biao crisis and avoided the bomb. This story is at F147
ZHOU Yang: Literary opponent of Lu Xun. Mao’s ghost writer after he arrived in Yanan. A major literary figure and, therefore, personal rival of Jiang Qing’s. She managed to finally purge him at the beginning of the GPCR. J185 His March 1983 speech on the 100th anniversary of Marx’s death criticized Mao’s dialectics for seeing a swing to opposites in the negation of the negation, rather than seeing the new negation as incorporating elements of the old. Zhou cited this theory as the reason for Mao’s errors in GPCR. In this same speech he discussed his theory of alienation under socialism. During the “spiritual pollution” campaign in the winter of 1983, he was criticized for his alienation theory—but not the attack on Mao’s dialectics. XV47
ZHU Chengzhao: Student at the Beijing Geological Institute. Red Guard founder/leader of the “Third Headquarters”, the most important Red Guard umbrella organization in Beijing. Denouced by radicals when he turned against the Central Cultural Revolution Group in 1967. Ultimate fate unknown. CC385
ZHU De: December 18, 1886 – July 7, 1976 Hunanese. Former warlord general & opium addict. Republican soldier in 1911. In Germany, ZHOU recruited him to CCP in 1922. CA 59 Joined Mao and united forces in Jinggangshan 5/4/28 LM 26 Commander in chief of Red Army in 1930s. Attacked by Red Guard poster right in Zhongnanhai in 1967! Wife paraded around and beaten. He was not harmed. Politburo Standing Committee 1956 – 1976. He denounced Jaing Qing to her face at Zhou’s bedside after his death. WB358 Died 7/76.
ZHU Ronji: 1928 - , Hunan, Changsha. Joined CCP in 1949. Qinghua engineering graduate in 1951. Expelled as a rightist in 1957. Rehabilitated in 1977. Followed Jiang Zemin’s rise, taking the posts Jiang vacated. MM483n24


One Central Task and Two Basic Points: This is the 13th Party Congress (1987) summary of the Party’s General Line. The central task is economic construction. While the two basic points refer to persisting in the Four Cardinal Principles and the Reform and Opening up. H784, TM260n37, TM425
One Divides into Two: Mao’s version of the law of the unity of opposites, as described in “On Practice.” Mao said that this law applied to “everything.” Many people, including many soldiers were punished for heresy in speculating that this law applied to Mao and his thought too. The story of one soldier who narrowly escaped prison for maintaining this principle is at CC333 “One divides into two.” On October 26, 1963, Mao’s 70th birthday, ZHOU Yang delivered a speech to the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The speech surveyed the worker’s movement from Marx to Mao, in terms of Mao’s axiom, “one divides into two.” This was the rallying cry for the purge of YANG Xianzhen and other partisans of the “two combines into one” line. XV77 Yang Xiangzhen argued that the unity of opposites did not dissolve in the contradiction, but that each pole remained, held together by mutual need. XIV467 Yang was removed form his vice president job at the Higher Party School. XIV469 Zhou Kuching wrote that matter can be undifferentiated with no contradictions. J518n30 In March 1964 Mao said, “In all things, one divides into two. I, too, am a case of one divides into two.” XV97 Kang Sheng was behind the campaign. XIV344
One Hit, Two Anti’s: A 1970 campaign that led to the discovery of 1.84 million (and the arrest of 284,000) “renegades’, “special agents”, and “counter revolutionary elements between February and November 1970. CC31 Or “One Hit Three Anti’s”, 1971, XV 664
The Two Musts: Leading cadres “must always practice plain living and hard struggle.” This is from the Mao quote about “sugar bullets” of bourgeoisie after CP victory, at 2ns session of 7th CC. Quoted by Hu Jintao in a speech on 12/6/02.
The One Industrialization and Three transformations: The February 1954 program for the economy. Or “one body and two wings.” The one industrialization is the industrialization of the economy. The three transformations are the socialist transformations of agriculture, handicraft, and capitalist industry and commerce. The one industrialization was the “main body”, the three transformations were the “two wings.” H444
The Two Participations: Workers participation in management, and managers participation in manual labor. MM261
Two Whatevers Faction: First appeared in the February 7, 1977 Peoples Daily. Hua Guofeng said , “We must resolutely uphold whatever policies Chairman Mao adopted, and we must steadfastly abide by whatever instructions he gave.” TM311n14
Third Red Guard Headquarters in Beijing. The first two HQ’s were set up by cadres to try to protect themselves. The Third HQ was the excluded, non-party, rebels. W 168 Kuai Dafu was leading member. It had close ties to the Central Cultural Revolution Group. CC173n1
The Third Line: May 1964 project to build a giant military-industrial base in western China along a north-south rail line to provide a line of retreat if chin is invaded by the USSR or USA. H614 Mao perceived a major threat to China growing out of the Vietnam War and included the Third Line in the Third Five Year Plan. XIV341
The Three All Principle: “Kill all, burn all, destroy all.” Japanese Senko-seisaku war policy for China. ST216
The Three Alongs: Deng Xiaoping’s policy to develop economic hubs along China’s borders, along the coast, and along the Yangzi River. RC127
Three Antis Campaign: 1952 Against corruption, waste, and bureaucratism S 56, J255 The key targets were urban cadres, especially in the financial and economic departments, who had become involved in corruption. XIV90
A Three-Anti Element: is anti-Party, anti-Mao Zedong Thought, and anti-socialist. CC103
The Three Bigs: Big demonstrations, great airing of views, and many wall posters. “Daming, dafang, dazibao.”
The Three Capitulations and One Liquidation: Early GPCR criticism of China’s foreign policy. Capitulation to imperialism, revisionism and reactionaries of various countries; Liquidation of the people’s revolution. H684-5
The Three Check Ups: Civil war ideological campaign in the PLA. Check on the soldiers class origin, performance of duty and will to fight. H397 n45
The Three Civilizations: Announced at the 16th Party Congress. Confusing new idealist claptrap that mystifies the relationship between base and superstructure. Supposedly, the life and production of human society are basically divided into three major fields. In the different historical periods of development of human society, the material civilization reflects the conditions in the development and progress of the productive forces which are interdependent with certain relations of production in society or the economic system; the spiritual civilization reflects the conditions in the development and progress of concepts, theories, and ideologies in science, culture, religion, arts, morality, ethics, philosophy, economics, politics, law, and other subjects; and the political civilization reflects the conditions in the development and progress of the social, political, and legal systems as well as the institutionalized and standardized levels of the material and spiritual civilizations in a given society. The progress of human civilization mainly manifests itself in the coordinated development of the material, political, and spiritual civilizations. All cadres are tasked with promoting this new concept. P
The Three Crises of Faith: Saxin weiji, after the Go4 fell. No faith in socialism, Marxism, or the CCP leadership. L119
Lin Biao’s Three Criteria for selecting and promoting cadres: A good cadre should 1) hold high the red banner of Mao Zedong Thought, 2) engage in political and ideological work, 3) possess revolutionary vitality. CC84
The Three Destructions: KMT policy upon entering the Red Base Areas, “kill all the people, burn all the houses, loot all the valuables.” TS66
The Three-Eight Work Style of the PLA: Refers to the three phrases and eight characters written by Mao to describe the work style of officers and men. The tree phrases are: correct political orientation, a simple and arduous working style, and flexible strategy and tactics. The eight characters are” united, alert, earnest and lively. The Three Main Rules of Discipline are 1) obey orders in all actions, 2) do not take even a needle pr thread from the masses, 3) turn in everything captured. The Eight Points for Attention are: 1) speak politely, 2) pay fairly for what you buy, 3) return everything you borrow, 4) pay for anything you damage, 5) do not hit or swear at people, 6) do not damage crops,7) do not take liberties with women, 8) do not ill treat captives. CC46
The Three Evils and Five Evils: 1951 campaigns. The Three Evils (cadres) were corruption, waste, and bureaucracy among Party and state cadres. The Five Evils (capitalists) were bribery of government workers, tax evasion, theft of state property, cheating on government contracts, and stealing economic information for private gain. The Five Evils were targeted against capitalists. “Beat back the bourgeoisie’s savage onslaught.” H430
The Three Great Democracies: Applied to PLA soldiers during the civil war: politically, officers and men help each other to understand goals; economically, soldiers take part in running their own mess, and militarily, all share knowledge and express their own views. CC67
The Three Great Differences: Between town and country, worker and peasant, mental and manual labor. MM 203
The Three Great Movements: After liberation, these were the suppression of counter-revolutionaries, the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, and agrarian reform. H420
Sun’s “Three Great Policies” of the KMT: By Sun Yatsen’s. Alliance with Soviet Russia, Alliance with the CCP, Support for the workers’ and peasants’ movement. OW 155, H71
Three-In-One Provisional Organs of Power: “The revolutionary “three-in-one” provisional organ of power should be formed by leaders of revolutionary mass organizations that truly represent the broad masses, the representatives of the People’s Liberation Army units stationed in the area, and revolutionary leading cadres.” Red Flag 3/30/67, CC60, also Red Flag 2/1/67, XV 162 These three groups actually represented the three-way split in the government. Zhou Enlai, the Cadres, Jiang Qing, the Cult Rev Group, and Lin Biao, the PLA. XV 166
The Three Main Rules of Discipline, The Eight Points for Attention: SW Vol 4, p 155, LM 117, OW 190
The Three Most Poisonous Weeds: In theater, these were The Woman Governor, by Xie Yaohuan, Li Huiniang (a ghost drama) by Meng Chao, and Hai Ju Dismissed from Office, by Wu Han. XV 787
The Three Old Articles: “Serve the People, In memory of Dr. Norman Bethune, The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountain”. W 62
The Three Peoples’ Policies of Sun Yatsen: Cooperation with the Communist Party, promotion of the interests of workers and peasants, and alliance with the Soviet Union. GR156
Three Peoples Principles of Sun Yatsen: “nationalism, democracy, and the people’s livelihood.” GR156
The Three Points in a Straight Line: At Beida, the “old” student trail from the library to the dining hall to the dormitory. TS304
The Three Poisonous Weeds: Deng’s “Three Poisonous Weeds” are his 1975 “On the General Program for All Work of the Whole Party and Whole Country”, “Some Questions on Accelerating the Development of Industry”, and “Report on the Work of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. MM 75, (H710 gives a different translation of these titles.)
The Three Red Banners: The Great Leap Forward, The People’s Communes & the General Line for Socialist Construction. TS97, S 435, H580, XIV341
The Three Way Alliance: Model for Revolutionary Committees containing the young, the middle aged, and the old, in equal numbers. CD72
Three-Self Patriotic Movement: The name of the official Christian Church in China. RC65
The Three Separations: In University culture, the separation of the university from the worlds of practice, of politics, and of manual labor. TS304
The Three Represents: Throughout the historical stages of the revolution, the CPC has always represented 1) the development demands of China’s productive forces, 2) the development demands of China’s advanced culture, and 3) the fundamental interest of China’s broad population. The Three Represents is touted as Jiang’s contribution to ML. The Three Represents were first announced at a February 25, 2000 to a gathering of village cadres in Gaozhou, Guangdong. The Three Represents Theory was officially proclaimed in Jiang’s July 1, 2001 speech on Party Day, which was widely published in pamphlet form. The Three Represents was apparently initiated to derail Jiang’s earlier “Three Talks” campaign, which was a rectification movement that encouraged public criticism of party corruption. The mass response was so overwhelming, that the campaign had to be stopped. Asia Times, HK, 10/23/01.
The Three Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points for Attention: Mao’s 1927 rules for the new Peoples Army. H125, J215
The Three Rules
1. Obey orders in all your actions.
2. Don’t take anything from the workers and peasants.
3. Turn in all things taken from local tyrants.

The Eight points for Attention
1. Put back the doors you have taken down for bed-boards.
2. Put back the straw you have used for bedding
3. Speak politely.
4. Pay fairly for what you buy.
5. Return everything you borrow.
6. Pay for anything you damage. 7. Don’t bathe within sight of women
8. Pay for anything you damage.
The Three Stresses: The GPCR creative formula. Among all the characters, emphasize the positive; among the positive, emphasize the main heroic characters; and among the main heroic characters, emphasize the primary central character. XV791, J420
The Three Talks: The three talks are “Talk studying, talk politics, talk rightousness.” This was a 1999 campaign begun by Jiang Zemin to purge corrupt cadres. Inspectors from Jiang’s office fanned out through China to “inspect” local party organizations. Cadres believed it was actually just a purge of his political opponents. The campaign got out of hand because of the enormous corruption that was uncovered and the mass anger it unleashed against the cadres. Jiang’s February 25, 2000 trip to Guangdong was to implement the Three Talks campaign. After this trip, the campaign was drastically scaled back and replaced by the Three Represents. Asia Times, HK, 10/23/01.
Three Thirds System: of wartime CCP Government. Government cadres were 1/3 CCP, 1/3 Non-Party progressives, and 1/3 middle-of-the-roaders. H247
Three Worlds Theory: As presented by Deng to UN on 4/10/74: “ …The world today actually consists of three parts, or three worlds, that are interconnected and in contradiction with one another. The United States and the Soviet Union make up the First World. The developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and other regions make up the Third World. The developed countries between the two make up the Second World.” W 367 This theory establishes national sovereignty—not internationalism—
as the highest principle of the CCP. W368, Criticized at H694
The Triple Evils: April 1957 Rectification campaign launched two months before the Anti-Rightist Campaign. “the Triple Evils” (subjectivism, sectarianism, and bureaucratism) TS7
The Four Cardinal Principles: March 30 1979. Deng’s “Four Cardinal Principles” announced: “Uphold the socialist road, DoP, leadership of CCP, MLMTT PM 42, MM 113
Four Cleanups: There were two “four cleanups” campaigns. J515n1 The first was The Four Cleanups (accounts, warehouses, property and work-points) and were part of the 1963 SEM against capitalism in the countryside. J515n1, H605, CD 83 The second Four Cleanups was during the Socialist Education Movement (1964) to clean up rural administration to rectify “the four uncleans”: Lack of political discipline, ideological deviations, organizational deviations, economic mismanagement. H608 Between September 6, 1963 and July 4, 1964, the CC issued nine articles on the campaign. J515n1 Apparently introduced by Deng Xiaoping, and later opposed by Mao who made an issue of it in 1965. W, TS394
The Four Families: These were the bureaucratic capitalist mainstays of the KMT. Chiang Kaisheck, Foreign Minster T.V. Song, Finance Minister H.H. Kung, and the Chen Brothers. H281
Four Firsts: Introduced by Lin Biao October 1960. “Put the human factor first, political work first, ideological work first, and living ideas first”. Or “1. To man in handling the relationship between man and weapons, 2. to political work in handling the relationship between political and other work, 3. to ideological work in relation to routine tasks in political work, 4. in ideological work to living ideas in handling the relationship between ideas in books and living ideas. M 61, CC71
Four Good Company: A PLA “four good company” is good in political and ideological work, in the Three-Eight Work Style, in military training, and in its arrangement of daily life. CC66
The Four Great Freedoms: At 4th NPC, in January 1975, Mao add the “four great freedoms” to China’s Constitution: the right of the people to speak out freely, air views freely, hold great debates, and write big character posters.” MM 112.
The Four Martyrs: Lei Feng, Wang Jie, Mai Xiande, and Liu Yingjun. In Praise of the Red Guards, Beijing Review, September 17, 1966, CC46
The Four Olds: May 1966 campaign against old thoughts, old culture, old customs, old habits . M 305 NE 191, W 146
The Four Pests: 1958 urban campaign against flies, mosquitos, rats and sparrows. XV706
The Four Principles (FDR): FDR’s four principles for the future of China were: China should stike a deal with Russia to avoid a post-war clash, China should get back all the territories take by Japan, including Hong Kong, the KMT should be supported as the only force capable of unifying China, and there should be a close post-war relationship with the USA. ST353
The Four Tactics CA 55 SW Vol 4. p 155, H129
1. When the enemy advances, we retreat.
2. When the enemy halts and encamps, we harass him
3. When the enemy wants to avoid battle, we attack him.
4. When the enemy withdraws, we pursue him.
The Four Villains: The term comes from Lu Xun. J 481. Jiang Qing’s four enemies in the cultural sphere: Zhou Yang, Yang Hansheng, Tian Han and Xia Yang. J311
The Five Anti’s (corruption and theft, speculation and profiteering, extravagance and waste, decentralism, and bureaucracy) were part of the SEM in 1963 against capitalism in the countryside. H605, CD 83 The campaign was directed agins “lawbreaking” capitalists guilty of ecomomic crimes, but the actctual target was the capitalist class as a whole. XIV90
Five Black Categories: Landlords, rich peasants, counter-revolutionary elements, bad elements and anti-communist rightists. First named in Mao’s speech to a central work conference of 7,000 cadres, January 30, 1962. MT 164 Landlords, capitalists, revisionists, counterrevolutionaries and criminals. M 321, XV74
Mao’s “Five Criteria for Revolutionary Successors”: This is Mao’s criteria for Party membership. A revolutionary successor should be 1) truly Marxixt-Leninist, 2) determined to serve the people of China and the great majority of the people of the world, 3) able to unite with and lead the proletariat, 4) able to listen to the masses, 50 willing to criticize himself and to correct mistakes in his work. CC84
A “Five Good Worker”: (1971) Excels in political study, military training, working style, good behavior, and good conduct in the canteen. CD46
The Five Great Movements: (1949-1952) Land Reform, the Movement to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, Movement to Suppress Counter-revolutionaries, Three Antis/Five Antis, and the Ideological Remolding Movement. L79
The Five Guarantees: food, clothing, housing, medical care, and burial expenses. MM 194
The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence: “mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.” H470
The Five Red Family Background: The first Red Guards were cadres’ children. Their criteria for membership were for students with family backgrouds as workers, peasants, soldiers, cadres, or revolutionary martyrs. XV 149, 545
“Five-Same-Thing-Teacher”: Along with his students, eats together, lives together, labors together, studies together, reforms their thoughts together. TS274
The Five Winds: the communist wind, the wind of exaggeration, of enforcing arbitrary orders, of blind guidance in production, and the wind of cadres acceding to privileges. This slogan appeared from the CC in October 1960 to try to reverse the damage of the Great Leap. H566
Five Year Plan #1: (1953-1957) XIV155 The first five year plan, for 1953 – 1957 was not approved until mid 1955! Charaterized as “the general line for the transition to socialism.”The initial stage was to be “state capitalism”, with the national bourgeoisie increasingly linked to the state, but with the capitalists retaining about one- quarter of their profits. The core of the plan was 156 projects supported by Soviet equipment, plans and 10,000 specialists. XIV177
Five Year Plan #2: (1958 – 1962) Disputes over the lessons of the 1st FYP was the key inner-party dispute that led to the GPCR split in the old Yanan leadership. The problem was a continuing absolute decline in grain available from the countryside, in the face of increasing demand. XIV360-1 There were few commodities for peasants to buy, so money meant little to them and production fell. From Mocsow in November 1957, Mao announced that China would “surpass England in abou 15 years” in all major industrial products. XIV362 The Great Leap was predicated on Mao’s misunderstanding of the constraints on Chinese agriculture. He believed that larger units would capture significant economies of scale and that labor mobilization would raise crop yields substantially. XIV363 By the end of 1958, 99.1% of rural households were in Communes. Private plots were all eliminated. A large sare of income distribution was often on a per capita (communist) basis rather than work points. XIV365 1958 reported grain output was estimated at souble the 1957 level. XIV 366 The initial steel target in 2/58 was 6.2 million tons by Bo Yibo. Within a few weeks, Mao was propsing a 12 million ton target. XIV367 The Plan’s emphasis on industrial production put an unprecedented demand for grain on rural population. And pulled workers away from the land. The 1960 grain harvest was was 26% below the 1957 harvest, causing massive starvation. XIV369-70
The Chinese Six Companies: The KMT controlled umbrella Organization for the SF Tongs and Chinatown family benevelonet organizations. CP43
Eight Grade Wage Scale (for workers): The national system of wages that
persisted through the GPCR. CD63
Eight Points of Attention and Four Tactics: CA 55 SW Vol 4. p 155
1. Hang up all doors when you leave a house.
2. Roll up the straw mats on which you sleep and return them
3. Be friendly and polite to the inhabitants and help them when you can.
4. Return everything you borrow.
5. Replace all damaged goods
6. Be honest in all transactions with peasants.
7. Pay for everything you buy.
8. Be clean and be especially certain that latrines are installed far from dwellings.
The Eight Model Works of Culture: (the “Yang-pan hsi” J484) Red Lantern, Sha-jia-pang (Tea Shop proprietress assists CCP underground), Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy (1958, Civil War in Manchuria in 1946, laud’s Lin Biao’s guerrilla tactics. J417), Raid on White Tiger Mountain (Korean War) Two were ballets, The Red Detachment of Women, (10/64, Hainan Island Resistance J426) and White Haired Girl (produced at Lu Xun Academy in Yenan in 1944, film version 1951, Second Class Stalin Prize in 1953. J431). There was the Yellow River Concerto and The Rent Collection Courtyard traveling exhibit. J392
The Good Eighth Company: A PLA company stationed on Nanjing Road in Shanghai, hailed as an exemplary unit “successfully withstanding the quintessence of bourgeois corruption and decadence.”
The Nine Comments: The Chinese Anti-Soviet Polemics of 1963-64. Rittenberg says he single handedly translated these into English under conditions of great secrecy at the Xinhua Compound. W 263 The quality of Mao’s writing dominated the contributions of the other leaders. W 264. Mao said Kang Sheng was in charge of putting these together. M 274 But XIV353 says that Kang Sheng was the writer.
The Nine Everythings: Political sources in Beijing have out that the "Nine Everythings" cited by Zeng Qinghong was taken from the report of the 16th CPC National Congress.Nine Everythings": use practice to verify and test everything; resolutely shatter all ideas and concepts that obstruct development; resolutely change all methods and regulations that restrict development; resolutely eliminate all structural defects that affect development; give full play to and integrate all positive elements; all labor
that contribute to the building of socialist modernization in China should be recognized and respected; all legitimate labor and non-labor incomes
should be given due protection; all vibrant competition in labor, knowledge, technology, management and capital should be allowed and encouraged; and all the sources for creating wealth in society should be allowed to flow freely. Ultimately, this "Nine Everythings" comes under the reform of
reform. P
The 9th Comment: This refers to the last of the “comments”—the polemics—attacking the Soviet Line. The Ninth Comment, “On Krushchev’s Phony Communism” was published on July 14, 1964. This article was attributed to Mao and is credited with encapsulating his theory of “social imperialism”. The other eight comments faded away and were later deemed to have not been authorized by Mao. W 42 This story was hyped enormously during the GPCR.
The Ten Adherences: From the 16th Party Congress. the "Ten Adherences" summarized in the political report of the 16th CPC National Congress, that is, adherence to the guidance by the Deng Xiaoping Theory, adherence to the central task of economic construction, adherence to reform and opening up, adherence to a foreign policy of independence, self-reliance and peace, and others. P
The Ten Eyed Three: Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, Jiang Qing. A disparaging name for three of the Go4 (two who wore glasses) that was used before their arrest. CD6
10 Great Relationships: Mao’s 1956 essays on the cooperatives and 100 Flowers The 16 Point Decision: The program of the 11th Plenum for the GPCR, which exempted the Army and the peasants from the GPCR W 141
The Ten Struggles Between the Two Lines: 1) Chen Duxiu 2) Qu Qubai 3) Li Lisan 4) Lo Zhanglun 5) Wang Ming 6) Zhang Guotao and Zhao Xuchi 7) 8) Peng Dahui 9) Liu Shaoqi 10) Lin Biao. J298
Sixteen point Decision: The programme of the 11th Plenum, “the Sixteen Point Decision”, is published as the Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. (Reprinted at CC33) MM 49 which exempted the Army and the peasants from the GPCR W 141 This is the OFFICIAL launch of GPCR . CC 363 More than 77,000 residents with “bad backgrounds” are expelled from Beijing. CC363 The Sixteen Points envisioned Paris Commune type mass democracy movement. But after the Shanghai Commune power seizure in January 1967, Mao was frightened and supported revolutionary committees instead. This back pedaling created the political space for the ultra-left. XV 550
Sixteeth Congress Leadership: November 2002 Government and Party Officials
President- Hu Jintao
Vice President- Zeng Qinghong
Premier, State Counci --Wen Jiabao
NPC Chair--Wu Bangguo
Vice Premiers--Huang Ju, Wu Yi, Zeng Peiyan, Hui Liangyu

Politburo Standing Committee--Hu Jintao (General Secretary), Wu Bangguo, Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Zeng Qinghong, Huang Ju, Wu Guanzheng, Li Changchun, Luo Gan

Full Politburo Members--Cao Gangchuan, Chen Liangyu, Guo Boxiong, He Guoqiang, Hui Liangyu, Liu Qi, Liu Yunshan, Wang Lequan, Wang Zhaoguo, Wu Yi, Yu Zhengsheng, Zeng Peiyan, Zhang Dejiang, Zhang Lichang, Zhou Yongkang
Alternate Politburo Members--Wang Gang
Chairman, Central Military Commission--Jiang Zemin
The Seventeen Model Revolutionary Stage Productions: The final tally of Jiang Qings theatrical efforts. After the Eight Models, the new ones were Selections from the Red Lantern, The Yellow River Piano Concerto, Song of the Dragon River, The Red Detachment of Women (play version), Fighting on the Plains (Play version of film), Azelea Mountain, The dance dramas, Ode to I Mountain and Children of the Grasslands. The symphony composed for Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy. J455
Nineteenth Route Army: This is the KMT unit that resisted the Japanese invasion of Shanghai against KMT orders in 1932. On January 17, 1933 they were in Fujian province and reached an agreement with the CCP to resist the Japanese and Jiang Kaisheck. Bo Gu overruled the alliance. In January 1934, isolated from their CCP allies, they were surrounded and destroyed by the KMT. H178
The 23 Articles: January 1965. By Mao, calling on peasant masses to supervise the Party. For the first time, this article calls for the peasants to direct the “spearhead” of criticism against “those people in authority within the party who take the capitalist road.” W 72
28 Bolsheviks: Led by WANG Ming in Moscow. BO Gu, ZHOU Enlai and LI De ran party from demise of LI Lisan until Zunyi Conference 1935, when Mao took over. These 28 had been students at Sun Yatsen University in Moscow. Most of them went to Russia in 1926. At the Tenth Anniversary of the October Revolution, most of the students at Sun Yatsen University marched for the Opposition. Pavel Mif could only find 28 students to march for Stalin. MO 128 The first School Administrator was Karl Radek, a Trotskyite purged in late 1927. Pavel Mif was number two, and a Stalinist--he took control of the school. The name comes from Wang Ming’s short pamphlet about “bolshevizing” the CCP. The names of about sixteen of the 28 are known. See MO 7. 28 Bolsheviks—enemies of Mao. RS484
The 50 Character Statement: Mao’s 10/67 call (unheeded) to rebuild the Party from the advanced elements of the proletariat. XV 312
The Fifty Days of White Terror: June 10 to July 31, 1966. This was the period of the ‘work teams’ dominance of the Universities. Mao withdrew them and then the “Red Terror” of “Red August” began against the “loyalists” who had supported the teams and Liu Shaoqi. XV 545 Mao was at Hangzhou. On his way back to Beijing Mao did his Yangze River swim. The New China News Agency reported that Mao’s swim was so vigorous that his speed was four times the world record. XV 136-8
The Fifty Days and the Seventeen Years: The fifty days were the White Terror. The Seventeen Years refers to the history of the PRC since 1949. During this whole period, culture was supposedly in the hands of the black line. J335
The 61 Renegades: In 1936, the KMT offered to release hundreds of Communist prisoners from the “Beiping Soldiers Self Examination Institute”—a prison, if they would sign an “Open Notice of Renunciation of Communism” which was to be published in a newspaper. Liu Shaoqi, on his authority as underground leader, probably ordered the cadres to sign the Notice. But he did this with the approval of ZHANG Wentian, the General Secretary of the CCP. CC 112 n11 The ploy worked and they were released. In November 1966, Red Guard library researchers found the KMT newspaper in the Beijing public Library and used it to punish Liu Shaoqi, and the 61 signers, for “betrayal of the Party.” Bo Yibo was the principle victim among “the 61 Renegades.” CC95
100 Flowers Campaign: Encouraged non party criticism of CCP, followed immediately by “anti-rightist” campaign to criticize the dissenters.
100 Regiment Campaign: Zhu De’s 1940 offensive against Japanese forces. Smedley says it was a success. GR376
301 Hospital: Leading PLA Hospital in Beijing S 423 Colonel Li, QL’s friend, is an MD there but will retire in 2000.
305 Hospital: Beijing PLA Hospital for Mao and highest Party Leaders. Set up in 1970 to provide reliable service during GPCR. Dr. Li was the president of the hospital. S 636 It was on the North side of Zhongnanhai in Bee Raising Alley, just west of North Lake. S 522, S 583, See map at S xxxvi.
555 Cigarettes: English cigarettes smoked by Mao S 67
5-7-1 Project: Lin’s alleged coup plans, begun in March 1971, “571” sounds like “armed uprising” in Chinese. S 540
9-13 Incident: Lin Biao’s Death, S 539
8341 Unit: Mao’s Guard unit. The CCP’s General Office, under Yang Shungkun was initially responsible for the security of the leadership. But Yang was puirged in 1966 for planting listening devices in Mao’s quarters. Mao’s personal bodyguard, the 8341 unit , led by Wang Dongxong replaced Yang and thereafter protected the leadership and also detained the leadership prisoners during the GPCR. XIV358 Fortune teller story: Mao would live to age 83 and lead the party for 41 years is at S 648. The Central Garrison Corps--Mao’s Personal Guard, 483
AB Purge: In 1926 KMT formed “AB Corps” in Nanchang. CCP later concluded that “AB” meant “Anti-Bolshevik” Corps. Many nationalists, especially young students, joined AB. It later collapsed and some joined CCP. In 1930, upon return from study in Moscow, students had to fill our biographies listing all organizational memberships. All AB’s and suspects were purged by Mao in the Red Area (1930-1931). AB’s, Trotskyites, Rightists and spies were all supposedly allied w/ KMT, which publicly claimed to have a big secret organization within CCP. Mao purged several thousand in the Futian Incident. DENG Xiaoping rescued hundreds from prison, releasing them on his own authority in August 1931. ZHOU returned to Red Area in September and supported DENG. The Party later criticized AB purge as excessive. LM 139 NE 41 Mao’s AB purge was a device to eliminate the cadres who opposed him. CA 57
Afghan War of 1979: PRC supplied mullahs with CIA weapons and allowed CIA to build high-tech listening posts to spy on USSR. F300
Affirmation of the Negation: Mao’s supposed contribution to dialectics. XV47
Alienation Under Socialism: Zhou Yang’s theory. XV47
All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU): Li Lisan was the first ACFTU leader. He argued in 1951 that the union was too subservient to management and that its basic task was to protect worker’s rights. At the end of 1951, Party leaders intervened to denounce Li’s “economism” denial of “Party leadership of the TU’s.” Li Lisan was replaced with a new TU leader in 1952. XIV109
Amerasia: Pro China monthly in NYC. In one of the first Cold War spy cases, 1945, government agents found secret OSS documents in Amerasia’s offices. See China Hands, by Kahn, pp 163 – 171, SM 381 Raid on the offices of Amerasia Magazine finds copies of John Service’s reports from Yenan. Service and five others were arrested. ST526 This marks the beginning of the Red Scare, “Who lost China?” debate. P
The American Institued in Taiwan (AIT): The U.S. Embassy in Taiwan after normalization with PRC. F275
American Yangtze Patrol: The Second Divison, Third Squadron, Pacific Fleet from 1908 to 1919 numbered six to eight antiquated gunboats at the time of WW!. The British had 15 modern boats at the time. XII 153
Anarchism: It was strongest in Guangdong, which had many adherents and about 70 journals. H31 The ideological roots were in Herbert Spencer’s Social Darwinism, in that Anarchist ideology was based on a mechanical evolutionary naturalism, and radical embrace of the institutional destabilization accompanying social revolutions. XII351 Anarchism entered China in 1902. Western anarchist ideas about indvidual sacrifice for the sake of history combined neatly with Confucian ideals of “sincerety” and purity of belief. There were several anarchist-terrorist bombings before 1911. All failed due to ineptness. XII 378ff A book on the movement is The Chinese Anarchist Movement, by Robert A. Scalapino and George Yu. Liu Shih-fu, founder of the Conscience Society, was the leading anarchist. XII392 The collapse of Kropotkin’s European Anarchist movement, with the outbreak of WWI. basically ended the movement in China. Marxism eclipsed Anarchism after it was introduced around 1919. Before 1917, Chinese understood European Marxism to be a non-radical legal parliamentary expression of the labor movement. XII395 Anarchist prejudices are often attributed to Maoism: Social utopianism, stress on cultural remoulding as a source of revolutionary change, dislike of urban-industrial rational planning, identifying “status” with “class”, “self-reliance”, voluntarism and the haunting fear of a sudden historical reversal. XII396
The Annihilation Campaigns: 1) 12/30 -1/31, 2) 5/31-6/31, 3) 7/31 -10/31, 4) 4/33-10/33, 5) 10/33-10/34 The Long March.
Anti-Communist Heroes: Some 15,000 PLA soldiers captured in Korea and deffected to Taiwan. The did undercover work for KMT, served as agent provpcteurs, and were used to suppress dissident demonstrations by force, breaking into meetings and beating participants. F303
Antique Stores in Beijing: Marco Polo shop on southern extension of Wangfujing. Liulichang furniture shops. Antique furniture warehouse outside Chongwen Gate. M 257
Anti-Lin Biao and Confucius Campaign: The campaign was an attack on Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai. In August 1973, Mao commented that it was correct to link the criticism of Lin Biao with Confucius. The Liang Xiao group was set up to revise the fourth set of Lin Biao criticism documents to make them more persuasive. TS323 Terrill says it was Zhou who added the Lin Biao target to the campaign and tried to characterize Lin as a leftist. WB325 Mao decided that Lin Biao was a rightist.
Anti-Rightist Campaign: June 8, 1956, CCP launches the Anti-Rightist Campaign. The first targets are “democratic” leaders, Zhang Bochun, Lo Longzhi, and Qiu Anping, charged with an “anti communist plot.” XIV254 Reaction to the Hundred Flowers campaign. It was actually a vast purge of the Party and government, cleaning out the suspected opponents of Mao’s economic policies. The first victims were the Central Economic Bureaucracies. Offices were emptied and millions of cadres were sent down, ousted or demoted. MM 41 The initial targets were the leading members of the “democratic parties” who singled out as the core of the rightist groups. Later Ting Ling (expelled) and all who had been associated with her at Yanan were subjected to renewed attacks. XIV255 The campaign spread next to non-party intellectuals and then to Party intellectuals who had engaged in criticisms. 550,000 people were labeled Rightists. Many were sent to reform through labor camps. XIV139 Yao Wenyuan came to prominence for denouncing the old left-wing writers. As the campaign merged with the Great Leap, it became vociferously anti-intellectual. XIV256 There was a quota of 5% rightists for every work unit. XIV257
Anyuan Painting: “Chairman Mao Goes to Anyuan” This painting of Mao in a blue student dress was done collectively by students from Beijing colleges and universities, and executed by the tenty-four year old son of a poor peasant. Famous throughout China in the 1970s. J522n20
Asiatic Mode of Production: This comment and analysis by Marx about the static nature of the Chinese mode of production was a problem and embarrassment for revolutionaries. It suggested that there was a synamic to Chinese social history. XII449
Autumn Harvest Uprising: 9/28/27, launched by Mao, on Comintern instructions to Politburo.
Azelea Mountain: A later Jiang Qing work, just before her fall. It was about the establishment of base areas in the 1920s and was the first theatrical attack on Lin Biao. J452
Babaoshan Cemetery: Party Cemetery and crematorium in the southwest suburb on the edge of Beijing. On Changanjie (Xingfulu) 15 kilometers due West of Tainanmen beyond the Fourth Ring Road. There is a nearby Subway stop.TS394, S 545
Bamboo Gardens Hotel: Kang Sheng’s old house in Beijing. Back garden said to contain a torture cave.
Banpo (Pan po) Village: An archeological site discoveren in Xian in 1953 as said to have been six thousand year old Neolithic village that was a “primitive communist” society and matrilineal. J463
Barefoot Doctors: Dr. Li said this movement was based on his memo of Mao’s criticism: The June 26th Directive.
BeiDa: Beijing University, “Beijing Daxue” in Chinese. P Until Liberation it was the American funded Yanjing University, paid for with returned Boxer Indemnity money. XIV35-36 TS2 The Heaven faction, called “Xin Beida”, led by HAN Aijing, a student at the Aeronautical Institute, with the support of NIE Yuanzi. The Earth faction, “Jinggangshan” was led by Wang Dabin, a student at the geology institute. TS201 New Beida’s cowshed was in an unheated cement building where about 100 prisoners spent the winter of 1966-1967 rising early to study Mao’s works, doing manual labor, and then suffering interrogation late into the night. TS217 The “Triangle” is the favored location for student meetings and protests. TM16n26
Beidaihe: Summer (August) meeting site of CCP leadership. At the well-guarded
West Mountain compound, with large two-story, pale-yellow manors. Held there every summer since the 1950's. P
Beijing #11 Middle School: Famous for a book burning. The Red Guards forced the “reactionary academic authorities” (the teachers) to remove “almost all” the books from the school library. Only those books with portraits of Mao on the cover were spared. The huge pile was burned and teachers were beaten with belts and forced to stand in a circle, bowing to the flames, so that they were burned. Their faces and forearms were blistered. CC327
Beijing Exhibition Hall: Formerly the Sino-Soviet Friendship Hall—and the tallest building in Beijing in the 1950s. J256
Beijing Hospital: China’s only good hospital. For party cadres. Founded by Germans. S 322
Beijing Hotel: Semi Official government hotel on Tiananmen Square. Jiang Qing raided the hotel in 1974 and confiscated all the “black art” from the lobbies and rooms, replacing it with revolutionary ar. WB329 Zhou Enlai sometime ate at a private room in the west wing. K196. The tallest building in Beijing in the 1970s, Jiang Qing said it spoiled the City’s profile. J370
Beijing Hotels: Hotels in the old Legation Quarter were the Hotel du Nord, Hotel de Pekin, and the Grand Hotel des Wagon-Lits. XII 158
Beijing Language Institute: Located near the First Foreign Languages Institute, the Beijing Language Institute was where foreigners studied Chinese. W 209.
Beijing Legation Quarter: A huge area reserved for foreigners after the Boxer Protocols, located just insie the south wall, protected a new wall and guards, with cleared fields that could be swept by machine gun fire or used for marching and sports. XII 158 Many western banks, the YMCA, and other institutions were located there. The Diplomatic Body claimed the right of asylum, which it granted to several enemies of the Chinese Government. XII 158-9
Beijing Normal University High School: Best high school, for cadre’s children, at time of GPCR. S 646
Beijing Normal University Middle School for Girls: This was a school for the children of high-level intellectuals. At the beginning of the GPCR the girls forced their principal to crawl through a drainage pipe and then beat her to death. The principal was famous as one of the first women in China to be educated. TS183 This is the school Song Binbin attended. But TS183 says her name was Hu Bingbing!
Beijing Under Foreign Control: The Boxer Protocols, imposed on China in 1901, permitted the foreign powers to maintain armed detachments in Beijing (“legation guards”), to occupy key pints along the railway from Beijing to the sea, and to station troops in Tianjin and exclude Chinese troops from Tianjin! XII 153
Birthday Calculation: In Chinese, a child is reckoned to be one year old on the day of his birth. J 40
Black Flag Incident: 1958 Zhongnanhai dispute. Eight true rectifiers were falsely accused of not raising the red flag of communism, but a black flag of opposition, by Yang Shangkun, to falsely label his critical subordinates “rightist” during the rectification. S 244
Black Gang Elements: Cadres who were denounced for a variety of reasons in the summer of 1966. CC219n1
Bloc of Four Classes: Stalin’s view of the KMT. XII520
Blood Drinking Cure: In 1935 tuberculosis sufferers gathered outside the Beijing city wall to drink the hot blood of Chiang Kaisheck’s execution victims as a cure. MC 149
Blue Shirt Society: KMT spy agency S 55
Bourgeois Right: Yao Wenhua’s discussion of this problem, from “On the Social Basis of the Lin Biao Anti-Party Clique”, is at XV94
Boxer Rebellion: (Yi He Tuan Movement) begins among Shandong secret marshal arts society over outrage at missionaries. OW 75 Defeated in 1900 by a united army of the imperial powers with the assistance of the Qings. The Boxer slogan was “Support the Qing and exterminate the foreigners!” H39 The Boxers killed 200 missionaries and their families and 20,000 Chinese converts. The boxers entered Beijing and attacked the foreign legations. The Qing court backed the uprising to preserve its power. Imperialists armies landed at Tianjin, burned and destroyed everything on the way to Beijing and then looted Beijing when they arrived. ST33
Breaking With Old Ideas: 1974 film about GPCR ideals. J477
Bureau of Confidential Matters: Attached to the secretive CCP “General Office.” Special young people memorized complete codes with one number per Chinese character. The codes changed frequently. There were no code books to refer too. S 49.
Cadre Food Grades: Grades 1 – 4, based on cooking “pot size”, i.e number of people cooked for at mess. S 639
Cadre Levels: Grade 22 to Grade 1. 1 was highest. M 195 CCP cadres were graded on a scale from 1 to 13. Mao and the five party secretaries were grade 1. Jiang Qing was grade 9. S 349
Casualties of the Revolution: Zhou Enlai estimated for Edgar Snow that 830,000 enemies of the people, mostly landlords, were killed between 1935 and 1954. NE 130 citing Red China Today.
Cathay Hotel: In Shanghai. Formerly the best hotel. Now called the Peace Hotel. Noel Coward wrote “Private Lives” there in 1928.
Canton Commune: December 11-14, 1927, Canton Insurrection. After defeats in Nanchang and Autumn Harvest Uprising, Stalin ordered Lominadze to prepare a new insurrection. Heinz Neuman was assigned to help. Model Army units and Red Guards participated, declaring a Soviet the first day. Three days later the insurrection was suppressed by the KMT which says it killed 5,700 revolutionaries. All of the Canton CCP Branch was wiped out. MO 119 Canton’s working class was demoralized by this hopeless act and thereafter lost confidence in the CCP. I visited Martyrs Park, containing the grave mound of the martyrs, in Guangzhou in April 2001. T 78 After the initial victory, on the first day, Ye Ting argued that the CCP forces should evacuate the city before Zhang Fakui’s vastly superior KMT army arrived. Heinz Neuman severely criticized Ye as a “waverer.” They stayed, fought and were defeated. ZHANG Tailei died in the battle. H117 The Commune Flag was a red flag containing a large white star in the middle, with a hammer and sickle in the star. GR218 This later became the flag of the Fourth Red Army. GR229
CCP Factions: In the late 1980’s the “Reform Faction” was opposed to the “Conservative Faction.” HU Yaobang (Party Secretary dumpted on 1/16/87) and ZHAO Ziyang led the reformers. LU Dinyi (former Propaganada chief), WAN Li (NPC SC Chair), and XI Zhongxun (NPC SC vice chair). The reformers had Deng’s support. The Conservatives were led by CHEN Yun (famousnParty economist), LI Xiannian (head of state), and PENG Zhen (Head of NPC until replaced in 1988), DENG Yingchao (ZHOU Enlai’s widow), and party ideologists HU Qiaomu and DENG Liqun. TM4
CCP’s “Petty Bourgeois” composition. This ideological problem was officially resolved at the 7th Party Congress--in opposition to Wang Ming’s “internationalist” line. Admitting that the Party cadres were from overwhelmingly peasant and other petty bourgeois origins, “the Party was not defined by the family background of its members. Rather, it was defined by its political struggle, its inner-Party activities, its ideological education and political leadership.” H299 Isaacs has a provocative summary. “The 1927 defeat had physically divorced the party from the working class. The adventurist course after 1927 converted it into a peasant party without roots or influence among the workers. It had become the Chinese equivalent not of the Russian Boshevik party but of the Social Revolutionary party, whose example it followed in proposing to carry out an agrarian transformation on the basis of bourgeoise property relations.” TR341
CCP Organization: Party Congress meets every four years to elect the CC. CC elects Politburo and Politburo standing Committee. Who elects General Secretary? CD 265
CCTV News Anchors: XUE Fei and DU Xian dressed in black and wore doleful expressions as they announced the crackdown during June 4-6. They were fired. TM389
Central Case Examination Group: Set up by May 1966 Politburo meeting manage the purge of senior “counter-revolutionary revisionists.” Zhou Enslai chaired the meetings of BOTH the Central Cultual Revolution Group and the Centtral Case Examination Group. CC363 Led attack on the 61 renegades. See The Central Case Examination Group, 1966-1979, The China Quarterly, No.45, March 1996, pp 87-111,
Central Cultural Revolution Group: Set up in August 1966. The Cultural Revolution Group (Chen Boda, Kang Sheng and Jiang Qing). Thirteen members, led by Jiang Qing w/ three allies: Who? NE 237
Central Cultural Revolution Small Group: Set up May 1967, related to May 16th Circular. Chen Boda (director), Kang Sheng (advisor), Jiang Qing (first deputy director), Wang Renzhong (deputy director), Zhang Chunqiao, (deputy director), Wang Li, Guan Feng, Qi Benyi, Yao Wenyuan.
Central Triad: of Maoists – in Jiggangshan period--Mao, Luo Fu, WANG Jiaxiang, CA 88.
Changguanlou Incident: In the winter of 1961, a series of meetings was held in the Changguanlou building in western Beijing. The meetings were attended by senior Beijing Municipal Party Committee cadres and produced a highly critcal assessment of the Great Leap Forward. CC204
Chefoo: Yantai, Shandong
China’s Destiny: Jiang Kaishek’s 1943 book preaching Chinese fascism and denouncing liberals and communists. H279
The China Hands: Experts purged by the China Lobby and McCarthy. Owen Lattimore, John Stewart Service, O. Edmund Clubb (former US Consul in Beijing). Eleanor Rossevelt was tarred too. F116
China Quarterly: Began publication in 1960. XIV580
China’s Realistic Choices for Countermeasures and Strategies After the Rapid Changes in the Soviet Union”, August 1991. Strategy paper produced by Chen Yun and his son Chen Yuan in the Ideology and Theory Department of China Youth News, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It argues for a reliance on nationalism and a de-emphasis on ML ideology. PR 117 China Youth New had earlier promoted the “neo-conservatism” line. PR 118 Choices was published in China Spring’s first issue, 1992. PR 147
Chinatown Gangs: In SF in the 1950s – 1960. Fong-Fong Boys, Raiders, Phoencian Warriors, Majestics, Immortals, and Black Bugs. They were supplanted in the 1970s by the more violent Wah Chings, Joe Boys, Suey Sings, and Hop Sings, and Yow Lays. The gangs were youth organizations affiliated with the criminal Tongs CP63 The major gangs in 1976 were the Wah Chings, Joe Boys, Suey Sing, Hop Sing, and John Louie Boys. CP137 The Cookie Boys were a Korean-Japanese Gang. CP138
Chinatown Los Angeles: Alhambra and Monterrey Park are the main centers. K250
The Chindits: Wingate’s Raiders, fighting in Burma in WWII. ST418
Chinese American Youth Club: SF based pro-PRC youth group of the early 1950s. Its members, every one, was interrogated by the FBI during the Korean War to discover possible links to China. F113
Chinese Eastern Railroad (CER): The railroad connected central Russia with the coast by cutting through Manchuria. It was vital to Russian trade and defense. In the early 1920’s the USSR sought to retain control—a problem, since the early Soviet announcements promisssd to return all Chinese territory and property to Beijing. The dipute over the railroad prevented three Soviet delegations from winning diplomatic recognition from Beijing. XII531 The Chinese Eastern Railway Incident. On July 10, 1929, Jiang Kaishek’s troops seized the Chinese Eastern Railway in an anti-Soviet provocation. In 1896 the Qing’s concluded a secret pact with Russia. Russia built the Railway and operated it until 1924, when a new Sino-Soviet Agreement brought it under joint management. On July 10, the KMT abrogated the agreement and seized the railway by force. The USSR broke diplomatic relations with the KMT Government a week later. In October 1929, Jiang sent a force of 80,000 to attack across the Soviet border from Suifenhe in Heilonhjiang Province. The Chinese troops were defeated by the Red Army. H210,n20, T641 After Russo-Japanese War of 1905, Japan got Tsarist territories in southern Manchuria. Russia kept the east-west CER--the railroad from Vladivostock to Harbin. Japan got the north-south spur line from Harbin South to Shenyang and Lushun (Port Arthur). T 622
Chinese Hand Laundry Association: Communist workers group begun in New York’s Chinatown in 1933 by challenging a discriminatory ordinance aimed at Chinese laundries. Thousands joined and it beame a rival to the dominant KMT. F111
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC): This was United Front organization was fomred in 1949, and modeled on the KMT’s CPPCC. It was , in theory, the first organ of government power. It still exists today as a major institution connected with the UF. XIV77
The Chinese Recorder: The principal Protestabt Journal in China. Published in Shanghai from 1867-1941. XII835
Chinese Workers Mutual Aid Association: Founded in San Francisco in 1937 by Chinese workers returning from a successful organizing drive against Alaskan salmon canneries. Fought the business oriented Benevolent Associations. Provide regular lectures in history, the labor movement, and Marxism. The printed the first Chinese editions of Mao’s essays. Strongly supported the PRC victory on 10/1/49. On 10/9/49 KMT thugs burst into a CWMAA meeting, seized the PRC flag, beating participants and spraying them with blue dye. Later the KMT offred $5,000 rewards, on leaflets posted around Chinatown, for the murder of fifteen Communist leaders. K111-2 Completely suppressed by FBI, it closed down in 1954. F114
Chongqing Red Guard Cemetary: There is a famous cemetery in Chongqing containing the numbered graves of people killed in Red Guard factional fights. Some stories from family members are at CC336
Christian Colleges in China: Yenching University in Beijing, St. John’s in Shanghai, the University of Nanjing, the Shandong Christian University in Tsinan. XII 175
CIA Operations Against China: Taiwan: In 1950 the CIA opened “Western Enterprises, Inc.” as a commercial front in Tiawan. After the Korean War started, Truman prvided funding for operations from Taiwan. During the 1950s, the CIA’s supported numerous raids by Chiang Ching-kuo’s agents against the PRC, and smuggled more than 200 agents to the mainland. The operations failed and all the agents were lost. F58-59 The CIA’s airline, Civil Air Transport, was based on the Flying Tigers. CAT began on the mainland in 1946 and fled to Taiwan with the KMT. Reorganized as a Delaware Corporation in 1950, but still based in Taiwan. As the Korean War developed it divided into three parts: CAT, Air America, and Air Asia. Air Asia was the world’s largets airline at the time! F59 Tibet: The CIA did over 200 overflights of China and Tibet for gureilla operations and spy drops in the 1950s. F60 Burma: A KMT Army was cut off in Yunnan by the rapidity of the CCP victory. They fled to Burma, where they organized the world opium trade for Taiwan. F60
Cigarette Brands from the 1940’s: Ruby Queen, Rat, Pirate. F14
Clean the Class Ranks Movement: The campaign is launched targeting “ultra-leftists” but is widened to include many innocent cadres. XV 313 After the workers are sent into the campuses in July, the campaign picks up steam. XV 556 In the villages, there was a quota of 3% of cadres to be purged. XV664
“Clean and Investigate” Campaign. Jiang Qing’s last campaign—in the spring of 1976--to identify and punish the Qing Ming demonstrators and her critics. People were uncooperative and it had little impact. TS353, 394
Collective Enterprises: In theory these enterprises are collectively owned and managed by the workers who labor in them. In reality most collective workers are wage laborers and the collectives themselves are mostly under de facto state control, dependent on the government for credit, raw materials, and retail outlets. Workers in collectives occupy a distinctly inferior position to those employed in state enterprises. Their wages are significantly lower, and since they enjoy neither job security nor welfare benefits, their livelihoods are at the mercy of the market. MM264
Collectivization: The first of three steps, was the strictly voluntary Mutual; Aid Teams (MATs), which were pools of peasant labor formed in the base areas of the North China. Peasants retained their individual land titles in MATs. By the end of 1952, 40% of households were in MATs. Next, experimental Agricultural Producers Cooperatives (APCs) were established, but it was not until 1952-3 that there were a lot of APCs. At the lower stage APC, property was pooled, but peasants received a dividend based on the property they had donated. XIV111 The rent was high at first, to attract rich peasants, then was reduced so that work points counted more. The state had a monopoly on banking, so only APC’s could borrow capital. The free market in grain was eliminated, so peasants had to sell to the state and buy tools and technology from “supply and marketing coops.” The coops gave preferences to the APCs. In higher stahge APC’s—full collectivization—the dividend was abolished and payment was made strictly on the basis of work points. The APCs were increased in size, so that “higher stage” APC’s sometimes included 300 families. Rich peasants who resisted the loss of their property were targeted along with landlords, bad elements, and counterrevolutionaries as the “four bad types.” The Great Leap suddenly converted all the APCs to Communes. The “communist wind” led to the appropriation of nearly all peasant private property that could be melted down to make steel, and urban cadres flooded into the Communes to direct the Leap. XV 633-642 The early collectivization lead to decreased production and food shortages. In 1950-51, the state encouraged private markets to revie grain production, but ended up paying higher and higher prices to the peasants as it bought increasing amounts of grain for the cities. In 1953 the state imposed a grain monopoly, closed rural markets, and became the sole purchaser, but peasants withheld their grain at the low prices offered by the state. The state then imposed compulsory grain dleivieris at fixed prices. The APC’s were the easy grain targets because they were under political control. By 1955, peasants in the APCs were experiencing extreme food shortages. XIV 162-167 The state started issueing ration books in 1953 and by 1955 all urban areas were on rations. The books continued until 1983. XIV172-3
Comintern Criticism: “Before the War of Resistance, the Party had already been through two revolutionary civil wars and had had the experience of a number of successes and of two major failures (in 1927 and 1934). Those two failures were due mainly to the immaturity and weaknesses of the Party, but were also in part to wrong guidance from the Communist International.” H305
Comintern Foreign Language School: Set up in Shanghai and operating by 1920, to prepare Chinese students for study at the Comintern Schools in Russia. MO 33
Committee of One Million: Later changed its name to the “Committee for a Free China.” F274
Communes: The 1958 argument for the Peoples Communes was that they would free millions of surplus farm laborers for work on the rural infrastructure. XV 515 But much of the labor was wasted on poorly planned labor-intensive projects, like the hand digging of the Red Flag Canal, that provided few benefits at high costs. XV 517
Communist League of China: Chinese Section of 4th Int. Formed in May 1931in Shanghai from fusion of four Trotskyite groups. In 1948, changed name to RCP. T 656-658
Communist University for Toilers of the East: (KUTV) Established in Moscow in 1921 under Stalin’s Commissariat of Nationalities. Liu Shaoqi, Peng Shuchi, Jen Pishih, Hsiao Chingkuang, Lo Inung attended. They had earlier studied Russian at the Comintern Foreign Language School, in Shanghai. MO 33 Peng Shuchi was Chen Duxiu’s Russian interpreter, and Peng was expelled from the CPC with Chen. MO 33
Constitution of PRC: The first Constitution was established at the First Session of First NPC passes the new Constitution of the PRC. H461, XIV95 The new title of “state chairman” is created for Mao, which mirrors imperial China practices and is a break from soviet practice, which ruled through the elected soviet leadership. The PRC was declared a “unified multinational state” with “autonomous” minority regions deemed inalienable parts of national territory. XIV104
Coordination Council for North American Affairs (CCNAA): The Taiwan Embassy and Consulates after normalization. F275
The Corning Glass Snails: A gift from Corning Co. to the Fourth Ministry of Machine Tools, Jiang Qing was outraged and said they depicted the Chinese as crawling like snails. WB343
“Counterattack”: The Go4 1975 movie about Zhang Tiesheng’s blank examination paper triumph. Teachers from Beida served as actors. The Go4 fell before it was released. TS314
Cow-headed ghosts and snake spirits: These ancient ghosts have the ability to disguise themselves as humans. But once they were recognized, their power was broken. Mao used this reference to describe hidden traitors in the party. Many translations use the English words “ghosts and monsters” to describe this oft cited literary device. I50
Cow-Pens: Any informal jail for GPCR victims, called “cow-headed ghosts and snake spirits” was called a “cow pen.” I50
Cultural Revolution Group: Formed in May 1966 to supplant the first February group, under Peng Chen. Led by Chen Boda with Jiang Qing as deputy leader. Others were Kang Sheng, Zhang Chunqiao, and Yao Wenyuan. J481
Daqing: “Learn from Daqing in industry”. Oil field discovered and opened in
1959. Particular target of Jiang Qing after Beijing Petroleum Institute sided with PLA against Jiang Qing’s Red Guards in 1968. NE 255 WANG Jinxi was the hero-worker of Daqing. Wn75 Jiang Qing attacked Daqing in 1968. She said that she met with student leaders of the Daqing Patroleum College who were in Beijing on March 11, 1968. The leaders of the Patroleum College had refused to criticize the February Counter Current, thus tacitly supporting Liu Shaoqi. J350.
Dazhai: “In agriculture learn from Dazhai.” The “Dazhai Model” added a third element in calculating work-points—“political attitude.” This led to close scrutiny by one’s team members. Jiang Qinq’s first visit was in September 1975, days before the start of the first “National Learn From Dazhai” Conference. 2nd Conference was in September 1976, days before Mao’s death. NE 260 ff Jiang Qing was at the 2nd Conference when Mao was dying, and supposedly “dawdled” in returning to Beijing. An unlikely scenario that is widely believed in China. Visitors supposedly stopped coming in 1977. (But I was taken there in 1978, just days before Hua’s downfall)
December 9th Movement: Nationwide student movement begun at Beida in 1935 against KMT concessions to Japan. J481
Decollectivization: Began in December 1979 and lasted about two years. Land was re-divided under the “family responsibility system.” The peasants could dispose of their above-quota production however the wished. Private plots were expanded so that up to 25% of the land could be used for this purpose. XV669
Democracy Wall: Was located at Xidan crossing near Zhongnanhai and shopping district. . M 435
The Democratic Parties: This refers to the eight old bourgeois parties under CCP control, including the Revolutionary KMT. TM150
Demons of Hell: “Life is Short” and “Death has Gradations.” These two demons preside over the soul’s descent into hell, forgetting, and rebirth. G 45
Diaoyutai Palaces: Nixon in No. 18, others in No. 12. No 18. was redecorated for Queen Elizabeth’s visit in 1986. NE 512 n 1 Gorbachev stayed there on his May 15, 1989 vist.
Divorce & Wedding Registration: Prior to 1949, there were no registration procedures in China. The parties bought a blank marriage certificate and filled it out themselves. For divorce, if the parties agreed on terms, the two families met and burned the marriage certificate. K8
Dixie Mission: In February 1944, as the KMT was collapsing before Japan, FDR requested that Jiang Kaishi permit a military observer mission visit the CCP bases in Shangxi and Shaaxi. ST463 John Service wrote the report when they returned. ST477
Document No. 9: On December 25, 1980, the Politburo distributed a secret directive, “Document No. 9”, which instructed local officials to suppress all unofficial organizations and publications by June 1, 1981. MM 135.
Dog Executions: In Manchuria, the Japanese threw execution victims to packs of trained dogs. MC 207
Donner Party Novel: There is a bizarre Taiwanese novel, Mulberry Green and Peach Red, (1976) by YU Lihua, about a woman whose identity is torn apart by events in Taiwan and the Donner Party cannibalism in California. XV 795
Dragonwell Tea: Longjin Tea from Hangzhou. S 457-8 I visited the then Dragonwell Commune in 1978. P
Dream of the Red Chamber: Li Shifan came to prominence based on his denunciation of Yu Pingbo’s “bourgeois” interpretation of this 18thC classic. XV767
Dual Price System: Adopted in late 1984 as part of Deng’s early reforms based on the Hungarian model. The state set “dual prices” for some commodities. Well connected cadres bought scarce commodities at low fixed state prices and sold them to private enterprises for big returns. MM 323n44
Edgewater Hotel: In Qingdao. The Snows stayed there in 1937.
The Eight Elders: The “Gang of Old”, led by Deng Xiaoping, that had real authority in China after the First Plenum of the 13th CC kept Deng and the Elders in power despite holding no posts. TM 443 Members of the eight Elders were Deng Xiaoping, Bo Yibo, Chen Yun, Deng Yingchao, Li Xiannin, Peng Zhen, Wang Zhen, and Yang Shangkun. TM
Exchange Rates: for One U.S. Dollar: 1978 2.0 official P, 1988-1989 3.71 official, 8.1 black market TM6n7
Extraterritoriality: “Begininng with the basic concession of consular jurisdiction in the 1842-4 treaties … the entire ‘foreign establishment’ was essentially exempted from the jurisdiction of the Chinese polity.” This extended to the currency issue of foreign banks too! XII 150
Falun Gong: Founded in May 1992 by Li Hongzhi. Organized at the top as the Beijing Falun Dafa Research Society, then four organizational levels for members: mainstation, branch station, tracts (pian) and practice sites (liangongdian). The Beijing center masterminded 300 demos protesting meida criticism. Li left for Houston on a touirist visa in October 1996, and won asylum in 2/98, when he moved to NYC. LI Chang headed FLG in China after Li Hongzhi fled in 1995. 636CQ2002
Fascist Trotskyites: Some Whampoa Cadets sent to Moscow for training were accused of “rightism.” They escaped to Japan and joined Chiang Kaishek to fight the CCP after 1927. A few of these had been earlier been arrested in Moscow as “spies connected with Trotskyists.” Other returning Moscow cadets were disgruntled Communists. These two groups formed Chiang Kaishek’s fascist “Blue Shirts” organization at his fascist training school in Nanjing in 1932. This story is told by Helen Snow. MC 138.
FBI: The agents handling the Henry Liu assassination were Tony Lau and Steve Kies—both Chinese. F491 At demonstrations, the FBI worked with the KMT agents to identify IWK and USCPFA members. “We’d compare notes.” One FBI agent said. F159
February Adverse Current: Meeting of general Nie Rongzhen, Ye Jianying, and Chen Yi, in 2/67, critical of GPCR. LM 333 Chen Yi was immediately forced from office. S 545
February Outline: Created on February 7, 1966 and approved by CC for release five days later. J518n29 A five man group was set up in Beijing to consider the controversy surrounding WU Han’s “Hai Jui Dismissed From Office.” Meetings were held on 1/2/66 and 2/4/66. With Kang Sheng in the minority, the three majority members drafted a report written by YAO Chen and XU Liqun, deputy directors of the Propaganda Department, reflecting PENG Zhen’s line. The report acknowledged “bourgeois tendencies” in culture but emphasized the desirability of focusing on the academic issues. The February Outline was discussed and approved at a Politburo Standing Committee meeting chaired by Liu Shaoqi on 2/5/66. Mao was very angry about this. XV 129 On May 16, 1966 a CC Circular revoked the February Outline and both documents were sent to all Party Committees for discussion and criticism. J518n29
February Summary: This was the report prepared by Jiang Qing and Lin Biao for the PLA literature and art conference held in Shanghai on February 2-20, 1966, and drawn up under Mao’s guidance, to attack the February Outline.
Feudalism: Trotsky took the position that feudalism disappeared in China “hundreds of years ago” when land became alienable. “The penetration of commercial capital into the village established there a predominantly capitalist economic structure which continued to bear many precapoitalist features.” TR32 Mao took the position that feudalism lasted right up uintil 1949.
Fishing Terrace Guesthouse: This was Jiang Qing’s home in Beijing after she
moved out of Zhongnanhai. Villa 10 was her house. Villa 17 was her office. WB337
First Foreign Languages Institute: Directly under the control of the Foreign Ministry (Zhou Enlai) until the 1980’s when it became an independent University. Located in the western suburbs of Beijing, near BeiDa W 28 and near other Universities, the Institute produced all the top translators for the foreign service. 3,000 students in the 1960s. Many Americans worked there as teachers during GPCR. The Miltons, etc. P History of the struggle there, see W 171 ff.
Five Year Plan #1: (1953-1957) XIV155 The Plan was not approved until mid- 1955. The intitial stage was described as “state capitalism.” XIV 92 The core of the plan was 156 projects supported by Soviet equipment, plans and 10,000 specialists. XIV177
Five Year Plan #2: (1958 – 1962) Disputes over the lessons of the 1st FYP was the key inner-party dispute thatb led to the GPCR split. There was a continuing absolute decline in grain available from the countryside, in the face of increasing demand. XIV360-1 From Moscow in November 1957, Mao announced that China would “surpass England in about 15 years” in all major industrial products. XIV362 The Great Leap was predicated on Mao’s misunderstanding of the constraints on Chinese agriculture. He believed that larger units would capture significant economies of scale and that labor mobilization would raise crop yields substantially. XIV363
Flying Tigers: Claire Chennualt’s mercenary (American Vounteer Group – AMG) KMT air unit, authorized by Executive Order in April 1941. USA helped recruit 100 Army and Navy pilots with slaries up to $750/month and a $500 bonus for each Japanese plane downed. ST220 On July 4, 1942, the Unit was designated part of the Tenth Airforce, and Chennault was promoted to brigadier general. ST309 Chennault, and his press allies, told FDR he could defeat Japan with 500 planes and 100 transports to carry supplies over the hump from Burma. Stillwell and the Washington general staff knew this was ridiculous, but Chennault had many supporters. ST310
Foochoow: Fuzhou, Fujian. (Japan) XIII 114
Footbinding: Estimated to have affected at least 80% of women. The practice began in the Iimperial court. The anti-footbinding movement began in the 1880s. XIV26-27
The Forbidden City: The Emperor’s palace on Tiananmen. The Gate of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen) is at the north entrance. It is a about a mile walk through the palaces to the south gate. K199
Foreigners in China: Chinese were not permitted to speak to foreigners without permission of their work unit, and had to report back afterwards. M 206 In 1950, the Beijing authrorites registerd all citizens and all foreigners were subject to a police interview. The police issued residence permits or expelled the foreigners. The USA closed its consulate in 1950 and Americans were handled by the British consulate. K143
Foot Binding: “Outlawed” by Sun Yatsen in 1911 revolution. MC 44
Free Supply System: Veteran cadres were paid no salary in the 1950’s. They were on the Free Supply System. Other cadres were paid salaries. S 44 Abolished in 1954 S 274 Zhou talked Mao out of it by proving how expensive it would be. XV37 Ko Chinshi, the mayor of Shanghai heard Mao’s favorable comments toward a free supply system at a Bedehai conference in August 1958, he telephoned the comments to ZHANG Chunqiao, who then wrote an article, with the same line, to curry favor with Mao. This marked the first discussion of “bourgeois right”, which reappeared many times thereafter. XV70
Friendship Hotel: Built in 1950s for long staying Soviet Experts, it was large and run down when I first saw it in 1970’s. Milton says it was luxurious in the 1960’s W 217. The Americans living here formed the first foreign Red Guard group—the “Bethune-Yanan Regiment” at the prompting of a Red Guard faction at the Hotel. At the time of the anti-Soviet polemics, Rittenberg lunched at the dining room for foreign experts every workday, trying to win the guests to China’s side. Krushchev joke. M 268
Fujian Incident: CCP’s failure to link with mutinying KMT 19th Route Army, just before, LM, was used against Li De and Bo Gu at Zunyi Conference by Mao. LM 123. But Li De says Mao opposed unity with 19th at the time. CA 67, 101
Funeral Ceremonies: In Beijing, the dead had to washed with water, at night, and the water used must not have been exposed to skylight, not even the night sky. Ceremonies lasted 40 days, with the coffin unburied. The most elaborate ceremonies were held on the third day. Mourners must not step over water the day of the burial. K22 – 31 The names of the dead are carved into wooden tablets of cypress or Chinese juniper, about a foot high and four inches wide. The tablets contain the soul of the deceased. They are kept on the family alter at home and subject to daily rites, including offerings of incense, food, and wine. The tablets had to receive daily worship for three generations. Fourth generation tablets were retired to the family temple, usually in the countryside. K99-100
Futian Incident: Worst AB purge was in Futian in 1930-1931. The CCP executed many party members.
Gang of Four: Jiang Qing, Yao Wenyuan, Wang Hongwen, Chang Chunqiao. One view is that Mao’s attacks on the Gang of Four was a smoke screen to disarm their foes. XV 349, 355 After Mao appointed Hua Guofeng acting premier to replace Deng, the Gang was furious and made a strategic error. They could have allied with Hua and won, because the would have easily controlled the Politburo. Instead they attacked Hua. XV 360. They should not have confronted the popular (April 4) support for Zhou’s moderation.
Gang Of Old: “The Elders.” Retired Party leaders who effectively ruled with Deng after his retirement in 1987: Peng Zhen, Li Xinnian, Yang Shangkun, Wang Zhen, Chen Yun, Song Renqiong, and Bo Yibo. All were born in the first decade of the 20th C. MM 173, 365
Garrison Command: The Taiwan security agency under the KMT’s Ministry of National Defense responsible for the enforcement of Martial Law in Taiwan. F493
Generations of Leaders: Deng Xiaoping said, The First Generation was a collective leadership with Mao Zedong as the core. The Third plenum of the 11th CC was the Second Generation with Deng at the core. Jiang Zemin is the Third Generation. TM427
Goddess of Democacy: The plaster faux Satue of Liberty wheeled into Tiananmen Square at 10:30 pm on 5/29/02. Created by students at the Central Academy of Fine Arts. TM320
Going Against the Tide Campaign: This was the 1973 Zhang Tiesheng “blank exam paper” campaign. It soon merged with the Anti-Lin Biao and Confucius Campaign. XV 574
Golden Dragon Restaurant: In San Francisco. Was owned by Jack Lee, who headed the Hop Sing Tong in SF. CP149 The Joe Boys attacked customers there at 2:30 am on 9/4/77 intending to kill the Wah Qing leaders who were eating. Five were killed and eleven wounded—all tourists. No Wah Chings were hurt. CP153
Gone With The Wind: A popular movie in China, even today. Jiang Qing’s favorable comments about it are at J118
Gongzi Cigarillos: Mao’s other smoke. M 330
Great Leap Forward: The Great Leap began in 1958 with the arrival of city cadres in the villages to boost production. Peasants were mobilized for water projects during fallow period, so work now went on year around, with no slack period for the peasants to rest. Collectivization began after Mao’s August 1958 comment that the commune he visited was “good”. During the “communist wind”, the communes were identified as communist rather than socialist forms, so free distribution of food and other commodities began. This was the “eat it up” period in which peasants ate all they wanted at commune dining halls, sometimes eating six or seven meals a day until the food reserves were exhausted. Agricultural innovations such as close planting, deep plowing, and irrational labor assignments led to crop disasters. Local leaders who knew the innovations would not work were identified as rightists and adopted passive resistance such as lying about yields. The collective preparation of food struck at the deepest ideological roots of the peasant family and made them feel powerless but embittered. The bitterness was expressed by shirking. About 20 million died in the resulting famine. XV 659-645 In 1959, crop estimates were so high that peasants were ordered to leave land fallow because there was not enough warehouse space available for the anticipated surpluses. This led to serious food shortages. XIV318-9 Disputes over the lessons of the 1st FYP was the key inner-party dispute that led to the GPCR split in the old Yanan leadership. The problem was a continuing absolute decline in grain available from the countryside, in the face of increasing demand. XIV360-1 There were few commodities for peasants to buy, so money meant little to them and production fell. XIV 385 From Moscow in November 1957, Mao announced that China would “surpass England in about 15 years” in all major industrial products. XIV362 The Great Leap was predicated on Mao’s misunderstanding of the constraints on Chinese agriculture. He believed that larger units would capture significant economies of scale and that labor mobilization would raise crop yields substantially. XIV363 By the end of 1958, 99.1% of rural households were in Communes. Private plots were all eliminated. A large share of income distribution was often on a per capita (communist) basis rather than work points. XIV365 In 1958 reported grain output was double the 1957 level. XIV 366 The initial steel target in 2/58 was 6.2 million tons by Bo Yibo. Within a few weeks, Mao was proposing a 12 million ton target. XIV367 The Plan’s emphasis on industrial production put an unprecedented demand for grain on the rural population and pulled workers away from the land. The 1960 grain harvest was 26% below the 1957 harvest, causing massive starvation. XIV369-70 After Peng Dehuai was decisively beaten at Lushun in July 1959, criticism of the GLF became impossible within the CCP. XIV380 There was an accompanying “red and expert” campaign that targeted intellectuals and scientists. “Almost all older intellectuals and students were sent to the countryside and smaller towns for labor reform, where they were to be reeducated by doing manual labor and mixing with the masses. XIV433
Green Gang: Shanghai criminal gang led by Huang Mapi, the chief of detectives
for the French Concession. The Gang carried out the killings of Commnists and workers with French and Brithish support. TR142
Green Island: Infamous KMT prison on remote island off the east coast of Taiwan. F83
Green Slips: IOUs issued by Post Offices when they lacked the funds to cash money orders submitted by peasants to redeem overseas remittances. RC38
GPCR: The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution “officially” lasted from 1965 – 1976, (It actually ended in 1969 when the students had been demobilized and sent to the countryside) 4 million killed? NE 249 The rule was that the leader and the deputy in each institution was “overthrown.” NE ?? Most campaigns required a 5% quota. XV720n52 In an interview with Albanian delegates, Mao said that “the principal task of the GPCR” was to struggle against those in the party taking the capitalist road. But the PURPOSE of the GPCR was to solve the problem of world outlook and eliminate revisionism. W 144. GPCR BEGINS YAO Wenyuan’s criticism of “ Hai Rui Dismissed from Office” 11/10/65 is published. The play supposedly compared Peng Dehuai to the loyal Hai Rui, wrongly dismissed from office for telling the Emperor the truth. 600,000 deaths in GPCR. MM 47 GPCR officially ended in 1969. But Deng changed the date to 1976. MM 47 GPCR presented as a “political modernization crisis” is at XV110 The three souces of GPCR were 1) disenchanted groups created by social and economic policy (e.g. youth and “contract workers”), 2) Jiang Qing’s cultural group, and 3) Lin Biao’s army. XV116 In a 1980 interview with a Yugoslav journalist, HU Yaobang estimated that 100 million people were treated “unjustly” during the Anti Rightist Campaign, GPCR or other Maoist movements. XV 210 The economic losses of the GPCR were minimal and were largely made up by 1971. XV 210 The universities were closed from summer of 1966 (middle schools from the fall of 1966) until the summer of 1970. XV 211 Jiang Qing personally victimized many, ordering the search of the homes of those who knew her in 1930s Shanghai to confiscate damaging letters and photos. 60% to 70% of the Central Party organs were purged. XV 212 At the Go4 Trial, it was said that 729,511 people were “framed and persecuted”, and that 34,800 were killed. XV 213 Western estimates of the deaths are as high as 500,000. XV 214
Guangxi: Population 40 million in 1987. RC212 Party leader Zhao Fulin appointed in 1990. Deputy was Lei Yu, the criminal governor of Hainan Island who organized the smuggling of cars and was fired in 1985. RC 213, 235. Official estimate is 90,000 GPCR deaths in Guangxi. CD222 In Guangxi, sections of Nanning were reduced to rubble in pitched battles with tanks, heavy artillery, and napalm, in July 1968. CC369 As the Battles end, in August 1968, the death toll is given as between 90,000 and 300,000 killed. CC370 In Guangxi, 12/68, teachers of bourgeois class backgrounds are labeled “birds and beasts” and put on public display in so-called “class struggle education exhibits.” CC 371 “There artillery bound for the war in Vietnam had been seized from the PLA and was being used in bloody internecine battles.” TS224 The Ching Ling “Leprosarium” is somewhere in remote Guangxi run by a “Sister Huang Roushan”, NE 477
Guangxi GPCR Factions: “Large Faction” Controlled by WEI Guoqing, the Guangxi Governor and PLA boss. Small Faction, “April 22 Group” was allied with Jiang Qing. RC 198 According to Li Yueming, a CP member I interviewed on 10/18/02, there were two factions: “Lao Duo” was affiliated with Guangxi Teachers University in downtown Guilin. Their stronghold was Duxiufeng Peak, which is located on the campus. Lao Duo supported WEI Guoqing. Li was in Lao Duo when she was age 15. The other faction was “Lianzhi” (The United Order), which was a non-Red Guard “rebel worker’s organization” that was anti-Wei Guoqing. Its headquarters was at Elephant Trunk Hill, accross the lake and well south of the campus. In late 1967 the factions began capturing opponent’s leaders, publicly criticizing them and killing them. Lao Duo was organized first and initially overwhelmed Lianzhi, but Lianzhi recovered and developed superior numbers. The early Lao Duo leader was LIU Jianling. He was arrested after the 1968 fighting and sentenced to 20 years in prison. He was an English teacher at the Teachers University. Today he is a cultural worker and English teacher in a county near Guilin. Several thousand Lianzhi activists died in a mass assault on Lao Duo’s mountain stronghold. The Lao Duo defenders easily picked off the attackers as they tried to scale the mountain. Lianzhi did a public display of the bodies of their fallen heroes at the Guilin Children’s Palace and the Cultural Palace. Li heard reports of people eating human hearts as a kind of medicine.In April 1968 Lianzhi broke into PLA armories and seized rifles and machine guns which they used against their opponents. Lianzhi won the armed battle. The local PLA politically supported Lao Duo but stayed out of the fighting. The militia supported Lianzhi, but also did not fight. A 1968 Order from the CCP CC and the intervention of military units from Beijing ended the fighting in July 1968.
Guangxi, Liuzhou: Dubbed “the world’s largest toilet” because there were no bathrooms at the train station in the 1940s. People used the streets outside the station. TS19
Guangxi Minorities: The Yao Nationality Autonomous County is in the Great Yao Mountains east of Wuxuan. RC209
Guangxi, Wuxuan: This city is the county seat for Wuxuan Countyy. 60% Zhuangs. The Taiping’s first military strike was here in 1851. RC209 Site of the worst GPCR cannibalism. From Guilin it is a five hour train ride to Guiping, then a five hour boat ride up the Qian River. CD217 Three hour bus ride from Liuzhou. CD228 The main street runs from the market on the east side, to the river on the west side. In May-July 1968, the victims were displayed in the market, then paraded and attacked along the main street, and killed at the river, where their bodies were butchered and divided up for eating. CD218 June 1968 was the height of the cannibalism in Wuxuan County, Guangxi. CC369 Many school teachers were killed and at least two eaten by their students. CD223 Jon Gittings said 526 were eaten. RC196
Guangxi, Wuzhou: In April 1968, in Wuzhou, Guangxi, fighting between the PLA and the 22 April Grand Army, results in the destruction of the city and the deaths of several thousand Red Guards. CC369
Guomindang Party: Founded by Sun Yatsen in August 1912. Based on Tung Meng Hui, underground anti-Manchu society formed by Sun in Japan in 1905. After being forced out of Republican government by Yuan Shikai in 1913, Sun sought a base in Southern China. Captured Guangzhou in 1917. After Sun’s death, the KMT established a strong government in Guangzhou in 1925 and began a campaign to defeat the Northern Warlords. Jiang captured control of party in after April 1927, and established control of the whole country in October 1928. Defeated in civil war 1946-1949 and fled to Taiwan. T 661 The KMT Finally lost power in Taiwan in the 2000 election to a Taiwan nativist party.
Guilin: The Red Army passed through Suiche, north of Guilin, on the Long March. The 34th Division was lost here defending the rear of the fleeing column. LM 98 The Japanese seized Guilin after Stilwell decided it had to be abandoned on September 14, 1944. In 1945, after the Okinawa defeat, the Japanese evacuated Guilin after burning and demolishing it. The KMT entered after the Japnese left. ST518
Guilin GPCR Factions: Guangxi Party Leader was WEI Guoqing. Li Yueming was in the “Clenched Fist “ or “United Something or other” faction. The rival faction was “Lao Duo”, “The Old something.” Led by Liu xx. The PLA supported Lao Duo. An 8/68 CC document from Beijing ordered the fighting stopped. This strengthened Wei Guoqin’s hand. The Clenched fist won and punished the Lao Duo. Li saw many bodies on display in Guilin and Interview with Li Yueming on 8/14/00.
Hai Jui Dismissed From Office: The controversy over this play by Wu Han, vice mayor of Beijing, is often cited as the first incident in the GPCR. “At Party meetings in April-May 1959, Mao had urged emoulation of Hai Jui’s criticism of bureaucratic misdeeds. Mao’s secretary, Hu Qiaomu, as Wu Han, a Ming historian, to write about Hai Jui.” XIV446 The play was briefly performed as a Beijing opera in February 1961, then suspended. Hai Jue is an incorruptible Ming official who sided with people who had lost their land. Yao Wenyuan was encouraged by Jiang Qing to write the hit peace. The criticism was that the land issue was an analogy to the “loss” of the peasant’s land when the Peoples Communes were formed. Hai Jui was Marshal Peng Dehuai, who had stood up to Mao to prevent the disaster of the Great Leap but was persecuted to death. The focus on “honest” feudal bureaucrats and the uncompromising moral attitude of Hai Jue was considered un-marxist. XV595
Haikou Hotel: Famous Hotel on Hainan Island. In 1992 it was troubled by prostitutes. CD196
Harbin Institute of Military Engineering: Top military school in the 1950s. Most of the school moved to Changsha in the 1960s and became the National Defense University of Science and Technology. The current top military school is the National Defense University. PR 13
Helicopter 3685: Escape vehicle for Lin Biao’s confederates. Mao ordered its interception and captured the plotters and documents naming 93 conspirators. NE 302
Hero Martyrs: Tung Tsun-jui, Liberation War, Huang Chi Kuang, Korean War, Liu Hulan, KMT executed her by cutting her body in half. W 63 Also see Lei Feng, peacetime PLA hero, diary, killed by falling telephone pole. W 63, Wang Chieh, jumped on mine, W 67, Ouyang Hai, Killed pulling ammunition cart on train track, W 68 Jiao Yu-lu (H808) refused cancer treatment (this story led many cadres to refuse routine and necessary medical care.) W 68, Lai Ning (H808) Nian Siwang survived after jumping in front of a train to remove an obstacle. He lives in San Francisco now. The train ran over his head! P. Mai Hsien-te, Chang Zide, hero of Mao’s “Serve the People”, he was killed on 9/5/44 when his charcoal kiln collapsed in the mountains of Shanxi. XV 609
Heroin Trade: In 1949, remnants of two KMT divisions fled from Yunnan Province to the Golden Triangle—Burma, Thailand and Laos. At first supplied with CIA arms and cash the launched raids into China that led to big losses. They soon fell to fighting among themselves for control of the heroin business. The KMT handled the wholsale end and supplied aircrafet and military support for big profits. Two KMT Hong Kong heroin dealers, the Ma brothers, became KMT spies in 1970, They bought the Hong Kong Oriental Daily News, which became the leading pro-KMT paper. In 1977 the Ma brothers invested $2.5 millionin the new World Journal in NYC. The paper was founded in 1976 with Taiwan money. F227-231
Hock Sair Woey: The Cantonese name for the Chinese Underworld in SF, which includes Tongs and Gangs as their enforcers. CP69
Hongbin Restaurant: Most famous Beijing Duck place, on Changan. P
Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation: Organized in 1864, with head office in HK. This and other banks used their extraterritoriality to issue currency. The Chinese government never gave the banks the right to do this, but was powerless to stop them. XII 198 In July 2002, the Hong Kong government issued its first currency – colorful notes in $10 HK denomination. But the rest of the currency, still in circulation on my visit in May 2003, was still mostly notes form the HK – Shanghai Bank. P
HUA Guofeng’s House: His house is in Shijia Hutong, behind the Beijing Hotel. It was a cheap tourist hotel in 1990.
Huangpu Military Academy: See Whampoa Military Academy
Hundred Flowers Campaign: Launched in the spring of 1956. The initial aim was to draw the pre-1949 intelectuals to the Party’s side. XV27
IBMND (Intelligence Bureau Ministry of National Defense): The KMT’s main military intelligence service responsible for worldwide operations against the PRC. F493 The provide over to million to Oliver North and John Singlaub for the Contras. F458 KMT execution procedure: “You bring the prisoner a bowl of rice, he leans over to eat, and you shoot him in the head.” F462
Immigration Scandal: As part of the Mc Carthy witch hunts, in 1955 the U.S. Consul General in Hong Kong charged that many Chinese had entered the USA illegally, suggesting widespread Communist infiltration. Many had entered fraudulently as “paper sons.” Fearing their loss of citzenship, the Benevolent Associations worked out a “confesion” program. Chinese would confess and then work out a new immigration status. But government questioners demanded the victims name names and identify suspected subversives. Around 36,000 Chinese “confessed” under the program. F114
Imperial Examinations: Lasted for one month with a two day rest period every five days. Successful candidates still needed to purchase their positions if the passed the exams. GR 68
Indonesia: In 1958 the USA tried to topple Sukarno via SEATO through a rebellion in Sumatra using KMT arms flown in with B-26’s from the Philipines. The Indonesian’s captured an American pilot, and the plot failed. Thousands of Chinese fled to China to ecsape persecution XIV507, 509 Anti-communists in the army tried to break Sukarno’s ties to Beijing and the PKI by exploiting ani-Chinese racism. XIV502
Inflation: In August 1948, the inflation rate in Shanghai reached 6,600,000 times the pre-war level! XIV150
Ink Bottle Test: Women wearing tight slacks were stopped by Red Guards. If an ink bottle placed in the waistband did not slip easily to the ground, the pants were slashed. XV 144
The Inside Story of the Qing Court: Released in 1949. A wildly popular movie. It won the HK Press Association “Film of the Year” award. The film was quickly banned by Jiang Qing. J234
Internal Reference News: Secret domestic news for top PRC leaders. S 137
Investment: Before 1949, annual gross investment probably never exceeded 5% of the national product. Food production absorbed 60%, and total personal consumption accounted for over 90%, “leaving almost insignificant amounts for communal services, government consumption and investment.” XII 72-73
The Iron Girls of Dachai: The “Iron Girls” team of Dachai were prominent stars in the Anti-Lin Biao and Confucius Campaign. “We Revolutionary Women Bitterly Hate the Doctrines of Confucius and Mencius.” J462
Jardines: The major opium company in the 1800s. OW 17
Jardine, Matheson and Company: Grew from a small agency house in 1930, to the largest trading company in China a hundred years later. XII 118 It’s head office was in Hong Kong, but thee were brances in every port. XII 194 Butterfield and Swire, which started in Shanghai in 1867, was the next most famous firm. XII 193 Butterfield had branches in 14 ports. XII 194
Jade Fountain: The ancient source of Beijing’s water, ten miles north of Beijing. It supplied the canals, lakes, and moats of the city. K102
The Jet: Popular GPCR torture. Victims were forced to squat with their arms swept back like a jet, and their heads pulled upright. Reportedly invented during the Four Cleanups Campaign in a Taoyuan village in Hebei Province, where Wang Guangmei was the work team leader. TS138
Jiang Qing’s Dress: Designed for the masses in 1975. A tight bodice with a side zipper, small Chinese colar and full skirt. At 20 yuan, it was too expensive for pepole to buy, so sales were slow. She ordered cultural officials to buy huge quantities of them for their TV announcers, artists and staff. Qiang later authorized a time-payment scheme. Women could buy a dress for a four RMB down payment. The dress was ridiculed by many women. WB334
Jinggangshan: Mao did not take part in the Nanchang uprising in July 1927. Instead he led the Autumn Harvest Uprising in Hunan in September 1927, attacking the city with four regiments, and then fled to this mountainous retreat and established Soviets. MO 76 This was Mao’s early base area between Hunan and Jiangxi. At peak of GPCR, 30,000 Red Guards arrived each day at this remote spot causing an acute food, housing and health crisis.
Jinjiang Hotel: Best Shanghai Hotel in 1960s. I stayed there in 1970s It was the French Club in the 1920s. Now being restored with 1920s furnishings. P
Jinjiang Club: Mao’s residence near the Hotel in French Quarter of Shanghai. S 360 Formerly the Cathay Mansions Apartment Building. On Jinjiang Street, across from the Cercle Francais. Mao stayed on the 18th Floor. NE 229
Joe Boys: one of the two major Chinatown Gangs in San Francisco in the 1970s. Formed from a split in the Wah Chings in 1970, and led by Joe Fong, they became the Yow Lay, then the Chung Yi around Chinese New Year in 1972, but were later called the Joe Boys. CP79 They were suppressed after their massacare at the Golden Dragon on September 4, 1977. CP
The Joint Fleet: Code name for Lin Liguo’s Air Force conspiratorial group planning to kill Mao. XV 326 Mao was “B-52” and the plot was called Project 571. The initial plans just called for arresting Zhang Chungchiao and Yao Wenyuan. XV 328
June 4th Fugitives: On June 12, 1989, the Oublic Security Ministry ordered the arrest of Fang Lizhi and LI Shuxian. On June 13 there were 21 new warrants, in order of importance: Wang Dan, Wuerkaixi, Liu Gang, Chai Ling, Zhou Fengsuo, Zhai Weimin, Liang Qingdun, Wang Zhengyun, Zheng Xuguang, Ma Shaofang, Yang Tao, Eang Zhixin, Feng Congde, Wang Youcai, Zhang Zhiqing, Zhang Boli, Li Lu, Zhang Ming, and Xiong Yan. In June 14, warrants were issued for “Autonomous Federation of Workers (AFW) lements” Hang Dongfang, He Lili, and Liu Qiang. Ten days later, Yan Jiaqi, Bao Zunxin, Chen Yizi, Wan Runnan, Su Xiaokang, Wang Juntao, and Chen Ziming were added. TM 449 Arrested Party members included Bo Tong, Hr Weiling, and Cao Siyuan. TM450 The following all escaped China: Yan Jiaqi, Chen Yizi, Wan Runnan, Su Xiaokang, Wuerkaixi, Chai Ling, Feng Cogde, and Li Lu. TM453
June 4th Leaders: Han Dongfang, Wuer Kaixi, Wang Dan.
June 4, 1989 Massacre: Supposedly, the power struggle between Li Peng and Zhao Ziyang, paralyzed the Politburo, preventing a peaceful solution. PR 74. Zhao was defeated, but Li Peng’s reputation suffered, so Deng gave Jiang Zemin the top job. PR 75 The Politburo had 17 members. The Standing Committee of the Politburo was 5 members. TM4n3

June 4th Television Reporters: TV anchors Xue Fei and Du Dan made tearful reports as they broadcast the news of the June 4, 1989 massacre. The never reappeared after that day. PR 257
June 26th (1965)Directive: See Barefoot Doctors.
Jus Sanguinis: The Chinese conception of citizenship, wherein all Chinese, wherever born, are citizens of China. This is a racil, “blood”, conception of citizenship. F96
Kangda Model: The Yanan Anti-Japanese Military and Political College was extolled as a model of proletarian education in the GPCR. It was self supporting in that the students provided their own food and supplies through peasant labor. Li De was apparently the chief instructor until he returned to Moscow. It was egalitarian in that commanders and soldiers worked and studied side by side. There were no ranks in the Red Army. This “model” was later used by Mao to attack China’s “elitist” universities during the GPCR. W 48After 1949, Mao supposedly wanted to use this model for education in the PRC, but Liu Shaoqi supposedly advocated the traditional university system. Liu’s line prevailed. XV559
Kaosiung Incident: December 10, 1979. Big demo planned in Taiwan’s 2nd largest city to honor the anniversary of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Closed by authorities. Ten thousand protestors clashed with the police. The Martial Law authorities shut down all critical publications. Many organizers were tried by military courts and given sentences of 12 years to life. Independence activists in the USA struck back, burning the World Journal office in NYC and KMT HQ in San Francisco, bombing China Airlines in LA and Chicago. The KMT retaliated in SF, using the Wah Ching gang to attack Tawan activists demonstrating in front of the CCNAA office. F277
King of Hell: Mao’s March 1966 term for leader of CC Propaganda Department. Commented that the Palace had to be overthrown by the “monkey king” masses. XV82
Kiaochow: Qingdao.
KMT Army: During WWII, recruitment was by press gangs who drained villages of labor. Basic traing was three weeks. Pay was a lump sum deliverd to Divison Commanders, who kept their units under strength so that they could pocket the difference. Pay was 16-18 Chinese Dollars monthly, with $8 to $10 deducted for food. Officer seretions were high because of low pay. ST264-265 Jiang flew replacements to Stillwell’s Indian units over the hump in C-46 cargo planes. The conscripts flew in freezing cold, dressed only in shorts, or naked, because the KMT did not care to “waste” money on uniforms. The Americans would outfit them with new uniforms when the arrived. ST327 Conscripts for the Chinese forces were hereded by bayonets to the train depots. The were not fed on the way and lived by stealing food from the peasants at gunpoint. In 1943 Army losses by death or dersertion were 44% ST363 At the Cairo Conference, Jiang and his staff could not answer the most basic questions about the KMT Yunan army. Stillwell answered for him. ST403
KMT Factions: The right-wing faction was the stongest. Led by the two Chens (Chen Lifu & Chen ???) who were nephews of Chen Chimai, Jiang’s first sponsor. The Chen’s and the Blue Shirts (organized in 1932) were the core of the Right. The Guangxi Faction: YU Hanmou, Zhang Fagui, Marshal Li Zhishen. Jiang was in constant danger that these and the Sichuan and Yunnan factions would combine against him. ST456. The Japanese invasion split the KMT. The “liberal” wing, led by Wang Qingwei, stayed in Nanjing as Japanese puppets. TR305
KMT Government: The Government on Taiwan was a “national” legislature with representatives from every Province of China. But, since the last national elections were held in 1947, the legislative representatives were very elderly by the 1980s. They often had to be carried into meetings on litters. F83
Kunming: French concession until 1930’s, connected by railroad to Hanoi. LM 176
Kwang-Chow-Wan: Zhangjiang, Guangdong (France)
Labor Camp Daily Regimin: At Tuanhe Farm,near Beijing. Up at 5:30. Breakfast from cart at 6:00. 7:00 formation and march to work. 12:00 Lunch cart. Return to barracks at 6:30p. 7:30 two hour study period. 9:30pm assembly outside and speech by captain. 10:00 sleep. L67
Land Reform: Land Reform in the old Revolutionary Base Areas was quite radical, emphasizing the complete, violent expropriation of the relatively wealthy. When the redistributed land was too meager to alleviate poverty, the peasants tried to classify those who got slightly more as “rich peasants” or “landlords”, leading to crises and feuds. In the early Liberated Areas, Land Reform began around 1948. The Party allowed rich peasants and landlords to keep some land because their higher production was essential to feed the urban areas. In the later liberated areas, in south China, the policy was even more moderate. A June 1950 land law emphasized the need to maintain a rich peasant economy. But, by October 1950, reaction to the Korean War led to a tougher policy. “Up to perhaps 800,000 landlords were eventually executed.” XV625 Another estimate is 1 to 2 million killed. “The force used against the landlords was crucial in convincing the the entire rural population where power lay.” XIV87 The mechanism was for work teams to enter villages and live with the peasants for months, under the close supervision of higher authorities. The team would do a rough determination of class status of all village households, and these classifications might be revised several times. Poor peasants would be encouraged to form a “Poor Peasants’ Association”, and, under the guidance of the work team, would lead the land reform. The decisive moment was the final posting of the determination of class status at the village center. This determined who lived and died, and who received or lost land. The “struggle phase” then began, starting with bringing the worst landlords before the assembled masses for criticism, abuse, or execution. After the exploiters were punished a long series of Peasant Association meetings was held to discuss and finally divide the land and property. The government slogan was “set up a household and become rich.” Taxes where actually heavier after the reform, but they were more evenly divided. XV 624-629
“Leniency to those who confess, severity to those who resist.” The policy in CCP police work. TM430
Letters and Visits Bureau: This is the complaint department for the Chinese Government. The Central CCP Letters and Visits Bureau in Beiging, was the target of petitions and demonstrations in 1989. TM109
“Liang Xiao”: Jiang Qing’s “anti-Lin Biao and Confucius” writing group of twelve scholars from Beida and Qinghua. The campaign was an attack on Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai. The full name was the “Beida-Qinghua Two Schools Big Criticism Group”. In August 1973, Mao commented that it was correct to link the criticism of Lin Biao with Confucius. This group was set up top revise the fourth set of Lin Biao criticism documents to make them more persuasive. TS323 Yue Daiyun’s husband, Lao Tang, was a prominent member of the group. TS323 Liang Xiao followed up in 1976 with the Water Margin Campaign. The whole group was arrested and declared counter-revolutionaries a week after the Go4 fell in September 1976. TS361-362
Life Expatancy: rose from 36 years in 1950, to 57 years by 1957, far above other poor countries. XIV156
Light Industry: In the 1959s light industry provided the bulk of government revenue in the form of indirect taxes built into prices. The high prices meant that light industy factories were profitable. They were mostly government owned, so the income went to the state. XIV 162
Lin Biao and Confucius Campaign: Lin was linked to Confucius, as against the “progressive” Legalists, who were his chief adversary in the 5th C BC. Lin and Confucius were accused of male chauvinism and blocking women’s rise to power. J462
Lin Biao Group: Probably arrested much earlier, but they were tried with the Go4 in 1980-81. The group was CHEN Boda, HUANG Yongsheng, WU Fanxian, LI Zuopeng, QIU Huizuo, and JIANG Tengjiao. TM313n15
Lin Biao’s House: “Maojiawan”, at 3 Crooked Hair Family Lane (Yu mansion) with tunnel to Zhongnanhai. NE 75 Now a hotel. Which one?
The Lin Family Shop: A story by Mao Tun, and a popular movie in 1959, came in for post 10th Plenum criticism in 1964 because the heroes were petty bouurgeis shopkeepers whose lives and relationships were not based on class struggle. This movie was appropriate for the 1930 UF, but not for the 1960s. XIV471
Ling Canal: Built in 200 BC, north of Guilin. Unites Xiang & Li Rivers, permitting inland passage between Xian, Guangzhou & Shanghai! I visited the canal in April 2001 with QL’s second husband, Li the policeman.
Literacy Standard: Set at 1,500 characters in 1950s. VIV213
Literature: Defend Yanan, 1954, by Tu Pengcheng was the best war novel. It is about the defense of Yanan against KMT in 1947. Tu criticized the Great Leap, his novel was withdrawn and he was disgraced in 1959. City of Cats and Rickshaw Boy were satirical novels of the 1930s by Lao She (1899-1966) He wrote plays after liberation. Red Crag, by Lo Kuangpin and Yang Yiyen is the story of communists in the KMT concentration camp at Chongqing. The Builders, by Liang Shengpao, is a novel about a “middle character” peasant leader who eventually joins the revolution In August 1962, Shao Vhuanli and Qin Zhaoyang held a conference in Dairen extolling the “middle character” as a believable, true to life figure. In 1964, the Literary Gazette was filled with attacks on the “middle character.” The Song of Ouyang Hai, Qin Qingmei, 1965, extolled the heroism of the martyr Ouyang Hai. The Three Most Poisonous Weeds: In theater, these were The Woman Governor, by Xie Yaohuan, Li Huiniang (a ghost drama) by Meng Chao, and Hai Ju Dismissed from Office, by Wu Han. XV 761-787
Liu Zhidan: At the 10th Plenary of 8th CC in 9/62. Kang Sheng said the novel Liu Zhidan was written to “overturn” Gao Gang’s case. Mao agreed. H601
Lo Wu Bridge: The bridge crossing the border between Honk Kong and the PRC. F199
Long March 10/16/34 to 10/19/35
Lop Nor: China’s nuclear weapons center. The Soviets helped build the Lop Nor nuclear site. XIV482-4 The Soviets threatened to nuke it during the 1969 border war. XV 273
Los Angeles Nursery: Yanan nursery named to honor the contributions of overseas
Chinese. Funds were raised by Song Qingling. PR 282
Loyalty Dance: The steps had their origin in a Xinjiang folk dance. “Beloved Chairman Mao, We have so much in our hearts to tell you, We have so many songs to sing you, A thousand, thousand red hearts leap for you, A thousand, thousand red hearts face the red sun, We wish you long life forever.” TS209 The Loyalty Dance was to the tune of “Sailing the Seas Depends on the Helmsmen, Making Revolution Depends on Mao Zedong Thought.” XV 663
Lushan Meeting: June 1959 Great Leap Party Meeting. Mao attacked Peng Dehuai. After Lushan no one dared contradict Mao.
LUO Ming Line: 1933 Party Secretary in Fujian Province. Attacked by Bo Gu, Luo Fu and Zhou Enlai CA 34 as a surrogate for Mao’s “rich peasant line”, in March 1933. DENG was attacked as a Luo Ming Deviationist in April 1933. Luo and Deng both lost all their party positions but were not expelled. Deng’s wife divorced him and married the author of the most severe attack on Deng, LO Man! LM 140-141, H176
Lysenkoism: The thoroughly refuted soviet biological theory that acquired characteristics could be inherited. Criticism of Lysenkoism was an issue in the 100 Flowers criticism by intellectuals. XIV244
Macao: Aomen
Main Contradiction: IKKI Line, Main Contradiction between socialism and imperialism. Mao’s (and Wang Ming’s) deviation, per Li De, between Japanese Imperialism and China. CA 10
Manchuria: The Sovies removed oveer one-half of the industial capital stock of Manchuria in 1945. XIV149
Mao’s Car in Yanan: He had one of the few cars. It bore the inscription, “Ambulance: Donated by the New York Chinese Laundrymen’s National Salvation Association.” WB138
Mao’s Death: Do to various Chinese superstitions, the Politburo thought Mao was poisoned in a conspiracy between Go4 and the doctors. S 26-30
Mao’s Grave: In 1976 Mao and Jiang Qing went to Baboashan several times to inspect their anticipated joint grave. He wrote a last poem to her. WB363
Mao’s Retirement: “In 1956, 1957, early 1958 and at the end of 1958 Mao Zedong requested within and outside the Party that he should not serve as chairman pf the PRC for he wished to withdraw from this leading post to the ‘second line.’ However, because of the new situation after the great leap forward, he stressed at the 7th Plenary Session that power should be concentrated in the Standing Committee of the CPC Political Bureau and Secretariat of the Central Committee under his supreme command. Therefore, in fact, he remained at the front line.” H552
Mao’s Selected Works: Rittenberg was on the 1960 English translation team (the Finalizing Group”) that translated Volume IV. It took two years, working six days per week! Volumes I-III were earlier published in England. Between 1951 and 1956. Volume IV contains Mao’s works up to Liberation. M 252
Mao’s Self Criticisms: “In my mind, I began somewhat to crave greatness and success. I only began to change in March and April last year. I had talks with comrades from more than 30 departments and later talked about the ten major relationships at the Supreme State Conference.” Talks with leaders of democratic parties on April 30, 1957, H503, H625 n2. His Great Leap self-criticism is at H568 Also, January 30 criticism at 7,000 cadre conference, Mao made a self-criticism for Great Leap, saying, “I’m directly and indirectly responsible for all the mistakes made by the Central Committee because I’m the chairman.” “I should be the first person to be held responsible” H581
“Mao Zedong Thought”: First celebrated at the CCP’s 7th Congress. H300
Maojiawan: Lin Biao’s residence. Linked by tunnel to Zhongnanhai. S 24
“March of the Volunteers”. Later China’s Anthem, became popular in late 1931, after the September 18 Incident. H166 Theme song from film a by Communist filmmakers. NIE Er, wrote the song for the film “Heroes and Heroines”, directed by XIA Yan by the Diantong Film Studios. H170
Market Reforms: Best discussion of the initial principles and problems is at XV 509-514
Marriage Law: A sweeping new family law was passed in 1950 but was not enforced in rural areas. Marriage was still contracted by the parents, but there were improvements. Before 1949, the usual practice was that the couple’s first meeting was on their wedding day. The marriage law considerably weakened parental control. Marriages remained patrilocal, with women “marrying in” to their husban’s family. The birth of a son is a “big happiness”—a daughter’s birth is a “small happiness.” The new economic power of women, based on their ability to earn work points, increased the bride price. Families enjoyed “The Five Guarantees” (before the Reform): Food, clothing, housing, medical care, and burial expense. Birth control campaigns began in the cities in mid-1950s. The rural birth control slogan in the 1970s was, “One is good, two is enough, three is many, four is excessive.” XV671-674
Marxism-Leninism MTT Institute: Closed in 1994. Part of the Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing. RC 265
Mass Line: See SW, 3.119, XV4, One of Mao’s supposed contributions to ML. Popularizing ML principles for mass education. CA 258 The mass line was emphasized at the CCP 7th Congress. H300
May 7 Cadre Schools: Mao’s 5/7/66 instruction that intellectuals should be reeducated by the workers and peasants becomes the inspiration for the “May 7th Cadre Schools.” TS251
May 16th Circular: Drafted by Chen Boda, attack on bourgeois elements in the Party. Revoked February Outline Report and called for GPCR in 1966
May 16 Rebels: Ultra leftists allied with Jiang Qing who seized control of Chen Yi’s Foreign Ministry and who burned the British charge d’affaires office. S 492. They were focused on destroying Zhou Enlai, and their HQ was supposedly on the 5th floor of the First Foreign Languages Institute, which was raided in August 1967. W 279. But this group may never have existed! S 648 This was Wang LI’s group. P
Mensheviks: Minority faction at RSDLP Second Congress. Formed separate party in 1912. Supported Karensky and opposed Bolshevik Revolution. Remained in Second International. T 663
Memoirs of Foreigners in China: A good list of such books is at XIV560n39 Maurice R. Wills, Turncoat, etc. Also at XIV592-3
Merrill’s Maruaders: The 5307th Provisional Regiment commanded by Brigadier General Merrill in Burma. The unit consisted of volunteers from trpical units in the Southwest Pacific and the Carribean. Many were sick with malaria from their former service. Many were criminals and misfits escaping from the harsh condition in Trinindad. Many had psycologoical problems. On their way into Ledo, some of them shot Burmese peasants from the train widows for sport. ST433
“The Middle Character”: The “middle character” was the topoc of a literary conference held in Dairen in August 1962. Zhou Yang, Mao’s Party Literature leader since Yenan chaired the conferences. Zhou Yang had now turned critical of Mao for GLF failre. His protege, Shao Chunlin, defended the middle charavter as a figure the masses of peasants identified with. Part of Shao’s agenda was his belief that romanticization of peasant radicalism had led to the errors of the Great Leap. XIV449 Jiang Qing’s criticised the fictional portrayals of workers and peasants as ordinary people. They had to be portrayed as exemplary models in all GPCR culture. TS128
The Million Heroes: Losing PLA faction in the Wuchan Incident. Photo at CC 191
Ming Dynasty’s Fall: “With the rebel armies at the gates of the palace, the last Ming Emporer cut down all his concubines, daughters, and even the empress with his own sword before he hung himself.” … “In the confusion, he failed to decapitate the empress, cutting of one of her arms instead. Disgraced at finding herself still alive, the empress threw herself into a garden well and drowned. It was the only virtuous thing to do.” K91
Model Operas: Jiang Qing’s Eight Model works: Azelea Mountain, The Red Lantern, Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy, Sha-Jia Pond, The Harbor, Raid on White Tiger Regiment, Red Detachment of Women, Song of the Dragon River. RA 18 The Five Model Theatrical works are: Raid on the White Tiger Regiment, Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy, Sha-jia-bang, The Red Lantern, and On the Docks. XV 608
Mou: One acre = 6.02 mou. welcome-to-china-com, J208, TR25 733.5 Square yards. L52n41 1 mou = 0.167 acres XII 76
Moxibustion: Medical treatment using a burning fasci of herbs, held near the spot to be treated. I214
Mukden: Shenyang, Liaoning. Russian Concession.
Muxidi Bridge: On Changan Blvd (Fuxingmenwai Blvd) West of Tainanmen, before the Military Museum. Site of the worst battle between Biejingers and the PLA on the evening of June 3, 1989. Map TMi.
Nanjing Killing Grounds: from 1927 – 1949, at Yu Hua Tai, Chiang Kaishek executed 100,000 young people accused of being artists, writers or communists. MC 117
Nankai University: A Christian founded University in Tianjin, XIV35
Nanniwan: This was the reclaimed wasteland 30 miles southeast of Yanan. J167 In early 1941, the CC ordered the 359th Brigade of the 120th Divison, 8th Route Army, to march into Nanniwan. It was a fertile but desolate place. Without tools or supplies, Wang Zhen led the 359th to open the area for production. H276-7, GR386
National Peoples Congress (NPC): This is the PRC national parliament. Local Peoples Congresses elect NPC delegates. NPC appoints State President, Premier and Vice Premier, who then select the State Council. CD265
Nazi Invasion of Russia: In 1941, two days before the attack on theUSSR, Yanan supposedly warned Stalin of the Nazi attack. They had learned the information from Communist spies in the KMT. NE 481
Neighborhood Committees: Established in first urban Neigborhood Committees in 1952, and completed the organization of every residential street by 1954. XIV94
New China Bookstore: In Beijing, the bookstore took over the Shanghai Department Store building after 1949. K49
New Democratic State: This was the “peoples democratic dictatorship” set up in 1949, in which the peasantry, petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie joined the working class as “ruling classes.” XIV78
The Night People: After the revolution, the wealthy in Beijing universally believed that the police had retained ex-burglars, dressed in black, to climb over rooves and discover illegal activities such as majoong playing and opium smoking. K144
Nigpo: Ningbo, Zhejiang (The Italian Concession)
The Northern Expedition: The KMT “National Revolutionary Army” marched north with the aim of destroying all the warlords and capturing Beijing for the KMT.
North China Hotel: Party Guest House just outside northern wall of Gu Gong. Rittenberg stayed there in 1955. I may have stayed there in 1970s. M 177
“On the New Historical Play, the Dismissal of Hai Rui” YAO Wenyuan’s criticism of Hai 11/10/65 is published in Shanghai while Mao was there. This was the time of Strong’s 80th Birthday Party, 11/28. W 110 This is considered the start of the GPCR. The play supposedly compared Peng Dehuai to the loyal Hai Rui, wrongly dismissed from office for telling the Emperor the truth.
One Man Management: The Societ system of giving the factory manager complete control, and then holding him responsible, was recommeded for all of China in 1953, but was not really used except in the Northeast. The Party Committees resented the power of the manager, who always had a poor class background. XIV127-8
Painting of Mao at Anshan: Painted during GPCR and combining western and Chinese styles. J317 He wore a blue student gown and was going to investigate conditions at the Anshan mines. J392
Pakhoi: Beihai, Guangxi (France)
The Palace Museum: The spectacular museum built in Taibei in the 1960s to showcase the treasures that the KMT stole from Beijing when they fled. VX858
Paris Commune Model: In 1966, the Maoists flirted with the idea of organizing China on a “Paris Commune” model. Mao opposed it as an anarchist deviation because it left no role for the party. Shanghai and Harbin formed Communes. XV 163
Party Dossier System: The contents of one’s Party file could not be viewed by the subject. M 191
Peaceful Evolution: This is the Chinese term to describe the U.S. ideological campaign against Communism, (attributed to John Foster Dulles, TM207n19) to undermine Communist states with bourgeois values, and
to dominate the cultural sphere. This was a common complaint of the
1990s. H808 “…some powerful political interests in the United States
and the West keep attempting to realize peaceful evolution in China; that
is, to turn socialist China onto the path of capitalism through economic
and cultural exchanges as well as other channels.” H827
The Peak Theory: Lin Biao’s theory that Chairman Mao’s words were the supreme instructions. H646
The Peoples Armed Police: are under the command of the PLA. TM30n13
People’s China: Political magazine published semi-monthly from 1950 to 1957.
Replaced by Peking Review in March 1958. XIV556
Permanent Revolution: “uninterrupted revolution”: Mao introduced this idea in January 1958, during the repression of the rightists. “The theory of permanent revolution was introduced at a time when the political situation in China was particularly repressive, thereby linking social radicalism and political despotism, an association that was to fatally distort the remainder of the Maoist era.” MM 40
Petofi Circles: Named after the 19th Century Hugarian writer, these were Hungarian debating clubs within the YCL that participate in the uprising. VIV253 The first one was formed in March 1956. They strongly criticized the Rakoski regime and were considered models of counterrevolutionary conspiracy in China. CC204 Mao’s comment about art circles in China being a basis for such clubs is at H610
Pidgin: International Language of Canton in 1800’s. “Pidgin” means “business.” Tiffin: lunch; Portuguese Mandar “one who commands” became Mandarin. B 8.
The Pigswill Scandal: In 1985 it was revealed that the Tawanese mooncakes had been sweetened with oil recycled from pigswill. Twenty–two peole were jailed in the scandal, which occurred at a time when Taiwan was experiencing many political and economic setbacks. F475
The Pioneers: 1975 film about Daqing attacked by Jiang Qing, supported by Zhou & Deng. Jiang Qing originally suggested a film about “Iron Man Wang” in Daqing. But she criticized the film when it was released. She thought the lead uttered a critisms about a “talkative old lady” that was a reference to her. Zhang pulled the film, but Zhang Tianmin, the screenwriter, won Mao’s endorsement, and it was released. WB352
Polemics with the CPSU: October 1962 – April 1963. W 40
Political Study Period: Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. W 56
Poor and Blank Thesis: XV36
Port Arthur: Also called Luta and Dairen, Lioaning. XIV83
Pour Out Grievances: Civil War army campaign to encourage soldiers to publicly air their grievances against the old regime. H397 n45
Primary Stage of Socialism: Announced in Zhao Ziyang’s Report to the 13th Congress in 1987. The principal contradiction is between the country’s advanced socialist relations of production and its backward productive forces. Capitalist methods are required to bring the relations of production into harmony with China’s still relatively backward productive forces. MM 375 This theory first appeared in the Reevaluation of Mao in June 1981: “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of our Party Since the Founding of the Peoples Republic of China” June 27, 1981.
Principal Contradiction: The PC is between proletariat and bourgeoisie, under socialism. First announced by Mao in his speech on October, 9, 1957 at Third Plenum of 8th CC. Mao specifically refutes the “advanced socialist system and the backward social productive forces” line at MSW 5.492-3, XV68
Prisons in Beijing: Qingcheng Prison held many Party leaders during GPCR. No. 1 Prison is famous for its tough “K Building.” There is also a No. 2 Prison. PR 218.
Project 571: “571” sounds like “armed uprising” in Chinese. Lin Biao’s alleged assassination plot. In August 1971, Mao was visiting military bases and reshuffling the commands in order to cripple Lin. NE 296 Details of prosecutor’s case at Go4 trial in NE 296-297.
Project 704: Hangzhou underground retreat started in 4/70 to protect Mao and Lin. Now the Zhejiang Hotel. Bus 27 goes through the tunnels! NE 294
The Proletariat: In English, “proletariat” originally referred to the uban poor of Rome, and has an urban connotation. But it is translated into Chinese as “propertyless class” (wuchan jieji) which in Mao’s time definitely included the poor peasants among the “proletariat.” XII 5.
Prostitutes and Pork: In the 1930s, a judge in Jinan, Shandong, arrested masses of prostitutes. He sold them to peasants as wives, by weight, based on the market price of pork. WB404.
Purify the Class Ranks Campaign: Launched in May 1968 targeting “ultra-leftists” but is widened to include many innocent cadres. XV 313 This was started by the worker’s teams who entered the Universities in Beijing to quell the factional fighting. XV553 The official targets were “unrepentant bourgeois power holders and the five black categories, but everyone came under scrutiny. XV556
Qinhai Hotel: According to Jiang Qing, Mao fled Zhongnanhai for this hotel to avoid being killed by Lin Biao. J372
Qianmen Hotel: Served as a temporary prison in GPCR. Rittenberg’s family was confined there. M440
Qiliying Commune: A village in Henan, Mao admired the commune built there—the first in China. Mao said, “It is better to run peoples communes.” This statement was used to justify the immediate collectivization of agriculture into communes. RC52
Qincheng Prison: Beijing Prison for political prisoners. Rittenberg and Jiang Qing were both confined there. M 417, WB375
Qingdao: The Germans capitalized on the murder of two of their missionaries in Shandong, in November 1987, to seize Qingdao and compel China to sign a 99-year lease and grant concession for two railroads. XIII 112 The German Navy base was at Cheefoo (Yantai), accoss the penisula from Qingdao. P
Qingming: The traditional festival day for sweeping ancestors graves and mourning the dead. TS343
Qingming Demonstrations: Second lunar month festival. In April 1976, large crowds gathered in Tainanmen Square to mourn Zhou Enlai and express their contempt for Jiang Qing’s Go4 attacks on him. On April 4, 1976, an angry crowd estimated at two million gathered. They placed wreaths and poems on the Martyrs Monument for Zhou. The next day, the crowds found that the police had removed the wreaths and poems. When police tried to disperse the crowd, they fought back, overturning a loudspeaker truck and burning the security headquarters. Workers militia were called in that night and forcibly dispersed the crowd. 100 people who would not leave were arrested at the martyrs monument. TS 345-346
Qipao: “banner robe” first worn by Manchu banermen. To feminize the frontier Manchu women, the court introduced the qipao dress for women. High collar, fitted waists and slit from thigh to ankle to restrict movement to “ladylike” small strides. WB44n
Qinghua University: Like Beida, it was fuded with American returned Boxer Indemnity money. XIV35-36
Quanjude: The famous Beijing Duck Restaurant. On May 18, 1989, the restaurant sent a van with duck soup for the the demonstrators. TM213
Radio Beijing: China’s international station, where Rittenberg worked. M 176.
Rationing: Per Ruth Earnshaw Lo, monthly rationed goods were as follows: Milk—only available with a medical prescription, meat: 20 ounces, sugar: five ounces, grain, not stated. I209 The state started issueing ration books in 1953 and by 1955 all urban areas were on rations. The books continued until 1983. XIV172-3
Rectification of 1942: Aimed at eliminating the influence of Wang Ming and the
Red Army Organization: Army, Corps, Division, Regiment, Battalion, Company, Platoon, Squad, Soldier. CA 38
Red Detachment of Women: One of Jiang Qing’s model ballets. In 1928, on Hainan Island, the KMT killed all but 130 of the CCP regiment of 3,000 resisting them. The survivors fled into the mountains where they were isolated for a decade. By 1939 they had recruited 300 guerillas to fight the Japanese. This history was the material for “The Red Detachment of Women.”
Red Guard Factions in Beijing: In 1965 Two factions emerged in Beijing. The Heaven faction, (Zhou Enlai) supported by Academic schools, like Beida, Xinghua, and the First Foreign Languages Institute and led by the “Red Flag Rebels” from the Aviation Institute. HAN Aichin led Red Flag. This was the conservative faction that tended to support the Party more.
The Earth Faction (Jiang Qing and the Cultural Revolution Group) led by “the East is Red Revolutionary Rebels” of the Geology Institute from Qinghua. W 241
Heaven Faction Leaders: Nie Yuanzu, New Beijing University Commune (Xin Beida), Kuai Dafu, Jinggangshan (Xinhua) and Han Aiqing (Aviation Institute). Earth Leaders: Wang Dapin (Geology Institute), Tan Houlan; Jinggangshan at Beijing Normal School. W 244-245 All five, from both factions, were cast down and arrested within a year. W 245
In Guangdong, The East Wind was the conservatives and The Red Flag was the radicals. XV 553
The sociology of the Red Guards was that the children of cadres and the military formed the first Red Guard units. They were less inclined to attack the Party but otherwise as militant as other groups. These were usually the “conservative” factions. White collar kids with no cadre connections formed the more radical factions and attacked the cadres and Party. Teachers often formed their own groups. XV 546 The conservatives emphasized the responsibility of intellectuals and teachers for the pre-1966 revisionist line in education. The radicals blamed the power holders more than the teachers and emphasized the “bourgeois privileges” the cadres hand enjoyed. XV559
Red Flag Canal: In Henan, Linxian County. A contour canal drawing water from high in the Taihang Mountains. One of the great engineering feats of Mao’s “self-reliance” policy. Finished in 1972, it took twelve years to build by hand. A section called the Youth Canal was cut by daring youth who rappelled down the mountain to cut away the overhanging rock. 180 died during the project. It received thousands of visitors during the GPCR, rivaling Dazhai and Yanan. RC50 In
Red Poppy: “Krasny Mak” Soviet Ballet of the Chinese Revolution. Performed for Mao in Moscow, December 1949. Falsely portrayed Soviet sailors rescuing Shanghai Communists in 1927. Pissed off Mao immensely because he knew Stalin’s line caused the massacre. NE
Red Telephone System: Connects high level offices directly to the Central Committee for Radio Beijing: China’s international station, where Rittenberg worked. M 176.
Red Haired Imperialist: This foreign devil role is based on Beijing Opera’s evil red haired character W 352.
Red Peppers and Revolution: Mao’s criticism of Li De. CA 55
Reference News: Daily Foreign and Domestic Briefings for cadres. (I was given this in Beijing in 1970’s) S 137 The next level is Reference Materials: published twice daily for higher cadres. Carries truthful bad news of attacks on China and internal problems. Internal Reference was the very highest level. Above this was the Red Letterhead Documents, secret cables only available in Ministry reading rooms. There were four levels of clearance: A, B, C, D, with D the highest. Of the 7,000 workers at the Broadcast Administration in 1960s, only one was a level D. Level D included CC minutes and Level D cadres received daily documents from motorcycle messengers. M 194-195.
The Reform Movement of 1898: This was an effort at institutional change based on the “new learning” of the West. Important influences were evolution, Newtonian Physics, and Social Darwinism. Other themes were racial identity “national essence”, identifying China with the Mings and against the Qing “usurpers.” XII 322ff Other th
The Reforms: Central control over foreign trade was loosened in 1977. The first reforms were the removal of controls over the rural markets. The “Responsibility System” was introduced in the ealy 108’s. By 1983, all the collectives had been dismantled. XV 537
Religion in China: In the late 1990s, the following estimates were made by John Gittings: 100 million Chinese are “religious.” 4.5 to 10 million Christians, 70 million believers in Daoism and Buddhism, 20 million Muslims. Daoism is now practically a rural folk religion intertwined with shamanism and magic. Buddhism is largely an urban religion but is mixed with Daoism in its most popular form. RC74-75 Almost all Chinese, including intellectual, scientists and Party members, believe in ghosts, magic, herbal cures, and anti-materialist Buddhist concepts like the Third Eye, etc. This is a deep cultural tradition and important to a “Chinese” identity. Traditional Folk Religion is deep in the culture. In the peasant imagination, gods are feudal entities arrayed in bureaucratic ranks under the Lord of Heaven. Ghosts are commoners, the spirits of deceased strangers. One’s ancestors are “good spirits.” The Hungry Ghost Festival is aimed at placating the dangerous ghosts roaming the countryside. The Party attitude is that only the most politically dangerous or socially harmful elements of religion should be suppressed. Religion will disappear as the misery of exploitation is eliminated and the productive forces modernize. The rural ancestral lineage halls and temples to local earth gods provided an economic basis for resistance to the government, so they were suppressed. Professional shamans, magical healers, and fortune tellers were suppressed because of their petty bourgeois status. But household ancestor worship has always been tolerated. During the GPCR a photo of Mao, and/or the Red Book, often replaced family photos on the household alter. Village meetings often began with the Loyalty Dance to the tune of “Sailing the Seas Depends on the Helmsmen, Making Revolution Depends on Mao Zedong Thought.” XV 661-3 There are many reliable reports of Deng, Jiang Zemin, Mao, and all the other Marxists leaders being treated by Qigong Masters and other superstitious practitioners. P
Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the Peoples Republic of China: June 27, 1981 Resolution of Sixth Plenum of the 11th CC. First official attack on Mao. Bo Yibo was the author. PR 176 Best edition is Beijing Review No. 27, 1981. XIV594
Revolution of 1911: The 1911 revolution produced no social revolution. Speculation in the Shanghai rubber market in 1910 severely damaged the Szechwan Railway Company, and its demands that these losses be covered by the Bejing Government’s scheme to nationalize the Canton – Hankow railway helped precipitate the 1911 Revolution. XII 199 A central theme in the 1922 was the anti Qing, anti-Manchu, ideology preacjhed by Chang Ping-lin. Not only were the Chinese held in thrall by a declining foreign rule, but by an “inferior race” and Manchu culture. XII41
Richard Nixon: China-U.S. alliance. Dr Li’s story at S 514-5
River Elegy: A popular six-part TV video broadcast in the Summer of 1988. Critical of the authoritarianism, xenophobia, isolationism, and national pride of China. Party Secretary Zhao Ziming was featured in the introduction ti each episode. The film contrasted a “yellow civilization” of the backward hinterland with the outward looking and modern “blue civilization” of the coastal cities. The series was denounced as revisionist after June 4th and Zhao was sharply criticized for his identification with it. TM258n36, 434
Room 118: In the Great Hall of the people, Room 118 (formerly the Beijing Room) was set aside for Mao for trysts S 345 It was next to the dance floor and had a big bed. S 356 Mao also used the Fujian Room and the Jiangxi Room. S 479
Roosevelt Hotel, NYC: Roxane Witke was staying here in Fall 1971 to attend a Conference on China. By chance the official Chinese UN delegation had just arrived and was staying on the 14th floor. Witke met them and this led to her invitation to visit China—and Jiang Qing. J18
Saliwen’s: Famous Beijing snack shop (Sullivan’s). Almond bean curd & haw jelly. Near Changan Blvd. M 196
Salt Licks: During the 1930s, in impoverished Guiyang, in Guizhou Province, poor peasants suspended a hunk of salt above the dinner table with twine. During the meal the diners would grab the salt for a quick lick. Family members also frequently shared a single pair of pants. The person leaving the house would wear them. TS16
Scar Literature: Stories of suffering under the GPCR. The first work was “The Class Teacher” (1977) a short story by Liu Xinwu. Also “The Scar” (1978), by Lu Xinhua, a story about the relationship between a progressive daughter and reactionary mother in GPCR. XV 612-3, 800
Scarlet Guards: Organized by trade unions and more conservative workers to defend Party and government buildings by assaults from Red Guards. XV 149
Scatter When The Rain Comes: One of the old western night clubs in Beijing that continued after 1949. K84
Schools for Ranking Cadres: Kindergarten at Zhonghai. Elementary school named Yucai in the western suburbs. Yucai was established around 1949 for children of cadres who were local bureau directors or higher. PR 12. October 1st Middle school was established by the Central Military Commission at the same time as Yucai. PR 11. August 1st Middle School (formerly the Rongzhen School PR 11) near Beijing University, NE 81; August 1 and October 1st schools were for military officers of Division rank or higher. PR 12. The Prospect Hill School was established by the Central Propaganda Department for the children of Party intellectuals. PR 12. Beijing Normal University High School, for cadre’s children, at time of GPCR. S 646 There was also a Beijing Normal University Affiliated Elementary School. This school was attended by the children of Mao, Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, etc. PR 12. Milton’s sons attended Beijing University Middle School (Beida Fu Zhong) W 156, 159
School System: During the GPCR, the goal was to achieve a universal 10-year schooling for all children. Only wealthier areas achieved this, but substantial progress was made in all rural areas. XV 570 After Mao, the school system reverted to the 12-year model. Six-years of primary school followed by three years of junior middle school and three years of senior middle school. XV581 State investment focused on the universities and the rural areas suffered declining elementary school enrollments. Some parents kept their children out of school to use them for labor on family plots. The figures for the declines are at XV582
September 18 Incident: Japan invades Manchuria, START OF WW II. OW 188 The Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria, attacked and took Bedaying and Shenyang. H160
Shandong Concession: The Shandong peninsula was a German Colony from 1987 to 1914, under the control of the German Navy administration. A great beach made it a fashionable resort. The Strand Hotel accommodated 500 guests. The Anglo-German Brewery Company (Tsingtao) opened in 1904. XII 145 The Japanese replaced the Germans in 1914. XII 154
Shanghai: The KMT was never in real control of Shanghai, China’s preminent industrial and trading city. The British dominated Shanghai Municipal Council provided modern and efficient services for the foreign concesions, but prevented the warlords from getting control of the Chinese city. The result is that the Chinese city was ruled by the Green Gang of criminals. The Gang helped Jiang come to power and massacred the Communists. XIV45-46
Shanghai Commune: The 2/1/67 issue of Red Flag suggested that power could not merely be seized, but the old structures destroyed. This strongly suggested the Paris Commune model. “Peoples Communes” were set up in Shanghai and Harbin. Mao called Chang Chunqiao to Beijing to persuade him that the Paris Commune model would cause the collapse of political power. XV 163-4
Shanghai Forum: Jiang Qing gave her first important speech at this PLA forum sponsored by Lin Biao in Shanghai, February 1966. It endorsed mao’s Yenan Forum talk on literature and art. JQ emphasized that Literature and art must serve the political struggle, represent heroic models of workers, peasants and soldiers, promote socialist revolution and socialist construction, and military campaigns. QL opposed the theory of “the broad path of realism” v socialist realism (Chao Yang) and the representation of “characters in the middle” (Shao Quan). XV599
Shanghai Hotels: Colonial Hotels: The Astor House, on Whangpoo Road; The Palace and the Grand; L’Hotel des Colonies in French Settlement; Japanese hotels—Hoyo-kwan and Banzai-kwan on Seward Road. XII 133
Shanghai International Settlement: There was a French and British zone in Shanghai. About 50,000 foreigners lived there in the 1930s. J96 The extraterritoriality law theoretically made it impossible for the KMT to arrest Chinese there, so the CCP leadership hid there in the 1930s. J 69 In practice, the British were constantly hunting for the CCP leaders so that they could turn them over to Jiang Kaisheck for execution. P
Shaolin Monastery: Buddhist Martial Arts Monastery on Mt. Song in Henan Province. RC23
Shaoshan: Mao’s birthplace in Hunan. A small village 100 kilometers from Changsha. This was the most sacred pilgrimage site during GPCR. 3 million visitors in 1966. Mao’s last visit was on June 19, 1966 arriving in three cars with his Unit 8341 bodyguards. RC 150 Visitors today burn incense and paper money to Mao. Stalls sell “Holy” water, earth and stones from Shaoshan that have magical curing powers. RC 167 I visited Shaoshan in 1998.
Shenyang: Mukden XII 144
Shouters: The evangelical Christian movement that swept rural Henan in the early 1990s. Fervent believers gathered by the thousands in mass ecstatic meetings with baptisms and miracles. Shouting, dancing preachers whipped up the frenzied crowds. The government was shocked and frightened by the obvious parallel to the Taipings and vigorously suppressed the shouters. RC67 The Shanghai Academy of Social Science did a study of the Shouters. Over 50% of the believers had annual incomes under 50 RMB. Two-thirds believed that every sentence of the Bible was true. RC 73 The Shouters believed in the imminent Second Coming, and refused to participate in mandatory political campaigns. The followers were fined and suppressed. The leaders got long prison sentences. RC78 US evangelist, David Balcombe, was active in Henan in 1994 through his Hong Kong operation, the “Revival Christian Church.” In HK he organized “donkeys for Jesus”—recruiting HK residents to smuggle bibles to China. He was arrested in Henan and kicked out of China. RC79
The Sincere Company: Shanghai’s biggest department store—with a good restaurant—of the 1930s. Now “The No. 1 Department Store.” J69
Sino – Soviet Split: China resented the small amount of aid provided to rebuild its shattered economy and also resented Soviet-U.S. ties. At Geneva in 1955 and Camp David in 1959 the Soviets accepted a peaceful coexistence line, warning against nuclear war and suggesting acquiescense on Taiwan. XIV479 USSR wooed India at the time of the border dipute with China and the Tibetan uprising. This is kind of a USSR UF from above v the Chinese UF from below line. In Mocow for the 40th anniversary of the Revolution, Mao gave his October “East Wind” speech, challenging Krushev to press the USSR’s supposed technological advantage over the USA; on 10/15/87 Krushev allegedly promised nuclear technology to China, and the Soviets did help build the Lop Nor nuclear site. XIV482-4 On April 4, 1957 Kruschev wrote a letter to world leaders proposing a Soviet-US test ban treaty and noting that only the USA, USSR and Britain have nukes now, but it will be difficult to get an agreement later—implying that China won’t get weapons. XIV493 September 13: USSR gives India $375 million for its 3d five year plan. Beijing is furious. XIV512 Albania expelled from CMEA and Warsw Pact. XIV520 April 1961: Soviets supply military aircraft to India. XIV521 The best book on the Sino Soviet conflict is said to be Donald S. Zagoria’s, The Sino-Soviet Conflict, 1956-1961. XIV604
Six Stages of Chinese History: This is Mao’s framework from “On New Democracy.” Generally accepted in China. MC 174
Social Youths: The term for unassigned urban school leavers in the 1950s. XV715
The Sound of Music: Popular with Mao and many Chinese. Jiang Qing’s comments are at J 117
South Manchurian Railroad: This was the north-south Manchurian line, controlled by Japan. ST86
Southwest United University: Established in remote Kunming in 1938 when Beida, Qinghua, and Nankai Universities were evacuated from Beijing and Tianjin. TS 117, H320
Socialist Education Movement: The attempt, in 1962-1966, to deal with the retrenchment and retreat after the failure of the Great Leap. Disagreements about how to implement the SEM led to the GPCR. TS395 During the GLF, peasant cadres were criticized for being too soft on the middle peasants. After the GLF they were criticized for having been to authoritarian. XV655 The SEM was launched at the 10th Plenum of the 8th CC in September 1962. Mao worried that the conduct of Party and government functionaries in the countryside were reproducing the old patterns of dominance. At the 10th Plenum, Mao issued the call “Never forget class struggle!” The first phase of the SEM was “the four clean-ups”: to cleanse rural cadres of economic, political, ideological, and managerial errors. Work teams entered the villages, sought out the poor peasants, and assembled accusations against the leading cadres. The teams usually had a quota of cadres to attack, and conducted round-the-clock interrogations until they won confessions. The cadres were all poor peasants, so the theory developed that their “class” status was determined subjectively, by their consciousness. The led to their arbitrary identifications as class enemies and severe punishments. XV653-660
Special Economic Zones: The original four SEZs were set up in 1979--Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, and Xiamen. MM 274n Expanded in 1984 to fourteen more coastal cities and Hainan Island. In 1985 the Pearl River delta, the Min River delta in Fujian, the Yangtze River delta around Shanghai, the Jiaodong Peninsula in Shandong, and the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, were added. MM276 By 1985, the first SEZ, at Shenzhen had proved to be a failure. Two thirds of the capital came from mainland companies seeking higher returns, not from foreign investors. 70% of the output was sold to China—not exported for hard currency. Instead of industrial development, the SEZs became trade and transshipment centers. Instead of attracting high-tech, the SEZ were mainly low wage assembly plants, MM 278-279
Sperm Theory of History: At a visit to Xiaojinzhuang in the summer of 1976, Jiang criticized the Commune for having a man, rather than a woman, lead off the political discussions. She then announced her “Sperm Theory of History.” Since all labor is born of woman, women are the key force. “Man’s contribution to human history is no more than a drop of sperm. Men should move over and in the future let women take over the management of things.” WB365
Spy No. 13: Helen Snow took her bodyguards to see this, their first, movie in Xian. This was supposedly an American movie.
Stages of the Chinese Revolution: Bourgeois democratic w/ anti-imperialist, anti-feudal character. CA 49 For the Trotskyite view see TR47-52, which gives Trotsky’s view of the 2nd International’s Resolution on the National Question.
St. Johns University: American University in Shanghai in 1930s. WB77
Student Demobilization: In July 1968 Mao sent the workers into Beida and Qinghua to stop the factional fighting, and then “sent down” all the students to the countryside “to learn from the workers and peasants.” The graduates from 1965, 66, and 67 were still on the campuses. The 1965 and 1966 students were given work assignments targeted at the “mountains, villages, and border regions.” The 1967 and 1968 classes were assigned to PLA farms. This ended the Red Guard movement. XV558-9 Between 1968 and 1978, around 12 million youths were sent down. This was about 11% of the total urban population. XV666
Summer Palace: Located a few miles outside of Beijing, near Xinhua University. K77
Sun Yatsen Suit: Mao Suit. “Zhongshan Chuang” S 51 Or Ganbu Yifu, K55
Sun Yat Sen University, Moscow training school for CCP, first lead by Karl Radek, Nikolai Bukharin. Later by Pavel Mif.
Tadpole Birth Control: In 1956 the PRC promoted a birth control campaign that required women to swallow large numbers of living tadpoles. XV700
Taiwan Bomb: In 1977 President carter ordered the CIA to stop the Taiwan nuclear bomb prpgram. Tawiwan had received its uranium from South Africa, its design from Isreal, its equipment from France, and its reactor from Canada. F231-2
Tamsui: Taibei, Taiwan (Japan)
Telephone Cordiality: During the GPCR telephone information operators answered “Serve the People” instead of “Hello.” The caller had to respond, “thoroughly and perfectly.” When shopping, Red Guard shop attendants would sometimes quiz shoppers about Mao quotes before they would wait on them. TS210
Third Gendarmes: This was Chiang Kaishek’s best Fascist military group, commanded by his nephew in Beijing. By 1935 they had destroyed all the opposition to Japan and killed nearly every Communist and leftist in the capital. Japan missed a chance to set up a quisling government when it banished them to Xian and moved in their own troops. MC 163
Third Line: Western industrialization project built by Deng in Chegdu-Chongqing-Guiying triangle. Built to survive nuclear war with USA. NE 126
Tiananmen: At liberation, Jiang Kaisheck’s portrait was suspended from Tiananmen Gate. It was two stories high and painted on flattened jerry cans. Months later, the Mao portrait went up on the building, Jiang came down, and people could see the gateway for the first time in years. K66 Before the flagstones were laid in Tiananmen Square, there was a grove of silk trees. K65
Tiananmen Incident: On April 5, 1976, large unruly crowds protested the removal of wreaths honoring Zhou Enlai from the Martyrs Cenotaph. TS395
Tianjin: Sixty miles up river from the sea and the main north China port. The US 15th Infantry Regiment (The “can do” regiment) was stationed there in the foreign concession area after WWI. ST98
Tianjin Hotel: This is the old Astor Hotel in Tianjin, They were still using Astor silverware in 1980. CD112
Tiny China: The Shenzhen Theme Park with scale models of the tourist sights of China. The “Folk Culture Village” is on the same site. CD195
Theory of Revolutionary Inheritance: Early in GPCR this theory was propounded by Red Guards—principally the children of cadres—probably to protect themselves. “If a person is a dragon, his son will be a dragon, but if a person is a rat, his son can only dig a hole and climb into it.” “If the father is a hero, the son will also be a hero, but if the father is a reactionary, the son will be a rotten egg.” TS175
Thought Reform Campaign: Fall 1951 – fall 1952. The campaign focused on high-level intellectuals who aided “American cultural imperialism.” The object was to weaken deviations from ML. XIV88, 90
Togo’s #26: That sandwich and a diet Pepsi were ordered by Richard Farley just before his surrender after killing seven and wounding four at the ESL massacre in Sunnyvale, CA on February 16, 1988. CP250
Toilets: Around 2000, China initiated a “star” rating system for public toilets. They were inspected and rated, one star to four stars, just like hotels. P Peasants and city dwellers keep toilets outside their homes in hopes that passersby will use them. This provides valuable free fertilizer. P During the starvation period during the Great Leap, starving pigs would run up to anyone using the toilet to try to eat the excrement right from peoples bodies. TS82
Tongs: In SF Chinatown the Tongs are the criminal organizations that run the vice rackets. They are KMT controlled. They are the Bing Kung, Hoop Sing, Hip Sing and Suey Sing. Bill Lee’s uncle, Wong Yin Doon, was a friend of Jiang Kaisheck’s and controlled the Bing Kung Tong. CP70
Tournament of Girls: Press label given to Lin Liguo’s (Lin Biao’s son’s) 1968 search for a beautiful bride in Shanghai, Hangzhou and Suzhou, Beijing and many other cities. NE 299, CC369 Guilin girls were interviewed at their middle schools. P People from all twenty-eight provinces sent in photos. At Beida, the party secretary for the political department sent a photo to Ye Qun. After the Go4 fell she was harshly criticized for this. TS308
Train Lavatories: China’s hard seat passenger train compartments are always packed with bodies. Six or seven people crowd into the tiny lavatories, so no one can use them. It is impossible for the authorities to check tickets. Experienced travelers stuff a towel into the crotch of their pants and urinate into the towel rather than soil themselves. RC40 When the train reaches a station, thousands pour from the cars leaving a trail of urine and stench as the rush for bathrooms, food, and water. China has plenty of trains, but most are used for coal hauling, leaving few available for passenger traffic. P
Traffic Signals: Red Guards proposed reversing traffic signals so that red meant “go” and green “stop.” XV 144
Trotskyism: Official CCP criticism of Chen Duxiu and Trotsky’s line is at H307 n23. “After the failure of the revolution of 1927, a small number of capitulationists represented by Chen Duxiu adopted a Trotskyite stand. They held that the Chinese bourgeoisie had prevailed over the imperialist and feudal forces, that the bourgeois-democratic revolution had been completed, that the Chinese proletariat would have to wait for some future date to carry out the socialist revolution and that for the time being the proletariat would have to relinquish all revolutionary activity and conduct, instead, legal movements centered around the call for a national assembly.”
Truth and Pursuit: Political Journal of the Party left. It attacked the reformers after 1989. PR 98
TV University: China used it’s first World Bank loans to buy the equipment for a national television university network. Students may attend a college anywhere in China and take lecture courses broadcast from the central TV network. XV587
TVE’s: Township and Village Enterprises. MM494
Two-Stage Revolution in China: This is the key political controversy of the Chinese Revolution. Both sides point to Lenin’s remarks at the 2nd Comintern Congress for support. The debate was between Lenin and Roy. Lenin argued that the capitalist stage in the third-world could be skipped only if Communism triumphed in Europe and the West, as he thought it soon would. Roy argued that the anti-colonial movement might triumph first. Roy argued for supporting the poorest peasants and workers, NOT an alliance with the bourgeois nationalist leaders. MO 18 Lenin argued for both a broad coalition with the nationalist leaders and peasant soviets. Lenin was thinking about successive stages of development. MO 21. But by 1927, Stalin and Trotsky were treating the ideas as mutually exclusive: Stalin for the coalition, Trotsky for the soviets. MO 21 For CCP official comments see H29 Also see XII532.
Upper and Lower Middle Peasants: This is the essential class divide in the coutryside, according to Mao. XV25
USCPFA (U.S. China Peoples Friendship Association): FBI spying F159, 161
Vietnam War song (1979): China’s song from the war is“Bloody But Unbeaten.” TM163n39 The Vietnamese battle hymn is “Giai Phong Mien Nam”, (Liberate the South).
U.S. War Losses: The deadliest day for Americans in Operation Desert Storm was Feb. 25, 1991, when 28 soldiers were killed and 89 injured when an Iraqi Scud missile hit a U.S. barracks outside Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. An Army Reserve water purification outfit from Pennsylvania suffered half the deaths. In Vietnam, 47,414 Americans died in hostile action. On Nov. 17, 1965, the bloodiest day of that war, 155 Americans were killed and almost as many wounded in fighting in the city of Ia Drang. In fighting in Somalia during Oct. 3-4, 1993, Americans counted 18 dead from a battle against a warlord’s militia and quickly decided to leave that peacekeeping operation. On Oct. 23, 1983, 220 Marines and 21 other service members were killed when their barracks was blown up by a terrorist in Beirut, where Americans also were trying to keep a peace. But the single bloodiest day on American soil was not Sept. 11, 2001. That day was Sept. 17, 1862, in the rolling hills of Maryland, where bullets whizzed over the heads of Civil War soldiers, both Union and Confederate, and more than 6,000 died in the Battle of Antietam.
WagonsLits Hotel: The old hotel for foreigners near Tiananmen Square. K70, ST77
Wah Chings: The oldest surviving youth gang in SF Chinatown, formed in 1964 at the Chinese Playground, Sacramento & Waverly. They were based among “FOB” “(Fresh Off the Boat” and uncircumcized) Cantonese speaking Hong Kong immigrant kids. They were based at Chinese Playground. Their rivals, the Joe Boys, were suppressed after they attacked the Wah Chings in the Golden Dragon Massacare on September 4, 1977. CP65 The gang now has over 1,800 members in chapters thoughout the USA. CP172
Waldheim Cemetery: Now called Forest Home Cemetery, houses the small CPUSA cemetery plot. It is about 20 miles south of Chicago. Gus Hall’s ashes were interred there on on 9/20/02—two years after his death, on October 13, 2000. It is near the Haymarket martyrs plot. I visited there around 1997. PWW 10/26/02
Wan Xue!”: “10,000 years”, the old “Long Live” salute to the Emprorer, and later Mao. This tradition was adopted in Japan. The Japanese version is “Banzai!” K71
Warlord Cliques: These are the groups that held and vied for power during both the warlord period and the KMT period. The Anwei, Chihli, and Fentien cliques were the leading groups. The Guangxi clique was confined rto a single province. XII293-6 These cliques fought among themselves for control of the national government in Beijing. XII296 The cliques were allied with various imperialist powers. The Anwei Clique, in Machuria, was supported by Japan. Extremist Japanese officers killed Zhang Tsolin, the Anwei leader, in 1928. XII 306 Feng Yu-hsiang was supported by Soviet Russia. Feng was defeated by Zhang’s Japanese backed forces and went to the USSR for five months. He later returned to lead his army in KMT the Northern Expedition. XII307
Warlords: “Most simply, a warlord was one who commaned a personal army, controlled or sought a territopry, and acted more or less independently.” XII284 The most prominent afterYuan’s death were former Qing officers: Tuan Chijui (1865-1936) led a big faction and was minister of war and then prime minster in Yuan’s government. Feng Kuo-chang (1859-1919) was a close allyof Yuan’s, but remained at his HQ in Nanjing. Chang Hsun (1854-1923) was a Qing loyalist who briefly returned the Emperor to the throne in 1917. Feng Yuhsiang (1882-1948) “The Christian General” was a poor peasant who climbed to the top in the Qing army. His troops were famous for the Christian Hymns they sang on the march. Chang Tsung-chang (1881-1932), “The dogmeat general”, was a bandit leader whose trops were famous for splitting open the skulls of captives. Chen Chiung-ming (1878-1933) passed the lowest level of the imperial exams, became enamored of wetern learning and edited a reform newspaper. He organized his first military unit in Guangdong during the 1911 Revolution. He later ruled Guandong, attempted to introduce reforms in politics and education. Politically he always fought for the maximum independence of Guandong from what ever party ruled China. LI Tsung-jen (1891-1969) From a once wealth family he entered the Guangxi Military Elementary School. In the tumoil of 1925, Li and two allies bested the other minor warlords and won contol of Guangxi Province. He joined the KMT in 1926. WU Pei-fu (1874-1939) “The Scholar Warlord”. A Confucian Scholar turned militarist. A faithful graduate of Yuan Shikai’s military college, he served Yuan during his presidency and used his 3d Divison to support Yuan’s political goals. He was a very talented commander. XII284-286 The main income for warlords was the land tax. Which the often collected years in advance. Many sold opium, organized gambling, and taxed prostitution, and legal businesses. Some warlords printed their own money on crude duplicating machines. XII292
“Water Margin” Campaign: In August 1975, Mao criticized the bandit hero of Water Margin for betraying his revolutionary principles and the welfare of the people. The Go4 developed a campaign to criticize Water Margin. It was an attack on Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai. The Liang Xiao writing group, now the Go4’s principal propaganda organ, wrote the materials. Many people understood the meaning of the campaign and resented the attack on Zhou by Jiang Qing. TS336
Wehaiwei: Weihai, Shandong. The British won this Naval base from China, right in the middle of the German Concession on Shandong. XIII 112
Whampoa Military Academy: (Huangpu) KMT military academy opened in May 1924. Ten miles down the Pearl River from Guangzhou, on an island. Most of the instructors were graduates of Japanese military schools or the Paotin and Yunnan military academies. They were aided by a few Russian officers who were trained at the Frunze military academy. Funding was through Russian aid and local taxes. USSR sent General Pavlov in June, but he drowned in combat a month later. His replacement, Vasilii K Blyukher (Galen), arrived in October 1924. XII540 Sun sent Jiang Kaizhek to Moscow for military training. When Jiang returned in 1924, Sun designated Chiang Kaishek commandant of Whampoa. ST93 Zhou Enlai was head of the Political Department from late 1925 until March 1926. Galen (Blucher) was the chief military adviser and chief of staff from 1923-1925. MO 45. The academy was moved to Wuhan in 1927. MO 45 QL’s father was in the 8th graduating class. I visited the site in April 2001 with QL.
White Flag Faction: The Communist, pro-PRC gurerrilla faction in Burma that fought the pro-KMT faction. XIV506, 535
White-Haired Girl: An early revolutionary theater piece from the Lu Xun Academy in Yanan. The opera version won a Stalin Prize in 1951. Based on an incident from Hebei Province in the 1940s. XV785
White Paper: The US Government’s China White Paper was published in the summer of 1949 and took the position that it would encourage Chinese Titoism and would not take steps to provoke the PRC. The Korean War led to a much more aggressive anti-China stance. XIV271
White Peacock Arts Center: In Beijing on Wangfujing Street, just outside the Second Ring Road in the Western Suburbs, north of the old city moat. PR 194 This is an arts and crafts center started by Bo Yibo’s son, Bo Xicheng. It was a failure because it’s too far from the tourist area. Xicheng was blamed for squandering state funds. A joint venture with a Japanese firm permitted them to learn the cloisonné secret. They dumped the deal and manufactured their own superior product in Japan. Thieves then stole all the gold and silver from the warehouse. PR 196
White Russians: About 200,000 stateless White Russians poured into Harbin from Siberia after 1920. XII 149
White Slips: Government IOUs, first issued in 1988, to peasants for their mandatory grain submissions to the state. They had no value and sparked demonstrations and riots. RC37 Post Offices use “green slips.”
Widow’s Building: Building 22, on the south side of Fuxingmenwai Street in Beijing’s Western District. Wang Guangmei and many other party widows lived there. PR 210
Women’s Federation Hotel: The All-China Federation of Women opened the Deng Yue Hotel in Canton in a joint venture with Hong Kong capitalists. The Federation imported young Russian prostitutes to boost profits at the hotel. MM336
Women’s Regiment: Of Zhang’s 4th Front Army. This regiment of 2,000 women soldiers was destroyed in combat by the KMT’s Moslem Ma Clan Calvary when they were isolated on the north bank of the Yellow River, in 1936, as the 4th Army was crossing to rejoin the 1st. The survivors were raped, sold into slavery and/or executed. The 4th Army was shattered in this battle. LM 320.
Work-point System: Work points were awarded through two systems, Time-rate and task-rate. The task-rate benefited strong and ambitious workers. Time –rates encouraged collective endeavor. Dazhai added a third element in calculating the points—“political attitude.” This led to close scrutiny by one’s team members, and the Dazhai system was promoted during periods of agricultural radicalism. XV 651-53
Work Units (Danwei): Set up beginning around 1952 to enforce political control. XIV94
World Anti-Communist League: Founded in 1966 by Taiwan and South Korea. It recruited rightists and psychopaths like Roberto D’Arbisson and trained them in Taiwan’s Political Warfare Academy. F215-6
World Journal: Two KMT Hong Kong heroin dealers, the Ma brothers, became KMT spies in 1970. They bought the Hong Kong Oriental Daily News, which became the leading pro-KMT paper. In 1977 the Ma brothers invested $2.5 millionin the new World Journal in NYC. The paper was founded in 1976 with Taiwan money. The Ma’s fled to Taiwan in 1977 as the HK police closed in on their heroin network. F227-232
Xiang River Swim: In 6/56 Mao floated down the Xiang River in Changsha and swam to Orange Island. S 161 After his visit the security police cleared out all the residents, converting it into a park. I was there in 12/99.
Xiaojinzhuang: Jiang Qing’s model peasant arts village of 600 on the outskirts of Tianjin. She often visited there, but required all chickens and livestock to be locked up at night because she could not tolerate the slightest noise when sleeping. She brought her padded, fur-lined toilet seat from Beijing on these trips. WB331-2 At a visit in summer 1976, Jiang critcized the Commune for having a man, rather than a woman, lead off the political discussions. She then announced her “Sperm Theory of History.” Since all labor is born of women, women are the key force. “Man’s contribution to human history is no more than a drop of sperm. Men should move over and in the future let women take over the management of things.” WB365
Xibaipo: A revolutionary site symbolically visted by Hu Jintao in one of his first important speechs on December 5, 2002. In March 1949, on the eve of CCP's march into Bejing, the last CCP HQ was at Xibaipo, in northern Henan. From this base Mao Zedong urged cadres to avoid complacency and preserve the revolutionary spirit of 'plain living and arduous struggle'. The “Two Musts”: cadres must cultivate 'plain living and arduous struggle'.
Xiyuan Airport: Special airport in Beijing for CCP dignitaries. S 526
Yale-in-China Medical College (Ya-Li): now the Hunan Medical University in Changsha. 215, XII593 QL and I were treated there in 12/99.
Yalta Conference. Frbruary 1945. By now, the USA had given up on KMT resistance to Japan. To win Stalin’s promise of Russian troops, FDR cedes the CER, and the port of Darian to Russia, after the war. This was the basis for the post-war criticism of the Yalta Ageement. ST515 China feared the the Soviets would retain control of Manchuria. XIV264-5
Yanan Rectification: Started in 1941. P This wqas the “thought reform campaign” designed to establish a core of dedicated cadres. In the first dtage, samll groups were formed in Party units to study articles and speeches. There was no freedom of silence, so everyone had to participate. I the second stage, each group member was investigated and subjected to intense criticm and self criticism. In the third stage, each cadre had to present a sel-criticsm to the group leaders. The first self-criticsm was usually not accepted. The main targets, initially, were Wang Ming line pro-soviet cadre, and fhe former Shanghai leaders of this group. Mao encouraged Ting Ling to criticise them, and she did so on the basis of women’s equality defects in Yanan. The article “Wild Lily”, in the Liberation Daily, was a levelling attack on bureaucratic party inequality in ranks, food rations, clothing ration, etc,., by Wang Shiwei. Wang soon became the main target of the later attack on “liberalism.” XIV 222-234
Yangge: Revolutionary (Yanan period) Chinese Dance. NE 96, J191, WB166
Yiguandao: “The Way of Prevailing Harmony” A suppressed peasant religion based on a fusion of Budhism, Daoism, and Confucionism that is still popular in Taiwan. The top leaders refused to pledge alliegence to the PRC, were labeled counter-revolutionaries, and executed in 1955. TS139 Yi Guan Dao came to prominence in the 1930s and 1940s, in the Japanese occupied teritorires of north China. It was an eclectic blend of Confucianism, Daoism, Budhism, and Christianity, designed to appeal to everyone. It promised happiness based on impropved conduct and rituals. It offered deliverence form an impeding calamity due at any time. Cult leaders were closely associated with the puppet government of Wang Jimgwei in Nanjing. CCP Land Reform wrecked the rural basis of the cult by creating new peoples institutions. The 1951 “Campaign Against Counter-revolutionaries” crushed the cult in the cities. MD367
Yinyang Haircut: GPCR punishment for women imposed by Red Guards. They shaved off the hair on one side of the victims head. TS169
Yu Mansion: The home of David Kidd’s Chinese family on Crooked Hair Family Lane, was converted first to a medical clinic in the early 1950s, and then to Lin Biao’s home. K192
Yuan: The RMB is fixed to the U.S. dollar and does not float. 8.2 per USD in 1990s. P 1.5 Yuan per USD in mid 1960’s. I289
Zhongnanhai: Party compound on Changan Road near Tiananmen in Beijing. The Qing Emporers had a hunting park there. TM24 Mao lived in Building 202. S 7. Details of layout and Mao’s office in Li’s book. S 77ff Map xxiv. MAP NE 5. Good map at TMiii.


CA: “A Comintern Agent in China” Otto Braun, (aka LI De) 1982, Stanford University Press. LI De was the Comintern military expert assigned to the CCP during the Long March. Gossipy anti-Mao diatribe written to serve Soviet side of Sino Soviet split. Published originally in East German Horizont Magazine in early 1970’s. Li De was the only Westerner on the Long March.
CC China’s Cultural Revolution, 1966-1969, Not a Dinner Party, Michael Schoenhals, Editor. An East Gate Reader, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY, 1996 Some great documents and stories in this anti-GPCR diatribe.
CD: China Through the Sliding Door, John Gittings. 1999, Touchstone Books, Simon & Shuster. Ltd., London. Gittings is a former 1970s leader of the “Society for Anglo British Understanding.” “Acting Editor” of The China Quarterly in 1972. Now writing popular books about life in China from a thoroughly bourgeois perspective.
CP: Chinese Playground, Bill Lee, Rhaposdy Press, San Francisco, 1999. Post- therapy former gang member’s stories of Chniatown Gang life in the 1970s. Lee was a “Joe Boy.” It was his gang that shot up the Golden Dragon Restaurant in 1977. Info on SF Chinatown 1970s gang scene.
EC: Encyclopedia of China, Dorothy Perkins, 1999, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, IL and London, England. Popular work with many gaps.
F Fires of the Dragon, David E. Kaplan, Atheneum, NYC, 1992. Excellent background on KMT activities in San Francisco and the battle between KMT and PRC operatives, in which I participated for many years. The book focuses on the Murder of pro-PRC journalist Henry LIU in Daly City by the KMT Security Service in 1984. The murderers were caught, confessed, and did enormous damage to the KMT.
FD: Felix Dzerzhinsky, A Biography, No Author, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1988
G: “God’s Chinese Son, The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong
Xiuquan”. Jonathan Spence, Harper Collins, 1994. History of the Taiping Rebellion by the most literary of the historians of China.
GR The Great Road: Agnes Smedley’s biography of Zhu De. Monthly Review Press, 1956
H: A Concise History of the Communist Party of China, Hu Sheng, Chief Editor, English Edition, 1994, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, China. Latest official Party history. Very good on Civil War period and generally complete. Official view of Tiananmen, Mao legacy, etc. A translation of the 1991 Chinese Edition marking the 70th anniversary of the CCP.
I: In The Eye of the Typhoon: Ruth Earnshaw Lo and Katherine S. Kinderman. Memoir of Ruth Earnshaw Lo who lived with her Chinese Husband and children in China from 1937 until 1978. In Guangzhou for GPCR. The book is mostly about her travails at Zhongshan Univeristy during GPCR.
J: Comrade Chiang Ching, Roxane Witke, 1977, Little Brown. Biography of Jiang Qing based on Witke’s 1972 week-long interview with her. Not published until after the Go4 fell. Generally takes a feminist, and therefore, pro JQ stance. Ambassador Huang Hua offered Witke money if she would suppress the book. The CIA, FBI and Kissenger all asked her for copies of her transcripts and notes. Some materials were stolen from Witke, apparently by the US or PRC governments. J14-15
K: Peking Story, David Kidd, Aurum Press, 1988, London. The memoir of David Kidd, a reactionary China scholar living in Beijing with his comprador wife’s family in 1949. This is his tale of the last days of the old culture and superstitions. His family’s Beijing home, the old YU Mansion, is a tourist attractions today.
L: Laogai: The Chinese Gulag, Hongda Harry WU, Westview, 1992. WU was born in Shanghai in 1937. He was a geology student arrested during the Anti-Rightist campaign. He says he criticized the Soviet invasion of Hungary. He refused to confess his guilt and was sentenced to life in 1960. Released by Deng in 1979 in the Rightist amnesty. Arrived in Berkeley in 1985 on a J-1 visa. His book is an anti-communist rant, and poorly translated too. Among other faults, he confuses the Party with the government, so his rant is hard to follow. Falsely states that Deng’s line is “class struggle is the key link”, etc. Good for maps of prison facilities in China.
LM: “The Long March”, Harrison E. Salisbury, 1985 The author retraced the
path of LM in 1984. Hu Yaobang let him interview whomsoever he wanted! Best history of LM and good general history of CCP.
M: “The Man Who Stayed Behind”, Sidney Rittenberg (aka LI Dunbai) & Amanda Bennett, 1993, Simon & Schuster. Rittenberg’s self-serving but amazing autobiography. The only American CCP leader, he spent 16 years in Chinese prisons.
MC: “My China Years”, Helen Foster Snow, 1984, William Morrow, NY. Snow’s first wife’s memoir of China in the 1930’s. Gossipy account of the Snow’s experience in which Helen takes credit for creating the anti-Japanese UF in Beijing with a little bit of incompetent help from the CCP. Some info on the Americans and Comintern people in China.
MD: “Modern China”: Graham Hutchings, 2001, Havard University Press. One of the better one-volume “encyclopedias” of China, by the China correspondent for London’s Daily Telegraph. Good maps.
MM: “The Deng Xiaoping Era”, Maurice Meisner, 1996, Hill & Wang, New York. Absolutely the best recent book on China. Critical of Deng’s reforms.
MO: “Mao Tse-Tung In Opposition 1927-1935”, John E Rue, 1966, Hoover Institute, Stanford University Press. Stanford, CA
MR: “Mao’s Road to Power”, Stuart R. Schram’s Collected “Revolutionary Writings” of Mao, up to 1949. Best collection, in English, of Mao’s works. These are the original works based on the most reliable versions—before Mao revised them for partial publication in the 1950s. ME Sharpe, multi-volume set, in progress 1992 -
MT: “The Thought of Mao Tse-Tung”, Best “China Expert” analytical study of Mao’s writings by the foremost Western authority. Stuart Schram, 1989
NE “The New Emperors”, Harrison E. Salisbury, 1992 Gossipy twin biographies of Mao and Deng.
OW “From Opium War to Liberation”, Israel Epstein, Third Revised Edition, Joint Publishing Co., Hong Kong, 1980. Epstein’s book is a semi-official history. It is revised after major line struggles. This 1980 edition reflects the transitional Hua Guofeng line, denouncing the Go4, but upholding the GPCR. Published in 1956, 1964, and 1980.
P Personal knowledge
PM “From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism”, Kalpana Misra, Routlege, London, 1998.
PR “Princes and Princesses of Red China”, Ho Pin and Gao Xin, Canada, Mirror Books, 1993. Leaders and their corrupt families in the 1990s. Gossipy.
RA “Red Azalea”, Autobiography of Anchee Min., Berkeley Books paperback 1995. First Edition 1994, Pantheon. She was playing the role of “Red Azalea” in a Shanghai Jiang Qing movie production when the Go4 fell.
RC “Real China, From Cannibalism to Karaoke,” John Gittings. Pocket Books, Simon & Shuster, London, 1996.
RP “Rights of Passage”, Walt Crowley, History of Seattle in the 1960’s, with useful chronology in Appendix. University of Washington Press, 1995.
RS “Red Star Over China”, Edgar Snow. 1938, 1968, Random House.
Classic work on Red Army by American Reporter and sympathizer.
S: “The Secret Life of Chairman Mao”, LI Zhisui, 1994 This is by far the most entertaining biography of Mao. A hit-piece written by his personal physician.
SC “Scarlet Memorial”
SM “Agnes Smedley, The Life and Times of an American Radical”, Janice R. Mackinnon & Stephen R. Mackinnon. Authorized biography of Smedley. University of California, 1988. See MR
ST: “Stillwell and the American Experience in China 1911-45”, Barbara Tuchman, 1971, Macmillan, NYC. Stillwell commanded the American forces in China during WWII. This book chronicles Stillwells’s frustration with Chiang Kaisheck, whose vast armies received enormous Amercian aid but never fought the Japanese. Chiang rightly believed that the Americans would defeat the Japanese alone, so he hoarded the supplies for the coming civil war with the CCP, or sold them for cash.
SW Selected Works of Mao Zedong, in five volumes, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, based on Chinese edition of 1960. Many rewrites, deletions and inaccuracies. Stuart Schram is redoing the first four volumes.
T “Leon Trotsky On China”, Comprehensive collection of Trotsky’s writings on China. Pathfinder, NYC, 1976
TM The Tiananmen Papers, Zhang Liang, Public Affairs, NYC, 2001
TR The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution, Harold Isaacs, 1961. The 1938 edition is hard to find, but is the only good edition. Isaac discussed the book with Trotsky in Norway and Trotsky wrote the preface. This is the best contemporary account of the failure of the 1927 revolution. But is is very out of date now. Much more is now known, and the new information contradicts Isaacs’s (and Trotsky’s) views of the period. Isaacs was a wealthy NYC activist in Shanghai. A friend of Smedley’s, Issacs was converted to Trotskyism by his friend Frank Glass. Isaacs funded progressive journalism in Shanghai with Glass, Smedley, and Sun’s widow: The China Forum founded in 1932. SM 156 Smedley attacked The China Forum, in 1935, for its Trotskyite line. SM 165 “The 1954 second edition is an anti-communist rewrite.” SM 365 n4 In the 1950s and then in 1961, Isaacs produced new anti-communist editions of the book. He adopted a hostile “state capitalist”, anti-Soviet line.
TS: “To The Storm, The Odyssey of a Revolutionary Chinese Woman”, Yue Daiyun and Carolyn Wakeman, 1985, University of California Press. Autobiography of Yue Daiyun, a Professor of Chinese Literature at Beida. She was a Rightist and later was targeted during the GPCR. Her husband later joined Jiang Qing’s “anti-Lin Biao and Confucious” writing group, “Liang Xiao”. After the fall of the Go4 they were persecuted by the right. Good hard-luck story and info about Beida from 1955 to 1978.
W “The Wind Will Not Subside”, David & Nancy Milton, 1976, Pantheon. The Miltons moved to San Jose when they returned from China. Chris Milton, their son, was #3 in the RCP. This book records his family’s years in China from 1964 to 1969 during the height of the GPCR when Chris’s parents worked in the First Foreign Languages Institute in the western suburbs of Beijing—a very tumultuous place. Good for information on the other Americans assigned there.
WB: “The White Boned Demon”, Ross Terrill, 1984, William Morrow & Co., NYC. Terill’s biography of Jiang Qing. The best available. Some coverage of the Go4 trial. Terrill argues that the GPCR was a personal vendetta of Jiang Qing’s against all who had slighted her during her film carreer. Terrill shows that Jiang did indeed manage to jail or kill anyone who blocked her ascent or criticized her in the past. See pages 298-299
WEB: John Brown, W.E.B. Du Bois, 1909, 1996, International Publishers.
XII, XIV, XV: Cambridge History of China, 1980s –1990s, Various editors, Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. This is the classic English Language history of China in 15 volumes, up through 1982.

Other Books

Kenneth Shewmaker, Americans and Chinese Communists, 1927 –1945: A Persuading Encounter (Ithaca, NY 1971) SM 378 n3

Other Materials

Donald S. Sutton, “Consuming Counterrevolution: The Ritual and Culture of Cannibalism in Wuxuan, Guangxi, China, May to July 1968”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 37, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 136-72. Cited in CC137n2
The Central Case Examination Group, 1966-1979, The China Quarterly, No.45, March 1996, pp 87-111,
China Hands, by Kahn: Amerasia story and the purge of the China experts.

AIRD John Aird: Expert witness Affidavit on One Child Policy, p. 2, 1/22/01.

Memorable Slogans

“Everyone is equal before the truth.” Peng Chen XV127

“Attack with words, defend with force” Jiang Qing on Wuhan Mutiny W 254 (July 1967 CC367)
Fight Self, Criticize Revisionism, MT 12
Go all out, aim high, and build socialism with greater, faster, better and more economical results. Great Leap Slogan
“Three hard years of work will usher in a thousand years of communist happiness.” Great Leap Slogan. MM 42


Bullets and shells
Are no match
For the spiritual atom bomb of Mao Zedong’s Thought.

A revolutionary staunch and true
Reads Chairman Mao his whole life through

Dearer than rain or dew to parched crops
Are Chairman Mao’s works to our troops

Of all rules to remember, the first best one
Is to practice the teachings of Mao Zedong.

Fragment from a poem, Chinese Literature, No. 9, 1966, pp. 142-146

DENG Xiaoping
“To get rich is glorious.”, “some must get rich first.” And “smashing the iron rice bowl.” MM508 “If it makes money, its good for China.”
“Revolutionize, intellectualize, specialize, and make younger” Deng Xiaoping’s slogan for cadre development. PR 6
On Internationalism: “The only thing we really care about is a good environment for developing ourselves. So long as history eventually proves the superiority of the Chinese socialist system, that’s enough. We can’t bother about the social systems of other countries.” June 2, 1989. TM359
“What happens with the social systems of other countries is none of our business.” TM424


"The victor will never be asked if he told the truth.”

“Everything I did, Mao told me to do. I was his dog; what he said to bite, I bit. WB15
“In the Party there are moderates and leftists. And I, humble I, am the leader of the leftists.” Jiang to her supporters at the First Dachai Conference, just as Mao was abouit to die. WB356

LIN Biao
“Everyone should carry out Chairman Mao’s instructions—whether one understands them or not.” Lin Biao, W 146
“Everything Chaiman Mao says is the truth. A single sentence of his carries more weight than ten thousand ordinary sentences.” “Whoever is against Chairman Mao will be punished by the entire Party and condemned by the whole nation.” H634-5 Said at the May 1966 enlarged meeting of the Politburo to condemn Peng Zhen, Luo Ruiqing, Lu Dingyi and Yang Shangkun. Lin Biao accused them of planning a coup d’etat. H634


“Act according to the principles laid down.” Only the left asserted that Mao had said this. WB370 Hua said that three of the characters were faked, and accused Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin of writing them. WB370
“Never forget class struggle.” Announced by Mao at the tenth plenum of the Eighth CC. XV74, XIV424, Also quoted in the 1981 Resolution.
“One divides into two.” On October 26, 1963, Mao’s 70th birthday, ZHOU Yang delivered a speech to the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The speech surveyed the worker’s movement from Marx to Mao, in terms of Mao’s axiom, “one divides into two.” XV77
Bombard the Headquarters: Mao’s big character poster of 8/1/66 S 471
Let us toast to the unfolding of a nationwide all-round civil war! Mao’s toast at his 73d birthday party on 12/26/66. CC3
Make use of contradictions, win over the many, oppose the few, and defeat our enemies one by one. Mao’s basic strategy for all problems. W 366
Chairman Mao tells us: “In the last analysis, all the truths of Marxism can be summed up in one sentence. ‘To rebel is justified.’” One Hundred Items for Destroying the Old and Establishing the New, Beijing No. 26 Middle School Red Guards. 1970, CC212
Dig tunnels deep, store grain everywhere, and never seek hegemony. Winter/Spring 1972. At Beida, everyone contributed a month of labor to build the extensive tunnel network there. TS311
“Rain has to fall, women have to marry, these things are immutable; let them go.” Mao’s comment when Zhou asked if he should shoot down Lin Biao’s airplane as he fled China on September 13, 1971.
The Three Mores and One Less: “Zhou should rest more, Deng should work more, Wang [Hongwen] should study more, and Jiang Qing should talk less.” “She should take a tip from nature: the ears are made so as to remain open but the mouth may shut.” Said in 1975. WB353
“Don’t cook up a Gang of Four.” Mao to Jiang Qing in mid-1975. WB354
On Nuclear War: See Mao’s Second Speech to Secong Session of the 8th Party Congress on May 17, 1958. “If nuclear war breaks out … This will not be a bad thing.” XIV488-9
“You have been wronged. Today we are separating into separate worlds. May each keep his peace. In the stuggle of the past ten years I have tried to reach the peak of revolution, but I was not successful. You, though, could reach the top. If you fail, you will plunge into a fathomless abyss. Your body will shatter. Your bones will break.” Mao’s last poem to Jiang Qing in the Summer of 1976. WB363
Mao’s last Politburo meeting: In the summer of 1976, the Politburo met at Mao’s bedside—without Jiang Qing. “Help Jiang Qing …” he gasped, then his words trailed off. Their were two versions of what he supposedly said. Zhang Chunqiao and Wang Hongern said that Mao said, “Help Jiang Qing to carry the Red Flag.” The moderates reported he said, “Help Jiang Qing to correct her errors.” WB363
“With you in charge, I am at ease.” One night, after meeting with New Zealand Prime Minister Muldoon, Mao gave Hua Guofeng a slip of paper with these words on it. WB367
“Walking on two legs.” Comining modern and traditional methods to achieve greater, faster and better results. XIV 399The idea that backyard steel mills and other industrial operations could be combined with rural grain output increases. XIV364

GPCR Announcements

To overthrow a political power, it is always necessary, first of all, to create public opinion, to do the work in the ideological sphere
At present, our objective is to struggle against and crush those persons in authority who are taking the capitalist road, to criticize and repudiate reactionary bourgeois academic “authorities” and the ideology of the bourgeoisie and all other exploiting classes and to transform education, literature and art, and all other parts of the superstructure that do not correspond to the economic base, so as to facilitate the consolidation and development of the socialist system. Decision Concerning the GPCR, 11th Plenum, 8th CC, 8/8/66 CC33
The main target of the present movement is those within the Party who are in authority and are taking the capitalist road. Decision Concerning the GPCR, 11th Plenum, 8th CC, 8/8/66 CC37
During the movement this is the only way to isolate the thoroughly reactionary rightists, win over the middle, and unite with the great majority so that by the end of the movement we shall achieve the unity of more than 95 percent of the cadres and more than 95 percent of the masses. Decision Concerning the GPCR, 11th Plenum, 8th CC, 8/8/66 CC36
When there is debate, it should be conducted by reasoning, not by coercion or force. Decision Concerning the GPCR, 11th Plenum, 8th CC, 8/8/66 CC37
Any idea of counterposing the Great Cultural Revolution to the development of production is wrong. Decision Concerning the GPCR, 11th Plenum, 8th CC, 8/8/66 CC42
The Center does not recognize any so-called nationwide organizations. All such organizations should disband immediately. Public Notice Banning Nationwide Organizations, February 12, 1967 CC54
The systems governing the employment of temporary workers, contract workers, rotation workers, and outside contract workers are rational in some cases and quite irrational and erroneous in other cases. The Center is presently studying was of reforming these systems depending on actual conditions. Before the Center makes a new decision, the established methods are to be followed as usual. Public Notice Concerning Workers Organizations, February 17, 1967. CC55
The Center is of the opinion that in order to promote a great alliance of proletarian revolutionaries and the unity of the various nationalities, and in order to prevent bad people from exploiting ethnic sentiment to create ethnic disputes, it is inadvisable in the course of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution to set up separate ethnic mass organizations in the various regions or to give mass organizations ethnic designations. No Ethnic Mass Organizations, CPC Center and Shaaxi Ankang District Committee, March 29, 1967. CC 56

“Leniency to those who confess and severity to those who resist.” CC88

ZHOU Enlai

In the course of this Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution of ours there can be only one criterion of truth, and that is to measure everything against Mao Zedong Thought. Letter to Capital University Red Guard Revolutionary Rebel Headquarters, 9/27/77 CC27


“Doubt everything!” This slogan got TAO Zhu into big trouble because it suggested that Mao could be doubted too. CC 108 n7.
“Overtake England in 15 years.” Great Leap slogan of December 1959 XV39

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